Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism

Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism

Answer the following. Score 1 each.

A. Choose the correct option.

Question 1.
The founder of Brahma Samaj.
Ram Mohan Roy
Swami Vivekananda
Swami Dayananda Saraswati
Answer:
Ram Mohan Roy

Question 2.
Sarada Sadan in Bombay for women’s education was established by.
Annie Besant
Mira Bai
Rema Bai
Answer:
Rema Bai

Question 3.
Who founded Arya Samaj?
Swami Vivekananda
Swami Dayananda Saraswati
Ram Mohan Roy
Answer:
Swami Dayananda Saraswathy

Question 4.
The newspaper ‘Kesari’ was published by
Lala Lajpat Rai
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Dadabai Naoroji
Answer:
Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Question 5.
Who published the newspapers ‘Young India’ and ‘Harijan ’?
Annie Besant
Surendranath Banerji
Mahatma Gandhi
Answer:
Mahatma Gandhi

Question 6.
The British Viceroy who enacted the Vernacular Press Act in 1878
Lord Lytton
Lord Rippon
Lord Macaulay
Answer:
Lord Lytton

Question 7.
The first Indian Women University in Maharashtra was started by
Aurabindo Ghosh
D.K.Karve
G. GAgarkar
Answer:
D.K.Karve

Question 8.
Who founded Kerala Kalamandalam?
Vallathol Narayana Menon
Amshi Narayana Pillai
Raja Ravi Varma
Answer:
Vallathol Narayana Menon

Question 9.
The author of the Bengali play ‘Nil Darpan ’
Dinabandhu Mitra
Satyendranath Tagore
Sisirkumar Ghosh
Answer:
Dinabandhu Mitra

Question 10.
Who authored the novel ‘Anandamath’?
Rabindranath Tagore
Bankim Chandra Chatterji
Dinabandhu Mitra
Answer:
Bankim Chandra Chatterji

Question 11.
Who penned the famous patriotic song ‘Sore Jahan Se Accha, Hindustan Hamara’?
Prem Chand
Altaf Hussain Hali
Muhammad Iqbal
Answer:
Muhammad Iqbal

Question 12.
Who wrote the famous Malayalam song ‘Varika Varika Sahachare ’?
Vallathol Narayana Menon
Kumaran Asan
Amshi Narayana Pillai
Answer:
Amshi Narayana Pillai

Question 13.
Who painted the pictures ‘Sati’and ‘Village Drummer ’?
Nandalal Bose
Amrita Sher-Gil
Raja Ravi Varma
Answer:
Nandalal Bose

Question 14.
The first person to hoist Indian tricolour flag in an international forum.
Aruna Asaf Ali
Sarada Ben
Madam Bhikaji Cama
Answer:
Madam Bhikaji Cama

Question 15.
Who founded Ramakrishna Mission?
Swami Vivekananda
Swami Dayananda Saraswati
Atmaram Pandurang
Answer:
Swami Vivekananda

Question 16.
The leader of ‘Self Respect Movement ’
E. V.Ramaswamy Naicker
Sree Narayana Guru
Jyotiba Phule
Answer:
E.V.Ramaswamy Naicker

Question 17.
The founder of ‘Asiatic Society of Bengal’
William Jones
Jonathan Duncan
Warren Hastings
Answer:
William Jones

Question 18.
The founder of Aligarh Movement
Muhammad Iqbal
Sir Syed Ahmad Khan
M.A.Ansari
Answer:
Sir Syed Ahmad Khan

Question 19.
Who is known as the ‘Liberation of the Indian Press ’?
William Bentick
Lord Lytton
Charles Metcalf
Answer:
Charles Metcalf

Question 20.
The author of ‘Ente Gurunathan ’ and ‘Bappuji ’
Vallathol Narayana Menon
Amshi Narayana Pillai
Kumaran Asan
Answer:
Vallathol Narayana Menon

B. Fill in the blanks based on the relationship of the pair.

1. a. Ram Mohan Roy : Brahma Samaj
b. Swami Vivekananda:……………….
Answer:
Ramakrishna Mission

2. a. Prarthana Samaj : Campaigned for inter
caste marriage
b. Ary a Samaj : Opposed ………………….
Answer:
Child marriage

3. a. Atmaram Pandurang : Social reformer
b. GSubramania Iyer:……………….
Answer:
Journalist

4. a. Bal Gangadhar Tilak : Kesari
b. Lala Lajpat Rai :……………………….
Answer:
Vandematharam

5. a. Bengali : Surendranath Banerji
b. Nation:…………………….
Answer:
Gopal Krishna Gokhale

6. a. Mahadev Govinda Ranade : Deccan
Education Society
b. Rabindranath Tagore:…………………
Answer:
Visva Bharati University

7. a. Prem Chand : Hindi
b. Vishnu Krishna Chiplunkar : …………………….
Answer:
Marathi

8. a. Ghora : Rabindranath Tagore
b. Rangabhumi :……………..
Answer:
Prem Chand

C. Answer in a sentence each.

Question 1.
What is meant by nationalism?
Answer:
Nationalism is the sense of unity that exists among the people of a nation irrespective of caste, creed, region and religion.

Question 2.
Write the reasons for the emergence of various social reform movements in the 19th century.
Answer:
Liberal outlook, passion for modernization and rationalism nurtured in Indian society.

Question 3.
What was the primary aim of leaders of social reforms?
Answer:
To bring about fundamental changes in Indian society.

Question 4.
Name the social reform movement founded by Ram Mohan Roy.
Answer:
Brahma Samaj

Question 5.
When did the British government pass the Hindu Widow Remarriage Act? Which social reformer argued for remarriage of widows?
Answer:

  • The British government passed the Hindu
    Widow Remarriage Act in 1856. –
  • Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar argued for remarriage of widows.

Question 6.
Who founded Ramakrishna Mission? What were its main ideologies?
Answer:
Swami Vivekananda founded Ramakrishna Mission
Ideologies:

  • Opposed caste system and social evils.
  • Propagated the concepts of liberty, equality and freedom of thought.

Question 7.
What were the main ideologies of the Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam?
Answer:

  • Opposed caste system and evil practices.
  • Advocated for social and economic progress of the backward classes.

Question 8.
Name the newspaper published under the leadership of Annie Besant.
Answer:

  • New India
  • Common Wheel

Question 9.
Which were the newspapers started by Ram Mohan Roy focusing on democracy and nationalism?
Answer:

  • Sambath Kaumudi in Bengali
  • Mirat-ul-Akbar in Persian

Question 10.
Who founded Visva Bharati University? Where is it located?
Answer:

  • Rabindranath Tagore founded Visva Bharati University, focussing on universal brotherhood.
  • It is in Calcutta

Question 11.
Who composed the song ‘Bandemataram’? From which book is this song taken?
Answer:

  • Bankim Chandra Chatterji composed the song Bandemataram.
  • The song is taken from his novel ‘ Anandamath’.

Question 12.
Name the Bengali play depicting the severe exploitation suffered by indigo farmers in Bengal. Who wrote it?
Answer:

  • The Bengali play Nil Darpan
  • It is written by Dinabandhu Mitra
  • The play triggered farmer’s unrest in various parts of the country.

Question 13.
Name the Urdu poet who praised the beauty of India’s nature and unity of its people. Which is his famous song?
Answer:

  • Urdu poet Muhammad Iqbal
  • His famous patriotic song ¡s ‘Sare Jahan Se Acchab Hindustan Hamara’.

Question 14.
Which were the books written by Vallathol Narayana Menon focussing on nationalism?
Answer:

  • Ente Gurunathan
  • Bappuji
  • Indiayude Karachil

Question 15.
What were the peculiarities of the water colour painting ‘Bharat Mata’ by Abanindranath Tagore?
Answer:

  • The painting ‘Bharat Mata’ depicts Bharat Mata giving food, cloth and knowledge to Indian masses.
  • This painting helped to inculcate patriotism in Indian minds.

Question 16.
Why did Abanindranath Tagore start Indian society of Oriental Arts?
Answer:

  • To free Indian painting from western style.
  • To promote oriental painting based on Indian culture and tradition.

Question 17.
Name the famous paintings of Nandalal Bose.
Answer:

  • Sati
  • Village Drummer

Question 18.
What kind of attitude was created in favour of nationalism by the painting ‘Sati ’ of Nandalal Bose?
Answer:

  • The painting ‘Sati’ visualized the dilemma of a woman who was forced to commit Sati.
  • This painting touched Indian hearts and stimulated protest against the social evils.
  • An attitude to eradicate discrimination against women.

Answer the following. Score 2 each.

Question 1.
The 19th century India witnessed two types of protests in ideological and cultural spheres. Which were they?
Answer:

  • Protest against inequality, violations of rights and social evils which existed in Indian society.
  • Protest against the economic exploitation of the colonial forces.

Question 2.
The social reform movements in India had two main objectives. Which were they?
Answer:

  • To eradicate evils and superstitions that existed in the Indian society.
  • To ensure equal civil rights to education, travel and dress code.

Question 3.
What were the main ideologies of Arya Samaj founded by Swami Dayananda Saraswati?
Answer:

  • Campaigned against idol worship and child marriage.
  • Promoted women education and widow re-marriage.

Question 4.
Write the main ideologies put forward by Satyashodhak Samaj.
Answer:

  • Satyashodhak Samaj started by Jyotiba Phule opposed social evils and domination of priests.
  • Started educational institutions for backward classes.

Question 5.
Who enacted the Vernacular Press Act? Why?
Answer:

  • The Vernacular Press Act was enacted by Lord Lytton in 1876.
  • The British realized the power of the Indian Press. So they decided to impose stringent measures to control them. The aim of the Vernacular Press Act was to curb the freedom of press in regional languages.

Question 6.
Identify the benefits of education.
Answer:

  • To bring about changes in society.
  • To maintain unity.

Question 7.
Who proposed Wardha Education Plan? What are its features?
Answer:
In 1937, Gandhiji proposed a special education plan called Wardha Education Plan.

  • Its major objective was vocational education. Gandhiji thought that vocational training during education would help build up a good future.
  • Gandhiji believed that such a generation could defend the British.

Question 8.
What were the major objectives of national educational institutions?
Answer:

  • Promotion of nationalism
  • Opposition to social evils
  • Rejection of western education

Question 9.
Visva Bharati University was an example for the international outlook of Rabindranath Tagore. Substantiate.
Answer:

  • Visva Bharati University founded by Tagore focused on universal brotherhood.
  • Tagore aimed at a system of education that would bridge western and eastern cultures.

Question 10.
What did Bankim Chandra Chatterji illustrate through his novel ‘Anandamath’?
Answer:

  • Through his novel ‘Anandamath’ the Bengali writer Bankim Chandra Chatterji portrayed the plight of Indian society. Anandamath was based on the Sanyasi Revolt of Bengali peasants.
  • Chatterji illustrated the agonies of Bengali farmers and disparity between rich and poor in Bengali society.

Question 11.
What were the specialities of the paintings of Amrita Sher-Gil?
Answer:
Amrita Sher-Gil, a famous woman artist of India painted the sufferings of Indian villages in dark shades ably reflecting their predicaments. Her paintings also motivated people to think about a unified India.

Question 12.
Write the features of the first tricolour flag designed during the time of Swadeshi Movement.
Answer:

  • The tricolour flag was first designed during the time of the Swadeshi Movement.
  • The flag contained 8 lotuses representing 8 provinces in British India and a crescent representing Hindu-Muslim fraternity.

Question 13.
What were the factors that urged Gandhiji to form a plan for vocational education?
Answer:

  • Vocational training during education would help to build up a good future.
  • Such a generation ‘could resist the British.

Answer the following. Score 3 each.

Question 1.
Match the table suitably.

Institution

Founder

Asiatic Society of Bengal Jonathan Duncan
Theosophical Society William Jones
Banaras Sanskrit College Annie Besant

Answer:

Institution

Founder

Asiatic Society of Bengal William Jones
Theosophical Society Annie Besant
Banaras Sanskrit College Jonathan Duncan

Question 2.
What were the aims of the British in implementing English education in India?
Answer:

  • To nurture a fraction of Indian society that would support Britain.
  • To prepare a generation that favours English lifestyles.
  • To create a class of persons Indians in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinions, in morals and in intellect.

Question 3.
What were the proposals of social reformers to bring about fundamental changes in Indian society during British rule?
Answer:

  • Eradicate caste system.
  • Provide education to all.
  • Abolish child marriage and eliminate the supremacy of the clergy.
  • Eliminate discrimination against women.
  • Promote widow remarriage.
  • Protect the rights of all.

Question 4.
Evaluate the role of literary works in regional languages in promoting the growth of nationalism.
Answer:
Writers in various parts of India illustrated the agonies and atrocities faced by the people. The readers in other parts experienced these sorrows as theirs and ventured to fight them collectively. Writers shared their resentments with the people through poetry, novel, drama, etc.

The ‘Anandamath’ of Bankim Chandra Chatterji and ‘NilDarpan’ of DinabanduMitra depicted the sad plight of Bengali farmers, the exploitation that they suffered and the disparity between the rich and the poor. Literary works like ‘Ghora’ and ‘Gitanjali’ of Rabindranath Tagore, ‘Sevasadan’ and ‘Godan’ of Prem Chand and ‘Ente Gurunathan’ and ‘Bappuji’ ofVallathol Narayana Menon could inculcate a sense of a unified India among the public. These works developed a sense of patriotism and nationalistic feeling among the people.

Question 5.
Which are the national symbols that helped to nurture nationalism in Indian minds?
Answer:

  • National flag – The tricolour flag
  • National Emblem – Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath
  • National Anthem – Janaganamana
  • National Song – Vande Mataram

Question 6.
Complete the sun diagram.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism Important Questions 1
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism Important Questions 2

Question 7.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism Important Questions 3
Some examples of news during the national struggle are given. Explain how the newspapers influenced nationalism through such news.

The newspapers of this period upheld nationalism, democracy and opposition to the oppressive rule.

  • Disseminated information on massacres, oppression and repressive rule in various parts of the country. Eg. Firing and massacre in Punjab.
  • Reported the calamities like plague and famine that killed thousands of Indians in various regions. Eg. Bengal famine.
  • Kept abreast of the global agitation for freedom, democracy and equality. Eg. Freedom struggle in China.

Through the publication of each news, the news papers could intensitS’ the opposition to foreign rule and helped the growth of nationalism and national
consciousness.

Question 8.
How did the interference of the British, in the field of education, create a sense of unity among the people?
Answer:

  • The Indians who got English education found it necessary to resist the intrusion of the British.
  • Those who had English education started national education institutions.
  • They encouraged secular education.
  • Jointly worked together against the inequalities of Indian society.

Question 9.
The protest of a writer against the existing exploitative system of a nation will create a sense of unity among the people of that country. Substantiate the statement on the basis of the works of writers during the British rule.
Answer:

  • Writers through their works opposed the economic exploitation of India by the British and the social evils that existed in the country.
  • Writers described the miseries of people.
  • Created a fellow feeling among the people so that the miseries of the people of other region were considered as their own.
  • Writers described the realities of the lives of Indians.
  • All these developed among the people a sense of patriotism and resentment to foreign rule.

Question 10.
Explain the role of newspapers in propagating the ideas of Indian national movement.
Answer:

  • Criticised the activities of the British government through newspapers.
  • Made the people aware of the social reform movements formed against the social evils and practices of
    Indian society.
  • Newspapers were published in various languages.
  • Newspapers gave emphasis on nationalism, social reform and democracy.

Question 11.
How did Indian leaders utilize education to promote unity among Indians against the British?
Answer:
Education and nationalism :
India witnessed the conflict of two diversive interests in the 19thcentury. They were the British interest to gain political, economic and cultural hegemony over India and the Indian interest to free the country from political, economic and cultural domination of the British. Education was the major field which witnessed this conflict of interests.

The English educated Indians found it necessary to resist the intrusion of the British. They started national educational institutions. Encouraged secular education. Education helped Indians fight against the British colonial hegemony over India as well as the social inequality that existed in India. Thus, education created a nationalistic perspective among Indians.

  • Establishing national educational institutions was the main means adopted for inculcating nationalism. They imparted secular education to all sections of the society. The Deccan Education Society founded in 1884 in Pune by GG Agarkar, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mahadev Govind Ranade was such an institution.
  • The Swadeshi Movement started in 1906 founded many educational institutions for the propagation of national education.
  • Visva Bharati, the University founded by Rabindranath Tagore in Bengal aimed at a system of education that would bridge western and eastern cultures.
  • A team led by Maulana Mohammad Ali, Shoukath Ali, Dr.Zakir Hussain and M.A.Ansari founded the Jamia Millia Islamia in Aligarh to strengthen national movement through secular education.
    All these have helped for the evolution of Indian nationalism.

Question 12.
Assess the role of national education in the emergence of Indian nationalism-
Answer:
Role of national education in the emergence of Indian nationalism:
Education created a nationalist perspective among the Indians. The Indian leaders utilized education as a tool to nurture the concept of unity and for liberation from the British domination.

  • Establishing national educational institutions was the main means adopted for inculcating nationalism. They imparted secular education to all sections of the society. The Deccan Education Society founded in 1884 in Pune by G.G.Agarkar, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mahadev Govind Ranade was such an institution.
  • The Swadeshi Movement started in 1906 founded many educational institutions for the propagation of national education.
  • Visva Bharati, the university founded by Rabindranath Tagore in Bengal aimed at a system of education that would bridge western and eastern cultures.
  • A team led by Maulana Mohammad Ali, Shoukath Ali, Dr.Zakir Hussain and M.A.Ansari founded the Jamia Millia Islamia in Aligarh to strengthen national movement through secular education.

Question 13.
What were the contributions of Dinabandhu Mitra in the emergence of Indian nationalism?
Answer:
Contributions of Dinabandhu Mitra:
Social reforms, press, education, literature and art paved the way for the emergence of Indian nationalism. The Bengali writer Dinabandhu Mitra wrote the play ‘Nil Darpan’. It depicted the severe exploitation suffered by the indigo farmers in Bengal.

It was staged in many places and greatly influenced the people. The Indian Association started by Surendranath Banerjee campaigned for the welfare of the Bengali farmers taking cue from the issues depicted in Nil Darpan. This play triggered farmer’s unrest in various parts of the country.

Answer the following. Score 4 each.

Question 1.
Why did Indian leaders find it necessary to resist the intrusion of English culture and ideologies into Indian society?
Answer:

  • When the Indian leaders realized that English culture and ideologies would destroy Indian culture, they began to resist its invasion.
  • English educated Indians who internationalized the concept of democracy, liberty, rationalism, equality and civil rights opposed this cultural invasion.
  • They ventured to reform the social customs and rituals prevailed in the country, thereby to defend the invasion of English culture.
  • They tried to reform Indian society, language, art and literature.
  • It motivated to protest against inequalities and violation of rights and created a sense of unity among the people.

Question 2.
Discuss the role of Ram Mohan Roy in the social reform movement in India.
Answer:

  • Ram Mohan Roy was the pioneer among social reformers who strived for the modernization of Indian society.
  • He opposed caste system and ‘Sati’, the social evils in India and established Brahma Samaj.
  • He propagated the idea of a unified Indian society in the place of a society fragmented over caste lines.
  • His ideas prompted patriotism among the Indians.

Question 3.
Which were the social evils that the British abolished through law in India as a result of the activities of social reformers?
Answer:

  • Abolished Sati
  • Permitted widow remarriage
  • Banned female infanticide
  • Prevented child marriage and polygamy
  • Prevented marriage of girls below 12 years of age
  • Abolished slavery

Question 4.
Evaluate role of newspapers in promoting the growth of nationalism among the Indians.
Or
How far did the newspapers influence the Indians during the period of National Smuggle?
Answer:

  • The newspapers functioned with the aims to create public awareness of various social issues, to motivate everyone to participate in the national movement and to prompt the people to treat the problem anywhere in the country as a national problem.
  • Created public awareness on economic exploitation by the British.
  • Disseminated information on massacres, oppression and repressive rule in various parts of the country.
  • Kept abreast of the global agitations for freedom, democracy and equality.
  • Motivated the people to protest against the British rule and evils in Indian society.
    All these helped the growth of nationalism.

Question 5.
Analyse the role of education in the growth of Indian nationalism.
Answer:

  • The progress in education helped Indians fight against the British colonial hegemony over India as well as the social inequality that existed in India.
  • Thus education created a nationalist perspective among the Indians.
  • The establishment of national educational institutions inculcated the growth of nationalism. The Deccan Education Society and die Jamia Millia Islamia imparted secular education to all sections and it strengthened national movement and nationalism. They provided secular education.
  • Indian leaders utilized education as a tool to nurture the concept of unity and for liberation from British domination.

Question 6.
The progress in the field of art strengthened Indian nationalism. Substantiate.
Answer:

The water colour painting ‘Bharat Mata’ by Abanindranath Tagore helped to inculcate patriotism in Indian minds. It depicts Bharat Mata giving food, cloth and knowledge to Indian masses.

Nandalal Bose portrayed scenes from Indian literature and events in history. His famous painting ‘Sati’ visualized the dilemma of a woman who was forced to commit Sati, a social evil. This painting touched Indian hearts and stimulated protest against this social evil. His another painting ‘Village Drummer’ also helped to strengthen nationalism.

Amrita Sher-Gil painted the sufferings of Indian villagers in dark shades ably reflecting their predicaments. Her paintings also motivated people to think about a unified India.

Raja Ravi Varma visualized various scenes from Indian epics and literature.

Question 7.
The following are some literary works that helped the growth of Indian nationalism. Identify their authors and the language in which they are written.

Nil Darpan
Ente Gurunathan
Rangabhumi
Panchalisapadam
Answer:

Works

Authors

Language

Nil Darpan Dinabandu Mitra Bengali
Ente Gurunathan Vallathol Narayana Menon Malayalam
Rangabhumi Prem Chand Hindi
Panchalisapadam Subramanya Bharati Tamil

Question 8.
Match the items in column A with the appropriate item in column B.

A

B

Ary a Samaj Atmaram Pandurang
Ramakrishna Mission Jyothiba Phule
Prarthana Samaj Swami Dayananda Saraswati
Satya Shodak Samaj Swami Vivekananda

Answer:

A

B

Arya Samaj Swami Dayananda Saraswati
Ramakrishna Mission Swami Vivekananda
Prarthana Samaj Atmaram Pandurang
Satya Shodak Samaj Jyothiba Phule

Question 9.
How did the activities of Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar and Pandita Ramabai lead the social progress of women?
Answer:

  • Raja Ram Mohan Roy :
    Opposed caste system and Sati. To improve the status of women, he advocated for the right of women to own property.
  • Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar:
    Argued for the remarriage of widows. As a result, the British government passed the Hindu Widow Remarriage Act in 1856. Established educational institutions for women.
  • Pandita Ramabai:
    Established Sarada Sadan in Bombay for women education.

Question 10.
What is the basis for the nationalism of Indians? List the factors contributed to the growth of Indian nationalism.
Answer:
As a nation, unity in diversity is the solid foundation of India.
Factors contributed to the growth of Indian nationalism:

  • British rule
  • Economic exploitation of the British
  • Social reform movements
  • Educational progress
  • Newspapers
  • Literature and art

Question11.
Analyse the factors that prompted the British to introduce English education in India.
Answer:

  • An in-depth understanding of the socio – cultural life of the Indians was essential to strengthen the British rule.
  • The realisation that people’s support is essential to implement administrative reforms and to continue the administration
  • To prepare a generation that would be loyal to the British.
  • The realisation that these could be accomplished through the introduction of English education.

Question 12.
Why is it said that social reforms decisively influenced the growth of Indian nationalism?
Answer:

  • Social reform movements helped to eradicate evils and superstitions that existed in the Indian society.
  • Succeeded in defending the invasion of English culture.
  • The educational activities of social reformers, helped to awaken nationalism among the people.
  • Social reforms helped to instill a sense of unity among the people which took them to the main stream of national movement.

Question 13.
Discuss the role of newspapers in a democratic system.
Answer:

  • Disseminate news from all parts of the world.
  • Formulate opinion to strengthen democracy.
  • All the actions and policies of the government are subjected to criticism.
  • Play the role of a constructive opposition.
  • Disseminate scientific knowledge.
  • Make the people aware of the social problems

Question 14.
List the ideas envisioned in national education.
Answer:

  • Secularism
  • Nationalism
  • Women empowerment
  • Protest against foreign rule and caste system
  • Internationalism
  • Revival of traditional arts

Question 15.
Who wrote the drama ‘Nil Darpan’? How did it influence the National Movement?
Answer:
Nil Darpan :
Bengali writer Dindabandhu Mitra wrote the play ‘Nil Darpan’. The play depicted the severe exploitation suffered by the indigo farmers in Bengal. It was staged in many places and greatly influenced the people. Indian Association, started by Surendranath Banergee campaigned for the welfare of the Bengali farmers taking cue from the issues depicted in ‘Nil Darpan’. This play triggered farmers’ unrests in various parts of the country.

Question 16.
Compare the policies of British education and national education during national movement.
Answer:

British Education

National Education

Tried to create a generation interested in English lifestyle.

Tried to get the support of a fraction of Indian society.

Opposed inequalities of Indian society.

Jointly protested British colonial rule.

Created national outlook among the Indians.

Establishing national educational institutions

Answer the following. Score 5/6 each.

Question 1.
Describe the various social reform movements in India in the 19’h century.
Answer:
Liberal outlook, passion of modernization and rationalism nurtured in Indian society paved for the emergence of various social reform movements. The social reform movements in India had two main objectives.

  • To eradicate evils and superstitions that existed in the Indian society.
  • To ensure equal civil rights to education, travel and dress code.
    The following were the social reform movements and their ideologies,

Brahma Samaj:
Ram Mohan Roy established Brahma Samaj. He was the pioneer among the social reformers who strived for the modernization of Indian society. He opposed the social evils like
Caste system and Sati. To improve the status of women, he advocated for the right of women to own property.

Arya Samaj:
Swami Dayananda Saraswati founded Arya Samaj. It campaigned against idol worship and child marriage. Swami Dayananda opposed Caste system, supremacy of the clergy, untouchability and polygamy. He also stood for women education.

Ramakrishna Mission:
Swami Vivekananda founded Ramakrishna Mission to propagate the message of his Guru Ramakrishna Paramahamsa. It opposed caste system and social evils. It propagated the concepts of liberty, equality and freedom of thought.

Aligarh Movement:
Sir Syed Ahmad Khan started the Aligarh Movement. It advocated for social and educational uplift of Indian Muslims.

Prarthana Samaj:
Atmaram Pandurang founded Prarthana Samaj. It campaigned for interdining, inter caste marriage, widow remarriage and the uplift of women and backward classes. The Samaj started orphanages, night classes and women education centres for social service and the spread of education.

Theosophical Society:
Annie Besant was the founder of Indian Theosophical Society. It stood for the resurgence of Hindu religion. It fought against child marriage. Annie Beasant started a Central Hindu School in Banaras.

HitakariniSamaj:
Veeresalingam founded Hitakarini Samaj. It campaigned for widow remarriage and women education. Opposed caste system and child marriage.

Satyashodhak Samaj:
Jyotiba Phule founded Satyashodhak Samaj. It opposed social evils and domination of priests. It also started educational institutions for backward classes.

Self Respect Movement:
E.V.Ramaswami Naicker founded Self Respect Movement. It opposed Brahmanical supremacy and Caste system.

Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam:
Sree Narayana Guru founded SNDP yogam. It opposed caste system and evil practices. It also advocated for social and economic progress of the backward classes.

Question 2.
Discuss the socio-cultural factors that led to the growth of Indian nationalism.
Answer:
The various socio-cultural factors that paved the way for the growth of Indian nationalism were:

  • Newspapers
  • Education
  • Literature
  • Art
  • Social reforms

Newspapers:
Indian leaders mostly depended on newspapers to propagate their nationalistic ideologies. The newspapers criticized the British policies and motivated national movement. The newspapers during freedom struggle functioned with the aims to create public awareness of various social issues, to motivate everyone to participate in the national movement and to prompt the people to treat the problem anywhere in the country as a national problem.

The newspapers created public awareness on economic exploitation by the British and on the massacres, oppression and repressive rule in various parts of the country. Newspapers like Sambath Kaumudi, Harijan, The Hindu and Bengali contributed greatly to the growth of nationalism.

Education:
Establishing national educational institutions was the main means adopted for inculcating nationalism. The Deccan Educational Society founded in 1884 in Pune was an educational institution established with a nationalistic perspective.

The Visva Bharati University founded by Rabindranath Tagore aimed at a system of education that would bridge western and eastern cultures. Education helped Indians fight against the British colonial hegemony over India as well as the social inequality that existed in India. Thus education created a nationalistic perspective among the Indians.

Literature:
The protest against the British rule as well as social evils existed in the Indian society reflected in Indian literature. Writers in various parts of India illustrated the agonies and atrocities faced by the people. The readers in other parts experienced these sorrows as theirs and ventured to fight them collectively. Writers shared their resentments with people through poetry, novel, drama, etc.

This developed among the people a sense of patriotism and dissent towards foreign dominance. The works like Gitanjali and Ghora of Rabindranath Tagore, Nil Darpan of Dinabandhu Mitra and the famous patriotic song ‘Sare Jahan Se Accha Hindustan Hamara’ by Muhammad Iqbal helped the growth of nationalism among the people. Creative expressions of Indian writers helped to inculcate the concept of a unified India among the public.

Art:
Artists and painters also contributed to the growth of nationalism among Indians. The water colour painting ‘Bharat Mata’ by Abanindranath Tagore helped to inculcate patriotism in Indian minds. He tried to free Indian painting from western style and promoted oriental painting.

The paintings ‘Sati’and ‘Village Drummer’by Nandalal Bose instilled nationalism among the people. The paintings of Amrita Sher-Gil who painted the sufferings of Indian villages in dark shades motivated people to think about a unified India.

Social reforms:
The social reforms that emerged in India in the 19th century paved the way for the growth of Indian nationalism. Ram Mohan Roy, the pioneer among social reformers is considered as The Father of Indian nationalism. The social reform movements of this period like Brahma Samaj, Arya Samaj, Theosophical Society, Ramakrishna Mission, etc. roused the awareness of nationalism among the Indians.

These movements tried to put an end to the caste system and social evils prevailing in the Indian society. Ram Mohan Roy propagated the idea of a unified Indian society in the place of a society fragmented over caste lines. This idea prompted patriotism among the people.

Question 3.
Match the items related to Column A-from Columns B and C.

A

B

C

Ram Mohan Roy Ramakrishna Mission Visva Bharati University
Rabindranath Tagore Anandamath Nai Talim
Vallathol Narayana Menon Gitanjali Sambath Kaumudi
Swami Vivekananda Brahma Samaj Bande Mataram
Bankim Chandra Chatterji Wardha Education Plan Kerala Kalamandalam
Mahatma Gandhi Ente Gurunathan Liberty, equality and freedom of thought

Answer:

A

B

C

Ram Mohan Roy Brahma Samaj Sambath Kaumudi
Rabindranath Tagore Gitanjali Visva Bharati University
Vallathol Narayana Menon Ente Gurunathan Kerala Kalamandalam
Swami Vivekananda Ramakrishna Mission Liberty, equality and freedom of thought
Bankim Chandra Chatterji Anandamath Bande Mataram
Mahatma Gandhi Wardha Education Plan Nai Talim

Question 4.
Match the items related to Column A from Columns B and C.

A

B

C

Allama Muhammad Iqbal Nibandha Mala Hindi
Abanindranath Tagore Kannan Pattu Persian
Vishnu Krishna Chiplunkar Sure Jahan Se Accha Bengali painter
Ram Mohan Roy Bharat Mata Urdu
Subrahmanya Bharati Rangabhumi Marathi
Prem Chand Mirat-ul-Akbar Tamil

Answer:

A

B

C

Allama Muhammad Iqbal Sare Jahan Se Accha Urdu
Abanindranath Tagore Bharat Mata Bengali painter
Vishnu Krishna Chiplunkar Nibandha Mala Marathi
Ram Mohan Roy Mirat-ul-Akbar Persian
Subrahmanya Bharati Kannan Pattu Tamil
Prem Chand Rangabhumi Hindi

Question 5.
Arrange the following events in chronological order.

  • Established the first Women University in India
  • Vernacular Press Act
  • Wardha Education Plan
  • British government passed the Hindu Widow Remarriage Act
  • Haripura Session of Indian National Congress
  • Introduced English education in India

Answer:

  • Introduced English Education in India (1835)
  • British government passed the Hindu Widow Remarriage Act (1856)
  • Vernacular Press Act (1878)
  • Established the first Women University in India (1916)
  • Wardha Education Plan (1937)
  • Haripura Session of Indian National Congress (1938)

Question 6.
To what extent the ideas put forward by the social reform movements of India during the 19th century were suitable for social change in India? Evaluate.
Answer:

  • To eradicate caste system.
  • To protect the rights of all people.
  • To promote the ideas of liberty, equality and freedom of thought.
  • To eliminate discrimination against women.
  • To promote widow remarriage.
  • To abolish child marriage and eliminate the supremacy of the clergy.
  • To provide education for all.
  • To oppose Brahmin domination.
  • To oppose evil practices.
  • To encourage interdining and intercaste marriage.
  • To work for the upliftment of women and backward classes.

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism Important Questions 4

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions