Plus One Economics Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 4 Presentation of Data

Students can Download Chapter 4 Presentation of Data Questions and Answers, Plus One Economics Chapter Wise Questions and Answers helps you to revise the complete Kerala State Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations

Kerala Plus One Economics Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 4 Presentation of Data

Plus One Economics Presentation of Data One Mark Questions and Answers

Plus One Economics Chapter Wise Questions And Answers Pdf Question 1.
Which of the following comes under geometric diagram?
(a) Histogram
(b) Bar diagram
(c) Ogives
(d) Frequency polygon
Answer:
(b) Bar diagram

Plus One Economics Chapter Wise Questions And Answers Question 2.
Which of the following comes under frequency diagrams?
(a) Bar diagram
(b) Histogram
(c) Pie diagram
(d) All the above
Answer:
(b) Histogram

Plus One Economics Chapter Wise Questions And Answers Malayalam Question 3.
To draw time-series graph, time is presented on:
(a) X-axis
(b) Y-axis
(c) any of two
Answer:
(a) X-axis

Plus One Statistics Chapter Wise Questions And Answers Question 4.
Name the types of graphs.
Answer:

  1. One dimensional graph
  2. Two-dimensional graph
  3. Three-dimensional graph
  4. Pictograms

Plus One Economics Chapter Wise Questions And Answers Pdf Download Question 5.
State whether true or false.

  1. The width of bars in a bar diagram need not be equal.
  2. The width of rectangles in a histogram should essentially be equal.
  3. Histograms can only be formed with continuous classification of data.
  4. Histogram and column diagram are the same method of presentation of data.
  5. Mode of a frequency distribution can be drawn graphically with the help of histogram,
  6. The median of a frequency distribution cannot be drawn from the Ogive.

Answer:

  1. true
  2. false
  3. true
  4. true
  5. true
  6. true

Plus One Economics Presentation of Data Two Mark Questions and Answers

Hsslive Economics Plus One Chapter Wise Questions And Answers Question 1.
Which of the following is a cumulative frequency curve?
Answer:
(a) Bar diagram
(b) Histogram
(c) Ogive
(d) Pie diagram
Answer:
(c) Ogive

Plus One Economics Questions And Answers Question 2.
Distinguish between captions and stubs.
Answer:
Captions refers to the column headings and stubs refers to the row heading.

Histogram And Frequency Polygon Questions With Answers Question 3.
Match the following.

A B
Source note Row headings
Captions Gives origin of data
Stubs Explains the specific feature
Footnote Column Headings

Answer:

A B
Source note Gives origin of data
Captions Column Headings
Stubs Row Headings
Footnote Explains the specific feature

Plus One Economics Presentation of Data Three Mark Questions and Answers

Presentation Of Data Class 11 Question 1.
What kind of diagrams are more effective in representing the following?

  1. Monthly rainfall in a year
  2. Composition of the population of Delhi by religion
  3. Components of cost in a factory

Answer:

  1. Simple bar diagram
  2. Sub-divided or component bar diagram
  3. Pie diagram

Pie Chart Class 11 Economics Question 2.
Name different types of diagrams.
Answer:
The different types of diagrams are:
1. Geometric diagram

  • Bar diagrams
  • Pie diagram

2. Frequency diagram

  • Histogram
  • Frequency polygon
  • Frequency curve -Ogive

3. Arithmetic line graph

Question 3.
“Diagrams and graphs help us visualize the whole meaning of numerical complex data at a single glance”. Comment.
Answer:
One of the most convincing and appealing ways in which statistical results may be presented is through diagrams and graphs. The special feature of graphs and diagrams is that they do away with figures altogether. Diagrams and graph is a statistical method which can be used for simplifying the complexity of quantitative data and t make them easily intelligible.

It presents dry and uninteresting statistical facts in the shape of attractive and appealing pictures and charts. They are important methods of visual aids and are appealing t the eye and mind of the observer.

Question 4.
“There are generally three forms of diagrammatic presentation of data” explain.
Answer:
There are various methods to present data. But generally, three forms of presentation of data are there
which are noted below:

  1. Geometric diagram
  2. Frequency diagram
  3. Arithmetic line graph

1. Geometric Diagram:
Bar diagram and pie diagram come in the category of geometric diagram for presentation of data. The bar diagrams are of three types-simple, multiple and component bar diagrams.

2. Frequency Diagram:
Data in the form of grouped frequency distributions are generally represented by frequency diagrams like histogram, frequency polygon, frequency curve, and ogive

3. Arithmetic Line Graph:
An arithmetic line graph is also called time-series graph and is a method of diagrammatic presentation of data. A line graph by joining these plotted points, thus, obtained is called arithmetic line graph or time-series graph.

Question 5.
Explain Ogive?
Answer:
Cumulative frequency of any class is equal to the sum of the frequencies of all the classes preceding that class and its own frequency e.g., frequencies are 10, 7, 12, 17 and 22. Cumulative frequencies are 10, 10 + 7 = 17, 17 + 12 = 29, 29 + 17 = 46 and 46 + 22 = 68.
Cumulative frequency of the last class = Total frequency.

For drawing an Ogive, cumulative frequency (i.e. number of values) is taken on the Y-axis and limits of class intervals on the X-axis.
Ogive is of two types:

  1. less than
  2. more than

In a “less than” type Ogive, we plot the upper limit of each class along the X-axis and in a “more than” type Ogive, we plot the lower limit of each class along the X-axis. Along the Y-axis, we plot the cumulative frequencies at the end of each class. Ogive can be drawn even if the class interval are unequal or open end. Ogives are performed over frequency curves for comparative study.

Question 6.
Illustrate how classes can be formed while presenting the data?
Answer:
Classes can be formed in two ways:

  1. Exclusive type
  2. Inclusive type

1. Exclusive Type:
When the class intervals are so fixed that the upper limit of one class is the lower limit of the new class, it is known as exclusive method of classification.

Marks (Percentage) No. of students
0-10 15
10-20 17
20-30 22
30-40 30
40-50 39
50-60 45

In this method, higher value of the variable in the class is not included in that class i.e.,

Marks (Percentage) No. of students
0 and more but less than 10 15
10 and more but less than 20 17
20 and more but less than 30 22
30 and more but less than 40 30
40 and more but less than 50 39
50 and more but less than 60 45

2. Inclusive Type:
In this method, the students getting say 39% marks will be included in class 30 – 39 itself i.e.,

Marks (Percentage) No. of students
0-9 5
10-19 8
20-29 7
30-39 13
40-49 25

Plus One Economics Presentation of Data Four Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Choose the correct answer
a. Bar diagram is a

  1. one-dimensional diagram
  2. two-dimensional diagram
  3. diagram with no dimension
  4. none of the above

b. Data represented through a histogram can help in finding graphically the

  1. mean
  2. mode
  3. median
  4. all the above

c. Ogives can be helpful in locating graphically the

  1. mode
  2. mean
  3. median
  4. none of the above

d. Data represented through arithmetic line graph help in understanding

  1. long term trend
  2. cyclicity in data
  3. seasonality in data
  4. all the above

Answer:
a. 1. one-dimensional diagram
b. 3. mode
c. 3. median
d. 1. long term trend

Question 2.
Point out major parts of a statistical table.
Answer:

  1. Table number
  2. Title
  3. Headnote
  4. Stub
  5. Box head or caption
  6. Body or field
  7. Footnote
  8. Source note

Question 3.
Give the rules for constructing tables.
Answer:
The rules of constructing diagrams are:

  • Every diagram should be titled.
  • It should suit the size of the paper
  • It should be neat and attractive
  • It should be neatly indexed
  • It should contain footnotes
  • The details in diagram should be self-explanatory

Plus One Economics Presentation of Data Five Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Explain the advantages of diagrammatic presentation.
Answer:
The advantages of diagrammatic presentation are given below.

  1. Diagram give a clear picture of data
  2. Comparison can be made easy
  3. Diagrams can be used university at any place
  4. It saves time and energy
  5. The data can be remembered easily

Question 2.
Show how pie diagram is drawn for the following data?

Items Production in K.G.
Tea 3260
Coffee 1850
Cocoa 900
Total 6010

Answer:
Plus One Economics Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 4 Presentation of Data img1

Question 3.
Give steps in the preparation of pie diagram.
Answer:
A pie diagram is also a component diagram, but unlike a component bar diagram, a circle whose area is proportionally divided among the components it represents. It is also called a pie chart. The circle is divided into as many parts as there are components by drawing straight lines from the centre to the circumference.

The following steps in the preparation of pie diagram are given below:

  • Convert each component as percentage of the total.
  • Multiply the percentage by 360/100 = 3.6 to convert into degree.
  • Starting with the twelve o’clock position on the circle draw the largest component circle
  • Draw other components in clockwise succession in descending order of magnitude except for each all components

Like all others and miscellaneous which are shown last:

  • Use different columns or shades to distinguish between different components
  • Explain briefly the different components either within the components in the figure or outside by arrow.

Plus One Economics Presentation of Data Eight Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Write short notes on the following

  1. pie diagrams
  2. frequency curves
  3. frequency polygon
  4. ogive
  5. arithmetic line graph

Answer:
1. Pie Diagram:
A pie diagram is also a component diagram, but unlike a component bar diagram, a circle whose area is proportionally divided among the components it represents. It is also called a pie chart. The circle is divided into as many parts as there are components by drawing straight lines from the centre to the circumference. Pie charts usually are not drawn with absolute values of a category.

The values of each category are first expressed as percentage of the total value of all the categories. A circle in a pie chart, irrespective of its value of radius, is thought of having 100 equal parts of 3.6° (3607100) each. To find out the angle, the component shall subtend at the centre of the circle, each percentage figure of every component is multiplied by 3.6°.

2. Frequency Polygon:
A frequency polygon is a plane bounded by straight lines, usually four or more lines. Frequency polygon is an alternative to histogram and is also derived from histogram itself. A frequency polygon can be fitted to a histogram for studying the shape of the curve. The simplest method of drawing a frequency polygon is to join the midpoints of the topside of the consecutive rectangles of the histogram.

3. Frequency Curve:
The frequency curve is obtained by drawing a smooth freehand curve passing through the points of the frequency polygon as closely as possible. It may not necessarily pass through all the points of the frequency polygon but it passes through them as closely as possible

4. Ogive:
Ogive is also called cumulative frequency curve. As there are two types of cumulative frequencies, for example, less than type and more than type, accordingly there are two ogives for any grouped frequency distribution data. Here in place of simple frequencies as in the case of frequency polygon, cumulative frequencies are plotted along y-axis against class limits of the frequency distribution.

For less than give the cumulative frequencies are plotted against the respective upper limits of the class intervals whereas for more than ogives the cumulative frequencies are plotted against the respective lower limits of the class interval. An interesting feature of the two ogives together is that their intersection point gives the median

5. Arithmetic Line Graph:
An arithmetic line graph is also called time-series graph and is a method of diagrammatic presentation of data. Init, time (hour, day/date, week, month, year, etc.) is plotted along x-axis and the value of the variable (time series data) along y-axis. A line graph by joining these plotted points, thus, obtained is called arithmetic line graph (time series graph). It helps in understanding the trend, periodicity, etc. in a long term time series data.

Question 2.
3 Forms of presentation of data

  1. Textual
  2. Tabular
  3. Diagrams & graphs Prepare a flow chart.

Answer:
Plus One Economics Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 4 Presentation of Data img2

Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Maths Solutions Chapter 13 Statistics in Malayalam

Students can Download Maths Chapter 13 Statistics Questions and Answers, Summary, Notes Pdf, Activity in Malayalam Medium, Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Maths Solutions helps you to revise the complete Kerala State Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Kerala State Syllabus 9th Standard Maths Solutions Chapter 13 Statistics in Malayalam Medium

Statistics Questions and Answers in Malayalam

Kerala Syllabus Std 9 Maths Solutions

Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Maths Notes Malayalam Medium
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Maths Notes
Hss Live Class 9 Maths

9th Standard Maths Notes Malayalam Medium
Hss Live Guru 9th Maths

Class 9 Maths Hsslive
9th Class Maths Notes Malayalam Medium

Maths Questions And Answers In Malayalam
9th Maths Notes Malayalam Medium
9th Standard Maths Malayalam Medium
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Notes Maths

Hsslive Std 9 Maths
Maths Class 9 Malayalam Medium
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Maths Solutions Chapter 13 Statistics in Malayalam 15
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Maths Solutions Chapter 13 Statistics in Malayalam 16

Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Maths Solutions Chapter 13 Statistics in Malayalam 17
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Maths Solutions Chapter 13 Statistics in Malayalam 18
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Maths Solutions Chapter 13 Statistics in Malayalam 19
Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Maths Solutions Chapter 13 Statistics in Malayalam 20

Plus One Physics Notes Chapter 5 Law of Motion

Students can Download Chapter 5 Law of Motion Notes, Plus One Physics Notes helps you to revise the complete Kerala State Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Kerala Plus One Physics Notes Chapter 5 Law of Motion

Summary
Laws Of Motion Class 11 Notes Chapter 5 Introduction
In this chapter we are going to learn about the laws that governs the motion of bodies.
Inertia:
The inability of a body to change by itself it’s state of rest or uniform motion along a straight line is called inertia.
Examples of inertia:
1. When a fast moving bus is suddenly stopped, a standing passenger tends to fall in the forward direction.
Explanation
The passenger has the same velocity as that of the bus. When the bus stops suddenly the lower part of his body is brought to rest suddenly because of the friction between his feet and floor of the bus. But the upper part continues to move because of its inertia.

2. When a bus suddenly takes off, a standing passenger tends to fall in the backward direction. This is because the lower part of the body gets a speed when the bus picks up speed and upper part continues to be at rest because of its inertia.

3. Consider a person sitting inside a stationary train and tossing a coin. The coin falls into his own hand. If he repeats the experiment when the train is moving with uniform speed, then also the coin falls into his own hand.

4. Cleaning a carpet by beating is in accordance with law of inertia.

5. Rabbit chased by a dog runs in zigzag manner. This is to take advantage of the large inertia of the massive dog.

6. A person chased by an elephant runs in a zigzag manner or in a circle. This is to take the advantage of the large inertia of the massive elephant.

Newton’s Laws:
Newton built on Galileo’s ideas and laid the foundation of mechanics in terms of three laws.

  • Newtons first law
  • Newtons second law
  • Newtons third law

Laws Of Motion Class 11 Notes Pdf Chapter 5 Newton’s First Law Of Motion
Everybody continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion along a straight line unless it is compelled by an external unbalanced force to change that state:
Note: Newton’s first law of motion brings the idea of inertia. Inertia of a body is measured by the mass of the body. Heavier the body, greater is the force required to change its state and hence greater is its inertia.

Class 11th Physics Chapter 5 Notes  Newton’s Second Law Of Motion
Linear Momentum (\(\vec{p}\)):
Momentum of a body is defined as the product of its mass m and velocity \(\vec{v}\)
Plus One Physics Notes Chapter 5 Law of Motion 1
Explanation
Momentum of a body can be produced or destroyed by the application of force on it. Therefore, momentum of a body is measured by the force required to stop the body in unit time.
Force required to stop a moving body depends upon

  1. mass of the body
  2. velocity of the body.

1. Mass of the body:
When a ball and a big stone are allowed to fall from the same height, we find that a greater force is required to stop the big piece of stone than the ball. Thus larger the mass of a body, greater is its linear momentum.

2. Velocity of the body:
A bullet thrown with the hand can be stopped easily than the same bullet fired from the gun. Therefore, langerthe velocity of a body, greater is its linear momentum.
Note: Momentum is a vector quantity. Its unit is Kgms-1
Newton’s Second Law of motion:
The rate of change of momentum of a body is directly proportional to the applied force and takes place in the direction in which the force acts. Mathematically this can be written as
Plus One Physics Notes Chapter 5 Law of Motion 2

Laws Of Motion Class 11 Notes Pdf Download Chapter 5 Question 1.
Derive F = ma from Newton’s Second law.
Answer:
Consider a body of mass ‘m’ moving with a momentum \(\vec{p}\). Let \(\vec{F}\) be the force acting on it for time internal Dt. Due to this force the momentum is changed from \(\vec{p}\) to p + Dp. Then according to Newtons second law, we can write
Plus One Physics Notes Chapter 5 Law of Motion 3
Where K is a constant proportionality. When we take the limit ∆t → 0, we can write
Plus One Physics Notes Chapter 5 Law of Motion 4

Unit of force:
Unit of force is newton. 1N = 1Kgms-2
Force in terms of the components:
We know force is a vector, Hence we can write as
Plus One Physics Notes Chapter 5 Law of Motion 5
Plus One Physics Notes Chapter 5 Law of Motion 6
Impulsive force:
The forces which act on bodies for short time are called impulsive forces.
Example:

  • In hitting a ball with a bat
  • In firing a gun

Impulse:
An impulse force does not remain constant, but changes from zero to maximum. This impulsive force is not easy to measure, because it changes with time. In such a case, we measure the total effect of the force called impulse.

The impulse of a force is the product of the average force and the time for which it acts.
Plus One Physics Notes Chapter 5 Law of Motion 7
Relation between impulse and momentum:
We know from Newtons second law
F = \(\frac{\Delta p}{\Delta t}\)
Plus One Physics Notes Chapter 5 Law of Motion 8
R.H.S. is the impulse and L.H.S. is change of momentum ie; change of momentum = impulse.

Laws Of Motion Notes Class 11 Chapter 5 Question 2.
When we jump to hard soil there is greater discomfort than when we jump to loose soil. Why?
Answer:
F = \(\frac{\Delta p}{\Delta t}\). When we jump to hard soil, Dt is small and F is large. When we jump to loose soil it takes more time for the body to come to rest. Therefore, Dt is large and F will be small.

Plus One Physics Laws Of Motion Chapter 5 Question 3.
A cricketer draws his hand while catching a cricket ball. Why?
Answer:
When cricketer draws his hand, the Dt will increase. Hence F acting on the hand will decrease.

Newtons Third Law Of Motion
Statement:
To every action, there is always an equal and opposite reaction.
Explanation: When a book is placed on the table, the weight of the book acts on the table downwards. The table exerts an equal force on the book in the upward direction. If the force applied by the book on the table is action, the force applied by the table on the book is reaction.

Newton’s Laws Of Motion Class 11 Notes Chapter 5 Question 4.
If action and reaction are equal and opposite, why they do not cancel?
Answer:
Though action and reaction are equal and opposite, they do not cancel each other because action is on one body and reaction is on another body.
Consider a pair of bodies A and B. According to the
third law FAB = – FBA
(force on A by B) = – (force on B by A).

Plus One Physics Laws Of Motion Notes Chapter 5 Conservation Of Momentum
Second law and third law lead to conservation of linear momentum.
Statement:
When there is no external force on a body (or system), the total momentum remains constant.

Proof in the case of a single body:
According to Newtons second law, F = \(\frac{d p}{d t}\). if F = 0, we get p = constant. Which means that momentum of a body remains constant, if there is no external force acting on it.

Conservation of momentum in the case of firing a gun:
Consider a gun of mass M and bullet of mass ‘m’ at rest. On firing the gun exerts a force F on the bullet and bullet exerts an equal force -F in the opposite direction. Because of this action and reaction (due to firing), the gun acquires a momentum Pg and bullet acquires a momentum Pb.
Momentum before firing
The bullet and gun are at rest. Hence momentum before firing = M × 0 + m × 0
Momentum before firing = 0 ________(1)
Momentum after firing
According to Newtons second law, the change in
momentum of bullet. ∆Pb = Pb – 0 = F∆t ______(2)
Since initially both are rest,
Dp = final momentum – initial
momentum Similarly the change in momentum of gun
∆pg = pg – 0 = -F∆t _______(3)
∴ Total momentum after firing = pb + pg
= F∆t + – F∆t.
Total momentum after firing = 0 _______(4)
from eq (1) and eq (4), we get,
Total momentum before firing = Total momentum after firing.

Conservation of momentum in the case of two colliding bodies:
Plus One Physics Notes Chapter 5 Law of Motion 9
Consider two bodies A and B with initial momenta PA and PB. After collision, they acquire momenta P1A and P1g respectively.
According to Newton’s second law, the change in momentum of A due to the collision with B,
Plus One Physics Notes Chapter 5 Law of Motion 10
Similarly the change in momentum of B due to the collision with A, FBA∆t = P1B – PB
Plus One Physics Notes Chapter 5 Law of Motion 11
[Where Dt is time for which the two bodies are in contact].
According Newton’s third law, we can write
FAB = -FBA
Plus One Physics Notes Chapter 5 Law of Motion 12
Total momentum before collision = Total momentum after collision.
Note: Conservation linear momentum is always satisfied for elastic collision and inelastic collision.

Class 11 Physics Chapter 5 Notes Equilibrium Of A Particle
Equilibrium of a particle in mechanics refers to the situation, when the net external force on the particle is zero.

Common Forces In Mechanics
There are two types of forces commonly used in mechanics,

  1. Contact forces
  2. Non contact forces

1. Contact forces:
A contact force on an object arises due to contact with some other object. Example : Friction, viscosity, air resistance etc.

2. Non contact forces:
A non contact force on an object arises due to non contact with some other object
Example: Gravitational force

Friction:
Friction is the force that develops at the surfaces of contact of two bodies and impedes (opposes) their relative motion.
There are different types of friction.
Laws Of Motion Class 11 Notes Chapter 5

  • Static friction: The opposing force that comes into play when one body tends to move over the surface of another (but the actual motion has yet not started)
  • Limiting friction (fs): The maximum value of static friction is called limiting friction.
  • Kinetic friction (fk)(or) dynamic friction: Kinetic friction or dynamic friction is the opposing force that comes into play when one body is actually moving’overthe surface of another body.
  • Sliding friction: The opposing force that comes into play when one body is actually sliding over the surface of the other body is called sliding friction.
  • Rolling friction: The opposing force that comes into play when one body is actually rolling over the surface of the other body is called rolling friction.

Laws of static Friction:

  • The force of maximum static friction is directly proportional to the normal reaction
  • The force of static friction is opposite to the direction in which the body tends to move.
  • The force of static friction is parallel to the surfaces in contact.
  • The force of maximum static friction is independent of the area of contact (as long as the normal reaction remains constant).
  • The force of static friction depends only on the nature of surfaces in contact.

a. Laws of Kinetic friction:

  1. The force of Kinetic friction is proportional to normal reaction.
  2. The force of Kinetic friction is opposite to the dh rection in which the body moves.
  3. The force of Kinetic friction is parallel to the surfaces in contact.
  4. The force of Kinetic friction is independent of the area contact (as long as the normal reaction remains constant)
  5. The force of Kinetic friction depends on the nature of surface.
  6. Force of Kinetic friction is almost independent of the speed.
  7. Force of Kinetic friction is less than force of static friction.

b. Coefficient of static friction:
The force of static friction (fs)max is directly proportional to the normal reaction N
(fs)max α N
Plus One Physics Notes Chapter 5 Law of Motion 14
Where ms is called coefficient of static friction.
Definition of ms
Coefficient of static friction is the ratio of the force of the maximum static friction to the nprmal reaction.

c. Coefficient of Kinetic friction:
The force of kinetic friction is directly proportional to the normal reaction N.
i e (fk)max α N
Plus One Physics Notes Chapter 5 Law of Motion 15
Where µk is called coefficient of Kinetic friction.
Definition of µk
Coefficient of Kinetic friction is the ratio of the force of Kinetic friction to the normal reaction.

d. Angle of friction:
Angle of friction is the angle whose tangent gives the coefficient of friction.
Plus One Physics Notes Chapter 5 Law of Motion 16

Proof:
Consider a body placed on a surface. Let N be the normal reaction and flimit is the limiting friction. Let ‘θ’ be the angle between Resultant vector and normal reaction. From the triangle OBC,
Plus One Physics Notes Chapter 5 Law of Motion 17
∴ tanθ = µ
Angle of repose:
The angle of repose is the angle of the inclined plane at which a body placed of it just begins to slide.
Explanation
considers body placed on a inclined plane. Gradually increase the angle of inclination till the body placed on its surface just begins to slide down. If α is the inclination at which the body just begins to slide down, then α is called angle of repose.
Plus One Physics Notes Chapter 5 Law of Motion 18
The limiting friction F acts in upward direction along the inclined plane. When the body just begins to move, we can write
F = mg sin α ______(1)
from the figure normal reaction,
N = mg cos α ______(2)
dividing eq (1) by eq (2)
Plus One Physics Notes Chapter 5 Law of Motion 19
Note: Angle of repose is equal to angle of friction.
Rolling friction:
Why rolling friction is less than kinetic friction?
When a body rolls over a plane, there is just one point of contact between the body and plane. The relative motion between point and plane is zero. Hence in this ideal situation, kinetic friction becomes zero.
Advantages of friction

  • Friction helps us to walk on the ground.
  • Friction helps us to hold objects.
  • Friction helps in striking matches.
  • Friction helps in driving automobiles.
  • Friction is helpful in stopping a vehicle etc.

Disadvantages of friction

  • Friction produces wear and tear.
  • Friction leads to wastage of energy in the form of heat.
  • Friction reduces the efficiency of the engine etc.

Steps to reduce friction

  • Polishing the surfaces in contact
  • Use of lubricants
  • Ball bearing placed between moving parts of machine.

Circular Motion
When a body moves along circumstances of a circle, there is an acceleration towards it’s centre. This acceleration is called centripetal acceleration. The force providing this acceleration is called centripetal force.
Centripetal force f = \(\frac{\mathrm{mv}^{2}}{\mathrm{R}}\)

  1. For a stone rotated in a circle by a string, the centripetal force is provided by the tension in the string.
  2. The centripetal force for motion of a planet around the sun is the gravitational force on the planet due to sun.
  3. For a car on circular road, the centripetal force is provided by the friction between tire and road.

1. Motion of a car on a level road:
Plus One Physics Notes Chapter 5 Law of Motion 20
Consider a vehicle moving overa level curved road. The two forces acting on it are

  • Weight (mg) vertically down
  • The reaction (N)

The normal reaction can’t produce sufficient centripetal force required for circular motion. The centripetal force for circular motion is provided by friction. This friction opposes the motion of the car moving away from the circular road. Hence condition for circular motion can be written as Centripetal force ≤ force of friction
Plus One Physics Notes Chapter 5 Law of Motion 21
The maximum speed of circular motion of the car
vmax = \(\sqrt{\mu_{s} \mathrm{rg}}\)

Question 5.
Why surface of the road is kept inclined to the horizontal?
Answer:
Consider a vehicle moving along a level curved road. The vehicle will have a tendency to slip outward. This outward slip is prevented by frictional force. But friction causes unnecessary wear and tear. More over, for typical value of µ and R the maximum speed v = \(\sqrt{\mu_{s} \mathrm{rg}}\) rg will be very small.

These defects can be avoided if we raise the outer edge of the road slightly above the inner edge. This process is called banking of curve. The angle made by the surface of the road with the horizontal is called the angle of banking.

2. Motion of a car on a banked road:
Plus One Physics Notes Chapter 5 Law of Motion 22
Plus One Physics Notes Chapter 5 Law of Motion 23
Consider a vehicle along a curved road with angle of banking q. Then the normal reaction on the ground will be inclined at an angle q with the vertical.

The vertical component can be divided into N Cosq (vertical component) and N sinq (horizontal component). Suppose the vehicle has a tendency to slip outward. Then the frictional force will be developed along the plane of road as shown in the figure. The frictional force can be divided into two components. Fcosq (horizontal component) and F sinq (vertical component).
From the figure are get
N cos q = F sinq + mg
N cosq – F sinq = mg ______(1)
The component Nsinq and Fsinq provide centripetal force. Hence
Plus One Physics Notes Chapter 5 Law of Motion 24
Dividing both numerator and denominator of L.H.S by N cosq. We get
Plus One Physics Notes Chapter 5 Law of Motion 25
This is the maximum speed at which vehicle can move over a banked curved road.

Optimum speed:
Optimum speed is the speed at which a vehicle can move over a curved banked road without using unnecessary friction.
When a car is moved with optimum speed Vo, m can be taken as zero.
putting m = 0 in the above equation we get
Plus One Physics Notes Chapter 5 Law of Motion 26

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam

Students can Download Social Science Part 1 Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism Questions and Answers, Summary, Notes Pdf, Activity in Malayalam Medium, Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions helps you to revise the complete Kerala State Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism

Culture and Nationalism Textbook Questions and Answers in Malayalam

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Notes

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Notes Malayalam Medium
Sslc Social Science Notes Malayalam Medium Pdf

Kerala Syllabus 8th Standard Social Science Notes Chapter 5
Social Science Class 5 Kerala Syllabus
Malayalam 10th Textbook Questions And Answers

Kerala Syllabus 8th Standard Social Science Notes
Kerala Syllabus 5th Standard Social Science Notes
7th Social Science Notes Kerala Syllabus Malayalam Medium

Kerala Syllabus 7th Standard Social Science Notes
10th Class History Notes Kerala Syllabus
7th Social Science Notes Kerala Syllabus
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Notes

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 14
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 15
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 16
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 17
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 18

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 19
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 20
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 21
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 22

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 23
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 24
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 25
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 26
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 27

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 28
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 29
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 30
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 31
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 32

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 33
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 34
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 35
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 36
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 37
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 38

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 39
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 40
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 41
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 42
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 43

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 44
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 45
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 46
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism in Malayalam 47

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 2 Chapter 2 In search of the Source of Wind

You can Download In search of the Source of Wind Questions and Answers, Summary, Activity, Notes, Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 2 Chapter 2 help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 2  Chapter 2 In search of the Source of Wind

In search of the Source of Wind Text Book Questions and Answers

Social Science Class 10 Kerala Syllabus Question 1.
Did you notice the places marked A and B in the diagram? Which of these places will have a higher atmospheric pressure? Why?
Social Science Class 10 Kerala Syllabus
Answer:
The place marked B will have a higher atmospheric pressure, because atmospheric pres-sure decreases with altitude.

Sslc History Chapter 1 Notes Pdf Kerala Syllabus Question 2.
Why do mountaineers carry oxygen cylinders ?
Answer:
When height increases the amount of air decreases in atmosphere. So mountaineers carry oxygen cylinders.

Sslc Geography Chapter 1 Notes Kerala Syllabus Question 3.
Compare the two pictures. Identify the situations of low and high atmospheric pressure and suitably mark ‘H’ and ‘I? in the pictures.
Answer:
During day time air gets heated. So the density of the air decreases. Then he weight of the air decreases. It causes decrease in pressure
Sslc History Chapter 1 Notes Pdf Kerala Syllabus

Sslc History Chapter 1 Malayalam Medium Kerala Syllabus Question 4.
Compared to the colder regions, the tropical regions experience low atmospheric pres¬sure why?
Answer:
Very high temperature experienced in lower latitude so air starts to rise. That leads to low atmospheric pressure. But in a colder region air is dense so that leads to high atmospheric pressure.

Sslc History Chapter 1 Notes English Medium Kerala Syllabus Question 5.
Two places at the same elevation are marked as A and B in the figure. Which of these has a low atmospheric pressure? Why?
Sslc Geography Chapter 1 Notes Kerala Syllabus
Answer:
A located in the coastal area, B is located away from the coastal area. Humidity in the atmosphere of the region near coastal area will be more, the the atmospheric pressure will be less here. So A has a low atmospheric pressure

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Notes Question 6.
Observe the distribution of isobars in the given figure and mark the places experiencing high pressure and low pressure as H and L respectively.
Answer:
Sslc History Chapter 1 Malayalam Medium Kerala Syllabus
10th Standard Social Science Notes Kerala Syllabus Question 7.
Find out the position of the sub tropical high pressure belt from the given figure (Text-book fig 2.5).
Answer:
Situated on 30° latitude of North and’South hemisphere.

Sslc Social Science Chapter Wise Questions Kerala Syllabus Question 8.
Find out the location of the sub polar low pressure belt from Fig (Textbook fig 2.5).
Answer:
Situated on 60° latitude of North and South hemisphere.

Question 9.
If the earth did not rotate, would there have been low pressure in the sub polar region ?
Answer:
No, Besides if the earth did not rotate the direction of the winds would be another.

Question 10.
Find out the latitudinal location of the polar high pressure belts.
Answer:
90° North and South

Question 11.
Based on different types of pressure belts and their latitudes
Answer:

Pressure belts Latitudinal extent
Equatorial low pressure belt 5° N and S of the equator
Sub tropical high pressure belt 30° N and S of the equator
Sub polar low pressure belt 60° N and S of the equator
Polar high pressure belt 90° poles on both South and North hemisphere

Question 12.
Mark the direction of winds in both the diagrams, using arrow marks.
In which of these situations will the speed of the wind be higher? Why?
Sslc History Chapter 1 Notes English Medium Kerala Syllabus
Answer:
The speed of the wind will be higher in diagram A. In this diagram, isobars are depicted closely in diagram B the distance between isobars is more. So the speed of the wind will be less.

Question 13.
Find out the direction and the name of the trade winds in the Southern Hemisphere from Fig 2.9.
Answer:
Direction: South east
Name : South east trade winds

Question 14.
What could be the reason for the trade winds blowing from south east and north east directions?
Answer:
Trade wind blows from sub-tropical high pressure belts to the equatorial low pressure belts. It is due to the Coriolis effect that the direction of trade winds is from north east in northern hemisphere and southeast in the southern hemisphere.Otherwise it will be from exact north and south.

Question 15.
Identify and note the direction of the westerlies in both the hemispheres from Fig 2.9.
Answer:
In northern hemisphere direction of westerlies is mostly from the west to north. In southern hemisphere direction of westerlies from west to south.

Question 16.
Prepare a chart describing the planetary winds, the areas where they blown and their features.
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Notes

Question 17.
Find out from the atlas the countries along the southern slope of the Alps.
Answer:
Italty, Slovania

Question 18.
Prepare a report on the distress caused by Ockhi and suggest measures to mitigate the impact of such disasters in future by collecting information from internet and other sources.
Answer:
Based on the climatic region of their formation, cyclones can be classified as tropical cyclones and temperate cyclone. Cyclones often cause extensive damage and destruction wherever they occur. The Ockhi cyloninc winds that struck the coastlines of Kerala and Lakshdweep during November 2017.

This was a tropical cyclone. Tropical cylones are caused due to local pressure differences in the tropical oceans, especially the Indian ocean.Ockhi cyclones left the Indian coasts after wreaking havoc on life and property. While near Kanyakumari in mainland India, Cyclone Ockhi changed course and intensified while heading towards Lakshadweep in the Arabian Sea.

Ockhi impacted Lak-shadweep on December 2, uprooting coconut trees and causing extensive damage to houses, power lines and other infrastructure on the islands. Ockhi weakened into a well- marked low near the south coast of Gujarat, India, on December 6, before crossing the coastline and dissipating shortly afterward. In its entirety, Cyclone Ockhi left a trail of massive destruction in Sri Lanka, Lakshadweep, South India, and The Maldives, as it strengthened from a depression to a mature cyclone.

Though it rapidly weakened during its final stages over the Arabian Sea, it caused heavy rainfall along the western coast of India, particularly in Maharashtra and Gujarat. Ockhi caused at least 245 fatalities, including 218 in India and 27 in Sri Lanka, and the storm left at least 550 people missing, mainly fishermen.

Weather forecasting offices has given a warning that Okhi cyclone can travel at a speed of 120 Kilometers. If cyclones like Okhi are reported never ignore such news and take necessary precautions. If the offices give introduction to shift from your houses, obey the orders, fisherman have to be cautious.

Question 19.
Complete the following flow chart showing the classification of winds.
10th Standard Social Science Notes Kerala Syllabus

In search of the Source of Wind Let Us Assess

Question 1.
Temperature, altitude and humidity are inversely proportional to atmospheric pressure. Justify?
Answer:
When temperature increases air gets heated and expands. The expanded air is less dense and it ascends. This leads to lowering of pressure. When temperature decreases, air becomes dense and descends.

This will increase atmospheric pressure. So there is an inverse relationship between temperature and pres sure. When altitude increases air becomes rarefied. So it exerts less pressure. But when altitude decreases earth gravity pulls the gas molecules towards the ground.

So air becomes dense and it exert high pressure. Humidity means the amount of water vapor present in the atmosphere. Water vapor is lighter than air. If the amount of water vapor is more in a unit volume of air, then atmospheric pressure will be less because moist air contains less oxygen and nitrogen and exerts less pressure.While dry air exerts high pressure as it contains more oxygen and nitrogen.

Question 2.
Prepare notes on the role of solar energy and the earth’s rotation in the formation of pressure belts.
Answer:
Solar energy and earth’s rotation plays an important role in the formation of pressure belts. Earth rotation and apparent movement of the sun, which causes an inequality in the amount of heat received by different parts of the earth and its atmosphere. At the equator throughout the year the amount of heat received is intense. Heated air being light, rises, creating low pressure area.

While at the poles, sun rays are slanting and air is so heavy and a high pressure area is created. Rotation of the earth also leads to the formation of various pressure belts on the earth. The pole rotates more slowly than the equator, and the air should be pushed away from the poles towards the equator, where it pile to form a high pressure belt and at the poles it should be a low pressure. But this is just reverse near equatorial region, where the air gets heated and rises, creates low pressure. The poles where cold air sinks, is the high pressure area

Question 3.
Describe how the Coriolis Effect causes the deflection of winds on the basis of the direction of the winds mentioned below,
a. Trade winds
b. Westerlies.
Answer:
Due to the rotation of the earth winds curve as they blow. This curving motion of wind is called coriolis effect. According to this any freely moving bodies get deflected to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. Winds that blows from sub-tropical high pressure belt to equatorial low pressure belt are called trade winds. In Northern Hemisphere trade wind blows from North East direction due to deflection. So it is called North East trade winds.

In southern Hemisphere trade winds blows from South East direction hence it is called South East trade winds. Westerlies winds blow from the sub-tropical high pres sure to sub-polar low pressure. Due to coriolis effect in Northern Hemisphere it is from south west direction and in Southern Hemisphere North west direction. Westerlies are just opposite of trade winds in terms of their direction so westerlies are also called an ti trade winds.

In search of the Source of Wind Orukkam Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Observe and analyse the pictures 2.1,2.3 in the chapter.
List out the factors which influence the atmospheric pressure

  • Height
  • Temperature

Answer:
Humidity

Question 2.
Observe and analyse the picture 2.1,2.2,2.3 in the chapter and find out how do the following factors influence the atmosphere pressure
Altitude
Temperature
Humility
Answer:
Altitude — When altitude increases atmospheric pressure decreases.
Temperature — When temperature increases atmospheric pressure decreases.
Humidity — When humidity increases atmospheric pressure decreases.

Question 3.
How does the term ‘High pressure’ differ from the ‘Low pressure’

High pressure Low pressure

Answer:
High Pressure:
Atmospheric pressure is more when com pared to surroundings.
Low Pressure:
Atmospheric pressure is low when compared to surroundings.

Question 4.
Complete the following table based on global pressure belts.

The Global Pr­essure Belts Latitudal Postion Nature The reason for the formation
The Global Pressure Belts Latitudal Postion Nature The reason for formation
Equatorial Low Pres­sure Belt Situated between 5° north and south latitudes Low pressure, fee­ble winds The suns rays falls almost vertically through out the year. Hence air expands due to sun’s heat and rises up on a massive scale.
Subtropical high pressure belts 30° north and south latitudes High pressure The hot air ascending from the equatorial low pres­sure belt cools gradually and subsides at the sub­tropical zone due to the rotation of the earth.
The Global Pressure Belts Lattitudal Postion Nature The reason for formation
Sub polar low pressure belts In both sides of 60° latitudes low pressure As this zone lies close to the poles, the air isidlder here. Though the cold air remains close to the earth, the air is thrown up due to the rotation of the earth.As a result, low pressure is experienced all along the sub polar region.
Polar High pressure belts 90° latitudes near the poles High pressure Air remains chilled under the extreme cold that prevails over the poles and this contributes to the steady high pressure experienced here.

5. List out the factors influencing the speed • Coriolis effect and the direction of winds

  • Coriolis effect
  • Pressure Gradient

Answer:
Friction

Question 6.
Write the main features of planetary winds and complete the table.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 2 Chapter 2 In search of the Source of Wind 8
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 2 Chapter 2 In search of the Source of Wind 9

Question 7.
List out the reasons which result in the formation of monsoon.

  • The apparent movement of the sun

Answer:
Coriolis force, Differences in heat.

Question 8.
Complete the following table by distinguishing between Sea breeze and Land breeze.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 2 Chapter 2 In search of the Source of Wind 10
Answer:
Land Breeze:

  • Blows during the night.
  • Blows from land to sea.

Sea Breeze:

  • Blows during the daytime.
  • Blows from sea to land.

Question 9.
Complete the following table by distinguishing between Mountain breeze and Valley breeze.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 2 Chapter 2 In search of the Source of Wind 11
Answer:
Mountain Breeze:

  • Blows from mountain towards the valley.
  • Blows during the night.

Valley Breeze:

  • Blows from valley towards the mountain.
  • Blows during the day time.

Question 10.
List out the local winds based on their nature and places where they blow, to complete the following table.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 2 Chapter 2 In search of the Source of Wind 12
Answer:

Name of the Wind The places where they blow Nature
Chinook Eastern slopes of the Rocky mountains Dry Wind
Foen Northern slopes of alps in europe Dry Wind
Harmattan Western Africa Dry Wind
Loo Great Northern PI ains of India Dry Hot Wind
Mango showers South India Dry Wind

In search of the Source of Wind Evaluation Questions

Question 1.
Distinguish between
a. Land breeze and Sea breeze
b. Mountain breeze and Valley breeze
Answer:
Land breeze:
As the land cools faster than the sea during the right, it would be high pressure over the land and low pressure over the sea. This results in the movement of air from the land to sea. This is the Land Breeze.

Sea Breeze:
Land heats up and cools down quickly than water that leads to the formation of low pressure over the land. So cooler air starts to blow from the sea. This is known as Sea Breeze.

Mountain Breeze:
During night, the air in the mountainous regions cools due to the intense cold conditions in that region. As cool air is denser, it blows towards the valley. This is known as Mountain Breeze.

Valley Breeze:
During the day time, the air in the valley gets heated up more than the air on the mountain tops. As a result the wind blows up slope from the valley. This is known as Vally Breeeze

Question 2.
The trade winds blow from North East direction and from south east direction substantiate.
Answer:
It is due to the coriolis effect that the direction of trade winds is from north east in northern hemisphere and southeast in the southern hemisphere.Otherwise it will be from exact north and south. Freely moving bodies get deflected to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere due to a force generated as a result of earth’s rotation.

Question 3.
Find out how do the ‘Coriolis effect’ influence the direction of winds.
Answer:
Trade Winds are those which blow from sub tropical high pressure belt to equtorial law pressure belt. Due to the Coriolis effect trade winds blow from north east direction in the northern hemisphere and from the southeast direction in the southern hemisphere Westerlies blow from the subtropical high pressure belts towards the sub polar low pressure belts. It is due to the Coriolis effect that the westerlies blow in the south west direction in the northern hemisphere and in the north west direction in the southern hemisphere.

Question 4.
Which local wind is known as ‘snow eater’ why is it called so?
Answer:
Chinook.The red indian word ‘Chinook’ means snow eater. It causes the melting of snow

Question 5.
The speed of the wind is high over plains and oceans. How do you interpret this statement
Answer:
Since the friction is less over plains and oceans the speed of wind will be high in such places. However places with difficult terrain and dense forest cover will have less speed of wind.

In search of the Source of Wind SCERT Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Observe the following diagrams and find answers to the following Questions.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 2 Chapter 2 In search of the Source of Wind 13
which diagram represents the low pressure region? Substantiate your answer.
What is the name by which the smooth curved lines in the diagrams are known? What does it indicate?

Answer:
Figure B represents the low pressure region

  • The value of isobars decreases towards the center.
  • Isobars
  • Imaginary lines joining places having equal atmospheric pressure.

Question 2.
Distinguish between
a. Land breeze and Sea breeze
b. Mountain breeze and Valley breeze
Answer:

  • Characteristic features of land and sea breezes
  • Characteristic features of mountain and valley breezes

Question 3.
Which are the pressure belts on either side of subtropical high pressure belts?
Write notes on the winds formed from this pressure belt in the northern hemisphere. Which among these winds is most influenced by the Coriolis force? Why?
Answer:

  • Sub polar low pressure belt and equatorial low pressure belt.
  • Features of westerlies and north east trade winds.
  • Westerlies are most influenced by the Coriolis force.
  • Coriolis force increases while advancing from the equator.

Question 4.
Rearrange the table on the basis of the planetary winds blowing in between different pressure belts.
1. Between the sub-tropical high pressure belt and the sub polar low pressure belt. – Trade winds
2. Between the polar high pressure belt and the sub polar low pressure belts – Westerlies
3. Between the sub-tropical high pressure belts and the equatorial low pressure be Its – Polar winds
Answer:

  • Westerlies
  • Polar winds
  • Trade winds

Question 5.
Read the following information’s.
• The atmospheric pressure at A is 740 mb and it is 730 mb at a place 10 km away from A.
• Atmospheric pressure at B is 740 mb and it is 730 mb at a place 5 km away from B Which among these places experience stronger winds? Why?
Answer:

  • Place B experience stronger winds
  • Pressure gradient force is more at B. The isobars are drawn close to each other.

Question 6.
Which among the following winds are called as Roaring forties?
A. Polar winds
B. Monsoon winds
C. Westerlies
D. Trade winds
Answer:
C. Westerlies

Question 7.
Identify the wrong statement among the following.
i. The location of mountains is one among the factors causing the formation of monsoon.
ii. South west trade winds also moves north ward with the equatorial low pressure belt in the northern hemisphere during summer.
iii. South east trade winds moves northward along with the equatorial low pressure belt in the northern hemisphere during summer.
iv. Coriolis effect is one of the factors influencing the formation of monsoon.
a. i, iii and iv are correct, ii is wrong
b. i, ii, and iv are correct, iii is wrong
c. iii and iv are correct, i and ii are wrong
d. i and iv are correct, ii and iii are wrong
Answer:
c is the correct answer

Question 8.
Suppose at a place A the level of mercury in the mercury barometer touches 76cm. What may be the atmospheric pressure then? Calculate the atmospheric pressure experienced at a height of 50 metres over the same.place.
Answer:

  • Atmospheric pressure 1013.2 mb
  • Atmos pheric pressure at 50 m height = 1013.2 – (1 mb × 5)= 1008.2 mb

Question 9.
The equatorial low pressure region was a nightmare for the ancient mariners. Why?
Answer:

  • In ancient times the ocean voyages were – in yachts by making use of winds.
  • The winds are feeble in the equatorial low pressure region because of massive rising up of air.
  • This region is also known as Doldrum.
  • The voyage across this region in yachts was difficult due to the lack of winds.

Question 10.
Explains that the atmospheric pressure is not uniform everywhere.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 2 Chapter 2 In search of the Source of Wind 14
a. Name the smooth lines in the diagram,
b. Among the places A and B, identify the place experiencing high pressure and the place experiencing low pressure,
c. The sun is in which hemisphere during the period?
Answer:

  • Isobars
  • A- Low pressure, B- High pressure
  • Northern hemisphere

Question 11.
Is the atmospheric pressure the same at all places given below? Write a note based on the factors influencing the atmospheric pressure. .
1. Polar region
2. Central pacific region
3. Ooty
Answer:

  1. Polar region – Low temperature, high pressure
  2. Central pacific region – high temperature, low pressure
  3. Ooty – low temperature, high pressure

Question 12.
Following are a few facts related to two global pressure belts. Identify the pressure belts.
1. Extends to about 5° to 10° north and south of the equator.
2. Located at 30° north and south latitudes on both the hemispheres.
3. Trade winds and Westerlies blows from either side of this belt.
4. Known as Doldrum
Answer:
1 .Equatorial low pressure belt
2. Sub tropical high pressure belt
3. Sub tropical high pressure belt
4. Equatorial low pressure belt

Question 13.
Winds are named according to the place from which they blow. Mention any two winds named accordingly.
Answer:

  • South west monsoon winds
  • North east monsoon winds ( name any suitable winds)

Question 14.
Illustrated below are the directions of winds in the northern and southern hemispheres. Identify the figures which are not correct and illustrate them correctly.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 2 Chapter 2 In search of the Source of Wind 15
Answer:

  • Figures – b and d are not correct
  • Correctly illustrate them.

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 2 Chapter 2 In search of the Source of Wind 16

Question 15.
Arrange the items in B and C columns suitable to column A.

A B c
Permanent winds Cyclone Mousim
Periodic winds Night Northern plains
Variable winds Westerlies Low pressure over the sea
Local winds Monsoon winds Furious fifties
Land breeze Loo Low pressure over the sea

Answer:

A B c
Permanent winds Westerlies Furious fifties
Periodic winds Monsoon winds mousim
Variable winds Cyclones low pressure center
Local winds Loo Northern plains
Land breeze night Low pressure over the sea

In search of the Source of Wind Exam Oriented Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Name the hot Local wind which blows from the Rajastan desert.
Answer:
Loo

Question 2.
Choose the correct example for periodic winds given below.
Trade winds, Westerlies, Monsoon winds
Answer:
Monsoon winds

Question 3.
Identify the winds that helped Gama to reach Kerala coast from Malindi?
Answer:
South west monsoon winds.

Question 4.
Westerties are stronger in the southern hemisphere that in the northern hemisphere why?
Answer:
This is due to vast expanse of oceans in the southern hemisphere.

Question 5.
Name the instrument used to measure at-mospheric pressure
Answer:
Barometer (Mercury Barometer, Aneroid Ba¬rometer)

Question 3.
In which unit atmospheric pressure is measured?
Answer:
Hectopascal (hpa), Milibar (mb)

Question 7.
Define the meaning of Atmospheric pressure
Answer:
Pressure exerted by the air is called atmospheric pressure. ,

Question 8.
Atmospheric pressure is not the same in all places on the Earth? Ex plain
Answer:
Attitude, Temperature and humidity are the various factors that effects atmospheric pressure.

Attitude :- When height increases pressure decreases when height increases the amount of air present in atmosphere decreases.

Temperature :- When air gets heated, air starts to expend. As a result air become dense and it rises. This leads to decrease in pressure.

Humidity:- The amount of water vapour present in air is called humidity. The water vapour is less dense than air. So when the amount of water vapour increases atmospheric pressure decreases.

Question 9.
Define high pressure and low pressure? Ans.If the atmospheric pressure of an area is higher than that of the surrounding regions it can be designated as high pressure (H). If the atmospheric of the surrounding region it can be designated as low pressure (L).

Question 10.
What are Isobars? What are the various uses of isobars?
Answer:
isobars are imaginary lines joining places having the same atmospheric pressure. We can easily understand the distribution of the atmospheric pressure of any region by observing the Isobars.

Question 11.
Write a brief note on global pressure belts based on location and factor responsible for the formation.
Answer:
Atmospheric pressure is uniform between certain latitudes. These belts are called Global pressure belts.
Equatorial low pressure belts:

  • This belts is situated between 5° N and 5°S latitudes.
  • This is the Zone where the sun rays fall vertically throughout the year.
  • Hence air expands due to Sun’s heat and riser up on a massive scale

Sub tropical high pressure belts:

  • This belt lies between latitudes in both Northern and Southern Hemisphere.
  • The hot air ascending from the equatorial low pressure belts cools gradually and subsides at the Sub tropical Zone due to rotation of the Earth.

Sub polar low pressure belts:

  • This belt lies bear 60° latitudes in both North and South of the equator.
  • This zone in close to the pole, the air is colder here.
  • Though the cold air remains close to theearth, the air is thrown up due to rotation of the Earth. As a result, low pressure is experienced all along the sub polar region.

Polar high pressure belts:

  • This belt lies 90° latitudes in both the hemispheres.
  • This zone experience severe cold throughout the year.

Question 12.
What are the factors that contribute to the formation of different pressure belts.
Answer:
Variations in the amount of solar energy received. The rotation of the Earth.

Question 13.
How are the winds formed?
Answer:
Pressure differences lead to the formation of winds. Winds blow from high pressure regions to low pressure in a horizontal manner. This is called wind.

Question 14.
What is the main faction behind the name given to a particular wind?
Answer:
Winds are named on the basis of the direction from which they blow. For example, South wind the wind blowing from South.

Question 15.
The peculiarities of the source regions influence the nature of wind. How?
Answer:
Winds blowing from the sea will be saturated with moisture whereas, the moisture content will be less in winds blowing from drier regions.

Question 16.
Write some factors that determines velocity and direction of wind?
Answer:
Pressure gradient, Force coriolis, Force friction.

Question 17.
What is pressure gradient force?
Answer:
The pressure gradient is said to be sleeper when the pressure difference is more. This can be understand by the pattern of isobar in two different situations. If the isobar are distributed away from each other the pressure gradient will be less. So the speed of wind is feeble.

Question 18.
What is meant by Coriolis force?
Answer:
Freely moving bodies get deflated to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern hemisphere due to the force generated as a result of Earth’s rotation. This is known as Coriolis force.

Question 19.
Who introduced Ferrels’sLaw? Explain the Law?
Answer:
Admiral Ferrel introduced this law, an American Scientist. According to this Ferrel’s law winds right and those in the Southern hemisphere deflect towards their left due to the Coriolis effect.

Question 20.
Two different pictures are given be low under two situations. In which of these situations do winds blow smoothly? Why?
Answer:
The speed of wind will be high over ocean surfaces and level lands as the friction is less. On the other hand, the friction being more along difficult terrains and places with dense forest cover, the speed of wind will be less in those places.

Question 21.
Write a short note on planetary winds?
Answer:
The winds developed between the global pressure belts can be generally called as pla-netary. The different planetary winds are listed below:

  • Trade winds
  • Westerlies
  • Polar easterlies

Trade winds : The winds that blow from sub tropical high pressure belt to equatorial low pressure belt is called Trade winds.

Westerlies: The winds that blow from Sub- tropical high pressure belt to sub-polar low pressure belt is called Westerlies.

Polar easterlies: The winds that below from polar high pressure to sub-polar low pressure is called Polax easterlies.

Question 22.
What is Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (TTCZ)?
Answer:
The zone where the trade winds from both the hemispheres converge is known as the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone.

Question 23.
The ancient mariners had given different names to the rough westerlies in the southern hemisphere what are those names? Why it is known is different names?
Answer:
Roaring Forties (along 40° latitude), Furious Fifties (along 50° latitudes) and shrieking sixties (60° latitudes).

Question 24.
Why the polar winds are called polar Easter lies?
Answer:
These winds blow from the east in both the hemispheres due to the coriolis force. Hence these are known as polar easterlies.

Question 25.
Winds that change direction is accordance with season. Explain.
Answer:
Monsoon is the seasonal reversal of wind in a year it changes their direction according to the season. There are many factors responsible for the formation of the monsoon winds. Some of these are:

  • The apparent movement of the sun
  • Coriolis force
  • Differences in heating

Sun’s rays fall vertically to the north of the equator during certain months due to the tilt of the Earth’s axis. This leads to an increase in temperature along the region through which topic of cancer passes. The pressure belts also shifts slightly northwards in accordance with this. The south east trade winds also cross the equator and moves towards the north- wards during the summer in the northern hemisphere. As the trade winds cross the equator they get deflected and transform into south west moon winds under the influence of the coriolis effect. As a result of the formation of high pressure zones over the Asian land mass during winder and low pressure Zones over the Indian Ocean, the north-east trade winds get strengthened. These are the north east monsoon winds. In a year wind deflects their direction twice.

Question 26.
Explain the formation of valley breeze and mountain breeze?
Answer:
During the day time air in the valley gets heated up more than the air on the mountain tops. As a result, the wind blows up shope from the valley. This is known as Valley Breeze. But during right the air in the mountain ous regions cools due to the intense cold conditions in that region. As cool air is demer, it blows towards the valley. This is known as Mountains Breeze.

Question 27.
What are the different types of local winds blows in different parts? Explain?
Answer:
Local winds are winds whose effects are limited to a comparatively it is formed as a result of local pressure differences. Such winds exist in different parts of the world. Loo, Mango Showers and Kalbaisathi are the local winds experienced in India. Chinook, Harmattan and Foehn are some of the local winds in other parts of the world.

Question 28.
What is Chinook? Write a note on features of Chinook.
Answer:
Chinook is a local wind that blows down the eastern slope of the Rocky mountains in North America. As a result of these winds, the snow along the eastern slopes of the Rocks melts. This wind reduces the severity of the cold, it is helpful for the wheat cultivation in the Canadian lowlands.

Question 29.
In which region the wind Foehn blows? What is the main feature of this wind?
Answer:
Foehn is the wind that blows towards the southern valleys of the Alps. As the air heats up due to pressure from the descend, it helps in reducing the severity of cold in that’ region.

Question 30.
In which region the wind Harmattan blows? What are the characteristics of this wind?
Answer:
Harmattan is a day wind which blows from the Sahara desert towards the West Africa.On of the arrival of these winds, the humied and sultry conditions of west Africa is improved significantly. Hence people call these winds as doctor Harmattan.

Question 31.
Name the different types of local winds blow¬ing in India. Write a short note on vari- ous local winds blowing in India?
Answer:
Loo:

  • Not wind blowing in the North Indian plain.
  • Hot wind blows is hot dry season.
  • It increases the summer temperature.
  • It is experienced in the afternoon.

Mango Showers:

  • It blows in South India during hot season.
  • It acquires its name owing to the fall of ripe mangoes on its arrival.

Question 32.
What does thid picture indicate ? Analyse the picyure and prepare a note.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 2 Chapter 2 In search of the Source of Wind 17
Answer:
The picture indicates Coriolis Force. Freely moving bodies get deflected to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere due to a force generated as a result of earth’s rotation. This is known as the Coriolis Force. This force increases as it moves towards the poles from the Equator. Admiral Ferrell found out that the winds in the northern hemisphere deflect towards their right and those in the southern hemisphere deflect towards their left due to the Coriolis effect. The law put forward by him on the basis of this known as Ferrell’s Law.

Question 33.
There are different types of winds on the earth’s surface. Complete the following flow.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 2 Chapter 2 In search of the Source of Wind 18
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 2 Chapter 2 In search of the Source of Wind 19

Plus One Maths Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 5 Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations

Students can Download Chapter 5 Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Questions and Answers, Plus One Maths Chapter Wise Questions and Answers helps you to revise the complete Kerala State Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Kerala Plus One Maths Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 5 Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations

Plus One Maths Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Three Mark Questions and Answers

Plus One Maths Chapter Wise Questions And Answers Pdf Chapter 5 Question 1.
If z1 = 2 – i, z2 = 1 + i

  1. Find | z1 + z2 + 1| and |z1 – z2 + i| (2)
  2. Hence find \(\left|\frac{z_{1}+z_{2}+1}{z_{1}-z_{2}+i}\right|\) (1)

Answer:
1. |z1 + z2 + 1| = |2 – i + 1 + i + 1| = 4
|z1 – z2 + i| = |2 – i – 1 – i + i| = |1 – i|
\(=\sqrt{1+1}=\sqrt{2}\)

2.
Plus One Maths Chapter Wise Questions And Answers Pdf Chapter 5

Hsslive Maths Textbook Answers Plus One Chapter 5 Question 2.
Find the square root of -15 – 8i.
Answer:
Let x + iy = \(\sqrt{-15-8 i}\)
Then (x + iy)2 = -15 – 8i
⇒ x2 – y2 + 2xyi = – 15 – 8i
Equating real and imaginary parts, we have
x2 – y2 = -15 ______(1)
2xy = – 8
We know the identity
(x2 + y2)2 = (x2 – y2)2 + (2xy)2
= 225 + 64
= 289
Thus, x2 + y2 = 17 _______(2)
From (1) and (2), x2 = 1 and y2 = 16 or x = ±1 and y = ±4
Since the product xy is negative, we have
x = 1, y = -4 or, x = -1, y = 4
Thus, the square roots of -15 – 8i are 1 – 4i and -1 + 4i.

Plus One Maths Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Four Mark Questions and Answers

Plus One Maths Questions And Answers Chapter 5 Question 1.
Consider the complex number \(\frac{i-1}{\cos \frac{\pi}{3}+i \sin \frac{\pi}{3}}\)

  1. Express in a + ib form. (2)
  2. Convert into polar form. (2)

Answer:
1.
Hsslive Maths Textbook Answers Plus One Chapter 5

2.
Plus One Maths Questions And Answers Chapter 5
The complex number lies in the first quadrant;
⇒ θ = α = \(\frac{5 \pi}{12}\)
Plus One Maths Chapter Wise Questions And Answers Chapter 5

Plus One Maths Chapter Wise Questions And Answers Chapter 5 Question 2.

  1. Express the complex number \(\frac{2-i}{(1-i)(1+2 i)}\) in the form a + ib (2)
  2. Solve the equation 27x2 – 10x + 1 = 0 (2)

Answer:
1.
Complex Numbers Class 11 Extra Questions Chapter 5

2. 27x2 – 10x + 1 = 0
Complex Numbers And Quadratic Equations Chapter 5

Complex Numbers Class 11 Extra Questions Chapter 5  Question 3.

  1. For what value of x and y 4x + i(3x – y) = 3 – 6i (2)
  2. Solve the equation 21x2 – 28x + 10 = 0 (2)

Answer:
1. Given; 4x + i(3x – y) = 3 – 6i
⇒ 4x = 3; 3x – y = -6
Complex Numbers And Quadratic Equations Class 11 Pdf

2. 21x2 – 28x + 10 = 0
Complex Numbers And Quadratic Equations Class 11 Solutions

Complex Numbers And Quadratic Equations Chapter 5 Question 4.
Consider the complex number z = \(\frac{1+i}{1-i}\)
1. Write z in a + ib form.
2.
Complex Numbers And Quadratic Equations Class 11 Notes
In the figure radius of the circle is 1. Write the polar form of the complex number represent by the points P and Q. (2)
3. Find the square root of i. (2)
Answer:
1.
Plus One Maths Complex Numbers And Quadratic Equations

2. Polar form of the point P is \(1\left(\cos \frac{\pi}{2}+i \sin \frac{\pi}{2}\right)\)
Polar form of the point Q is \(1\left(\cos \frac{\pi}{4}+i \sin \frac{\pi}{4}\right)\)

3. i = 0 + i ⇒ \(\sqrt{i}\) = x + iy ⇒ i = x2 + y2 + 2xyi x2 + y2 = 0; 2xy = 1
(x2 + y2)2 = (x2 – y2)2 + 4x2y2
(x2 + y2)2 = 0 + (1)2 = 1
x2 + y2 = 1; x2 + y2 = 0
Complex Numbers Class 11 Questions Chapter 5

Plus One Maths Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Six Mark Questions and Answers

Complex Numbers And Quadratic Equations Class 11 Pdf Question 1.

  1. Express the complex number \(\frac{3-\sqrt{-16}}{1-\sqrt{-9}}\) in the form a + ib (2)
  2. Represent the complex number \(\frac{5+i \sqrt{3}}{-4+2 \sqrt{3 i}}\) in the polar form. (2)
  3. Solve the equation ix2 – x + 12i = 0 (2)

Answer:
1.
Plus One Maths Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Four Mark Questions and Answers 12

2.
Plus One Maths Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Four Mark Questions and Answers 13

The complex number lies in the third quadrant;
Plus One Maths Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Four Mark Questions and Answers 14

3. ix2 – x + 12i = 0
Plus One Maths Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Four Mark Questions and Answers 15

Plus One Maths Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Practice Problems Questions and Answers

Complex Numbers And Quadratic Equations Class 11 Solutions Question 1.
Express each of the following in a + ib form. (1 score each)

  1. (2 – 4i) + (5 + 3i)
  2. (1 – i) – (-1 + 6i)
  3. 3(7 + 7i) + i(7 + 7i)
  4. \(\left(\frac{1}{5}+i \frac{2}{5}\right)-\left(4+\frac{5}{2} i\right)\)

Answer:
1. (2 – 4i) + (5 + 3i) = (2 + 5) + (-4 + 3)i = 7 – i

2. (1 – i) – (-1 + 6i) = 1 – i + 1 – 6i = 2 – 7i

3. 3(7 + 7i) + i(7 + 7i) = 21 + 21i + 7i – 7 = 14 + 28i

4.
Plus One Maths Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Four Mark Questions and Answers 16

Question 2.
Express each of the following in a + ib form. (1 score each)

  1. (-5i)(\(\frac{1}{8}\)i)
  2. (-i)(2i)(-\(\frac{1}{8}\)i)3
  3. i99
  4. i111 + i222 + i333
  5. (7 – i)(2 + 7i)
  6. (-1 – i)(4 + 2i)
  7. (5 – 3i)2
  8. (\(\frac{1}{3}\) + 3i)3

Answer:
1.
Plus One Maths Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Four Mark Questions and Answers 17

2.
Plus One Maths Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Four Mark Questions and Answers 18

3. i99 = i96 + 3 = i96i3 = -i

4. i111 + i222 + i333 + i108 + i220 + 2 + i332 + 1
= i3 + i2 + i1 = -i – 1 + i = -1

5. (7 – i)(2 + 7i) = 7 × 2 – 2i + 7 × 7i – i × 7i
= 14 – 2i + 49i + 7 = 21 + 47i

6. (-1 – i)(4 + 2i) = -4 – 4i – 2i + 2 = – 2 – 6i

7. (5 – 3i)2 = 52 – 2 × 5 × 3i + (3i)2
= 25 – 30i – 9 = 16 – 30i

8.
Plus One Maths Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Four Mark Questions and Answers 19

Question 3.
Find the multiplicative inverse of the following; (1 score each)

  1. 3 – 4i
  2. 2 – 3i
  3. \(\sqrt{5}\) + 3i

Answer:
1. Multiplicative inverse = \(\frac{1}{3-4 i}\)
Plus One Maths Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Four Mark Questions and Answers 20

2. Multiplicative inverse = \(\frac{1}{2-3 i}\)
Plus One Maths Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Four Mark Questions and Answers 21

3. Multiplicative inverse = \(\frac{1}{\sqrt{5}+3 i}\)
Plus One Maths Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Four Mark Questions and Answers 22

Question 4.
Express each of the following in a + ib form. (2 score each)
Plus One Maths Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Four Mark Questions and Answers 23
Answer:
Plus One Maths Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Four Mark Questions and Answers 24
Plus One Maths Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Four Mark Questions and Answers 25
Plus One Maths Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Four Mark Questions and Answers 26
Plus One Maths Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Four Mark Questions and Answers 27

Plus One Maths Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Four Mark Questions and Answers 28

Question 5.
Convert the following into polar form. (2 score each)

  1. 1 + i
  2. -1 + i
  3. \(\sqrt{3}\) – i
  4. \(\frac{5-\sqrt{3} i}{4+2 \sqrt{3} i}\)

Answer:
1. Given; 1 + i = r(cosθ + isinθ)
r = \(\sqrt{1+1}=\sqrt{2}\)
tanα = \(\left|\frac{1}{1}\right|\) = 1 ⇒ α = \(\frac{\pi}{4}\)
The complex number lies in the first quadrant;
Plus One Maths Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Four Mark Questions and Answers 29

2. -1 + i = r(cosθ + isinθ)
r = \(\sqrt{1+1}=\sqrt{2}\)
tanα = \(\left|\frac{1}{-1}\right|\) = 1 ⇒ α = \(\frac{\pi}{4}\)
The complex number lies in the second quadrant;
Plus One Maths Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Four Mark Questions and Answers 30

3.
Plus One Maths Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Four Mark Questions and Answers 31
The complex number lies in the fourth quadrant;
Plus One Maths Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Four Mark Questions and Answers 32

4.
Plus One Maths Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Four Mark Questions and Answers 33
The complex number lies in the fourth quadrant;
Plus One Maths Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Four Mark Questions and Answers 34

Plus One Economics Notes Chapter 1 Indian Economy on the Eve of Independence

Students can Download Chapter 1 Indian Economy on the Eve of Independence Notes, Plus One Economics Notes helps you to revise the complete Kerala State Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Kerala Plus One Economics Notes Chapter 1 Indian Economy on the Eve of Independence

Low level of economic development under the colonial rule:
The British rule started in India in 1757 and came to an end in 1947. The Indian economy underwent rapid changes under British rule. The economic policies pursued by the colonial government in India were concerned more with the protection and promotion of the economic interests of their home country than the development of the Indian economy. The twin objectives of British rule in India were

  1. To use India as a supplier of raw materials for British Industries.
  2. To convert India into a market for the finished products produced in Britain.

Plus One Economics Notes Chapter 1 Agricultural Sector:
Agricultural Sector was the backbone of the Indian economy.
During the British colonial rule India remained fundamentally an agrarian economy. Around eighty percent of India’s population lived in villages. Agriculture was stagnant and it was the main source of livelihood of the population. People depended directly or indirectly on agriculture and its productivity was very slow. The agricultural sector stagnated during British rule.
Major reasons for agricultural stagnation were:

  1. The exploitative land settlement system followed by British rulers
  2. Use of low level of technology
  3. Rural indebtedness
  4. Low agricultural productivity
  5. Use of limited chemical fertilizer
  6. Inadequate irrigation facilities

Economics Plus One Notes Chapter 1 Industrial Sector:
India’s industrial sector could not make progress during British rule. Their aim was to collect raw materials from India and sell their final products in India.

By the second half of the nineteenth century, modem industry began to take root in India. Initially, cotton industries in Maharashtra and Gujarat (Bombay presidency) and the jute industry in Bengal were established. Then industries of fertilizers, rayon, rubber, cement, sugar, pepper, etc., were established in some regions of the country. The setting up of Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) in 1907 was a landmark in the industrialization of India. Jemshedji Tata established TISCO in Jamshedpur in Bihar. During the British rule hardly any capital goods industries were established in the country.

Plus One Economics Chapter 1 Foreign Trade:
Though India exported value-added products before the British period, we started exporting primary products during their rule. Consequently, India became an exporter of primary products such as raw silk, cotton, wool, sugar, indigo, jute, etc. and an importer of finished consumer goods like cotton, silk and woollen clothes and capital goods like light machinery produced in the factories of Britain.
The most important characteristic of India’s foreign trade, throughout the colonial period was the generation of a large export surplus.

Plus One Economics Chapter 1 Notes Demographic Condition:
Various details about the population of British India were first collected through a census in 1881. Through Suffering from certain limitations, it revealed the unevenness in India’s population growth. Subsequently, every ten years such census operations were carried out. Before 1921, India was in the first stage of demographic transition. The second stage of transition began after 1921.

Economics Notes Plus One Chapter 1 Occupational Structure:
Occupational structure refers to the distribution of working persons across different industries and sectors. Broadly we divide occupations into three types. Agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, fisheries, etc., are collectively known as ‘primary’ activities. Manufacturing industries, both small and large scale, are known as ‘secondary’ activities. Transport, communication, banking, financial services, etc., are ‘tertiary’ activities.

Hsslive Economics Plus One Chapter 1 Infrastructure:
Infrastructural facilities developed in India during the British period. Infrastructure means some kind of permanent installation, which are used over a long period of time for the supply of basic inputs like railway lines, roads, dams, canal systems, power stations, pipelines, hospitals, educational institutions like schools, colleges, etc. Basic infrastructure facilities such as railways, ports, water transport, and telegraph did develop during the British rule. The real intention behind such a development was to serve the various colonial interests of Britain.

Plus One Accountancy Notes Chapter 3 Recording of Transactions – I & II

Students can Download Chapter 3 Recording of Transactions – I & II Notes, Plus One Accountancy Notes helps you to revise the complete Kerala State Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Kerala Plus One Accountancy Notes Chapter 3 Recording of Transactions – I & II

Summary:
Plus One Accountancy Chapter 3 Meaning of source documents:
Various business documents such as invoice, bills, cash memos, vouchers, which form the basis and evidence of a business transaction recorded in the books of account are called source documents.

Hsslive Plus One Accountancy Notes Meaning of accounting equation:
A statement of equality between debits and credits signifying that the assets of a business are always equal to the total liabilities and capital.

Plus One Accountancy Notes Rules of debit and credit:
An account is divided into two sides. The left side of an account is known as debit and the credit. The rules of debit and credit depend on the nature of an account. Debit and Credit both represent either increase or decrease, depending on the nature of an account.

These rules are summarised as follows:
Plus One Accountancy Chapter 3

Accountancy Class 11 Chapter 3 Notes Books of original entry:
The transactions are first recorded in these books in a chronological order. Journal is one of the books of original entry. The process of recording entries in the journal is called journalising.

Format of Journal
Hsslive Plus One Accountancy Notes

Chapter 3 Accounts Class 11 Notes Ledger:
A book containing all accounts to which entries are transferred from the books of original entry. Posting is process of transferring entries from books of original entry to the ledger.

Accountancy Class 11 Chapter 3 Solutions Journalising Format of a Ledger
Plus One Accountancy Notes

Plus One Accountancy Chapter 3 Notes Special Journals:
Special journals are also called day books or subsidiary books. Transactions that cannot be recorded in any special journal are recorded in journal is called the “Journal Proper.”

The special-purpose journals are:

  • Cash Book
  • Petty Cash Book
  • Purchase Book
  • Purchase Return Book
  • Sales Book
  • Sales Return Book
  • Journal Proper

(a) Cash Book
A book used to record all cash receipts and payments. Cash book may be single column cash book, doulbe column cash book and three column cash book.

Single Column Cash book
This is cash book containing only one column for cash and prepared as cash account in ledger.

Format of Single Column Cash Book
Accountancy Class 11 Chapter 3 Notes

Double Column Cash book:
This is cash book containing one more column for bank along with the cash column, it serves the purpose of cash and bank account.

Format of Double Column Cash Book
Chapter 3 Accounts Class 11 Notes

(b) Petty Cash Book:
A book used to record small cash payments

(c) Purchase Book / Purchase Journal:
A special journal in which only credit purchases are recorded.

Accounts Class 11 Chapter 3 Notes Format of Purchase Day Book
Accountancy Class 11 Chapter 3 Solutions Journalising

(d) Purchase Return Book:
A book in which return of purchased goods on credit is recorded.

Accounts Chapter 3 Class 11 Notes Format of Purchase Return Book
Plus One Accountancy Chapter 3 Notes

(e) Sales Book / Sales Journal:
A special journal in which only credit sales are recorded.

Format of Sales Day Book
Plus One Accountancy Notes Chapter 3 Recording of Transactions - I & II img 8

(f) Sales Return Book:
A special book in which return of goods sold on credit is recorded.

Format of Sale Return Book
Plus One Accountancy Notes Chapter 3 Recording of Transactions - I & II img 9

Balancing the Accounts:
Accounts in the ledger are periodically balanced, generally at the end of the accounting period with the object of ascertaining the net position of each amount.

Balancing of an account means that the two sides are totaled and the difference between them is shown on the side which is shorter in order to make their totals equal. The words ‘balance carried down (c/d)’ are written against the amount of the difference between the two sides.

The amount of balance is brought down (b/d) in the next accounting period indicating that it is a continuing account until finally settled or closed. In case the debit side exceeds the credit side.

The difference is written on the side, if the credit side exceeds the debit side, the difference between the two appears on the debit side and is called debit and credit balance respectively. The accounts of expenses losses, gains and revenues are not balanced but are closed by transferring to trading and profit and loss account.

Plus One Botany Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 1 Biological Classification

Students can Download Chapter 1 Biological Classification Questions and Answers, Plus One Botany Chapter Wise Questions and Answers helps you to revise the complete Kerala State Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations

Kerala Plus One Botany Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 1 Biological Classification

Plus One Botany Biological Classification One Mark Questions and Answers

Plus One Botany Chapter Wise Questions And Answers Pdf Question 1.
In Whit takers, five-kingdom classification eukaryotes are distributed among
(a) two kingdoms
(b) three kingdoms
(c) four kingdoms
(d) all the five kingdoms
Answer:
(c) four kingdoms

Plus One Botany Chapter Wise Questions And Answers Question 2.
Cyanobacteria are classified under which of the following kingdoms?
(a) Monera
(b) Protista
(c) Plantae
(d) Algae
Answer:
(a) Monera

Plus One Botany Questions And Answers Question 3.
Main component of cell wall of fungi is
(a) cellulose
(b) chitin
(c) pectin
(d) silica
Answer:
(b) chitin

Plus One Botany Chapter Wise Previous Questions And Answers Question 4.
Dinoflagellates are mostly
(a) marine and saprophytic
(b) freshwater and saprophytic
(c) marine and photosynthetic
(d) terrestrial and
Answer:
(c) marine and photosynthetic

Plus One Biology Chapter Wise Questions And Answers Pdf Question 5.
Which of the following kingdoms do viruses belong to
(a) monera
(b) Protista
(c) fungi
(d) none of these
Answer:
(d) none of these

Hsslive Plus One Botany Chapter Wise Questions And Answers Question 6.
Observe the relationship between the first pair and fill up the blanks.

  1. Thermoacidophiles: Archaebacteria in hot spring
  2. Ripening of fruits: …………….

Answer:
Ethylene.

Plus One Botany Chapter Wise Previous Year Questions And Answers Question 7.
Fill in the blanks.

  1. Rhizopus: Phycomycetes
    Yeast: ………..
  2. Holdfast: Anchorage
    Heterocyst: ……….

Answer:

  1. Ascomycetes
  2. N2 fixation

Plus One Botany Chapter Wise Questions And Answers Hsslive Question 8.
Who proposed Five kingdom classification?
Answer:
R .H. Whittaker

Plus One Botany Previous Questions Chapter Wise Pdf Question 9.
Find out the correct sequence of taxonomical category.

  1. Order → Kingdom → species → phylum
  2. species → genus → order → phylum

Answer:
2. species → genus → order → phylum

Biological Classification Important Questions Question 10.
In the five-kingdom system of Whittaker, how many kingdoms are eukaryotes?
Answer:
Four kingdoms

Plus One Botany Previous Question Papers Chapter Wise Question 11.
Observe the relationship between the first pair and fill up the blanks.

  1. Nostoc : Eubacteria:: methanogens: ………….
  2. Yeast: ………………..:: Rhizopus: Phycomycetes :

Answer:

  1. Archaebacteria
  2. Ascomycetes

Biology Classification Questions And Answers Question 12.
Find out the odd one.
a. Diatom, Gonyaulax, Yeast, Euglena, Plasmodium
Answer:
Yeast

Hsslive Botany Previous Questions And Answers Question 13.
Vinod observed blooms in a polluted water body, his friend Kumar said that it might be nitrogen-fixing Nostoc or Anabaena. Can you suggest which type of cell can fix atmospheric nitrogen in these organisms?
Answer:
Heterocyst

Botany Chapter Wise Questions And Answers Question 14.
Observe the relationship of the terms in the first pair and fill in the blanks:

  1. Vibrio: Comma shaped
    ……….: Rod-shaped
  2. Agaricus: Basidiomycetes
    Penicillium: ………….

Answer:

  1. Bacillus
  2. Ascomycetes

Biological Classification Previous Year Questions Question 15.
Difference between Virus and Viroid.
(a) Absence of protein coat in viroid but present in virus
(b) Presence of low molecular weight RNA in virus but absent in viroid
(c) Both a and b
(d) None of the above
Answer:
(a) Absence of protein coat in viroid but present in virus

Question 16.
Viruses are non-cellular organisms but replicate themselves once they infect the host cell. To which of the following kingdom do viruses belong to?
(a) Monera
(b) Protista
(c) Fungi
(d) None of the above
Answer:
(d) None of the above

Question 17.
A virus is considered as a living organism and an obligate parasite when inside a host cell. But virus is not classified along with bacteria or fungi. What are the characters of virus that are similar to nonliving objects?
Answer:
Viruses are acellular and can be crystallized.

Plus One Botany Biological Classification Two Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
The seven taxonomic categories are given below. Arrange them in the correct sequence starting from the smallest taxon.
Class → species → kingdom → order → family → division → genus.
Answer:
Species → genus → family → order → class → division → kingdom.

Question 2.
“Two kingdom classification is inadequate one”. Comment on it.
Answer:

  1. It does not include organisms showing both plant and animal character.
  2. It does not take into the consideration of nature of nucleus.

Question 3.
Five-kingdom classification of organism was given by R.H.Whittaker. State the criteria followed by Whittaker for his classification.
Answer:

  1. Nature of cell
  2. Nature of nucleus
  3. Mode of nutrition

Question 4.
Name the following;

  1. A protist which can live both as an autotroph and as a heterotroph.
  2. Name a protist group which consists of saprophytes.

Answer:

  1. Euglena
  2. Slime mould

Question 5.
State two economic importance of

  1. Heterotrophic bacteria
  2. Archaebacteria

Answer:

  1. Major decomposers that help in the curdling of milk, production of antibiotic, fixing nitrogen and cause diseases like tetanus, typhoid, cholera etc.
  2. Archaebacteria: production of biogas.

Question 6.
What is the nature of cell walls of diatoms?
Answer:
Cell walls are made up of silica with two overlapping shells fit together like a soapbox.

Question 7.
Find out what do the terms algal blooms and red tides signify?
Answer:

  • Algal bloom: Excessive growth of blue-green algae causes pollution of water bodies with characteristic odour.
  • Red tide: Dinoflagellates like gonyaulax are red in colour which imparts red colour to seawater.

Question 8.
Find out what do the terms ‘algal bloom’ and ‘red tides’ signify.
Answer:
1. Algal bloom’: When colour of water changes due to profuse growth of coloured phytoplanktons, it is called algal bloom.

2. ‘Red tides: Redness of the red sea is due to the luxuriant growth of Trichodesmium erythrium, a member of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)’

Question 9.
How are viroids different from virus?
Answer:
Viroids are free RNA without protein coat. Viruses have protein coat which encloses either RNA or DNA.

Question 10.
Justify the physiological relationship between the algal and fungal component of lichen.
Answer:
The fungus holds water, provides protection and ideal housing to the alga. The alga supplies carbohydrate food for the fungus. If the alga is capable of fixing nitrogen, it supplies fixed nitrogen to fungus. This association is called symbiosis.

Question 11.
Bacteria reproduce by various methods. Mention the type of reproduction given in the diagram. What are the other methods of reproduction occur in bacteria?
Plus One Botany Chapter Wise Questions And Answers Pdf
Answer:
Binary fission
The other methods are sporulation and sexual reproduction.

Question 12.
Biological classification is essential. Comment.
Answer:
The animals and plants vary greatly in their form, structure and mode of life. To find out an organism of known characters from the vast number of organism is simply impossible. So classification is important to divide into groups and subgroups.

Question 13.
Match the following:

a. Produces a plant disease p. Saccharomyces cere visae
b. is edible- light blight of potato. q. Phytophthora infestans
c. is a source of antibiotic r. Agaricus campestris
d. is used in the manufacture of ethanol s. Penicillium notatum

Answer:

  • a – Phytophthora infestans – light blight of potato.
  • b- Agaricus campestris
  • c – Penicillium notatum
  • d – Saccharomyces cere visae

Question 14.
Plants are autotrophs. Can you think of some plants that are heterotrophs?
Answer:
Generally all plants are autotrophs but plants like loranthus and cuscuta absorbs water & nutrients from other plants so they are called as heterotrophs.

Question 15.
What are the characteristic features of Euglenoides?
Answer:
They have protein sheath is called pellicle instead of cell wall. They have two flagella – One long and other short. They are photosynthetic in the presence of light and behave as heterotrophs in the absence of sunlight.

Question 16.
Give 4 difference between Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes:
Answer:

Ascomycetes Basidiomycetes
1. Mycelium consists of branched multicellular septate hyphae. 1. Mycelium may be primary, secondary (or) tertiary
2. The fruiting bodies are ascocarps 2. Fruiting bodies are basidiocarps.
3. Sexual reproduction leads to the formation of ascus 3. Formation of basidia formation of ascus.

Question 17.
Observe the cyanobacteria given below and answer the following.

  1. Name the cyanobacteria, and the kingdom it belongs.
  2. Label’s ‘P’ and mention its functions.

Plus One Botany Chapter Wise Questions And Answers
Answer:

  1. Nostoc-kingdom-Monera
  2. Heterocyst – To fix nitrogen from the atmosphere.

Question 18.
What do the terms phycobiont and mycobiont signify?
Answer:
Algal component of lichen is called phycobiont. It prepares food for fungus. Fungal partner is called mycobiont. It provides shelter and absorbs mineral nutrients for algae.

Question 19.
Prepare a comparative account of different classes of kingdom fungi by considering following statements.
Answer:

  1. Mode of nutrition
  2. Mode of reproduction

Question 20.
The two-kingdom classification is introduced by Linnaeus. Why is the two kingdom classification inadequate?
Answer:
There was no place of viruses and bacteriophages which can neither be considered as prokaryotes not eukaryotes.

In this classification, eukaryotes were put together with prokaryotes and non-photosynthetic fungi along with photosynthetic plants.

Question 21.
How is the five-kingdom classification advantageous over the two kingdom classification?
Answer:
In this classification main criteria used by R H Whittaker include cell structure, thallus organisation, mode of nutrition, reproduction and phylogenetic relationships. These characters were not considered in two kingdom classification.

Question 22.
Are chemosynthetic bacteria-autotrophic or heterotrophic?
Answer:
Autotrophic, because they get energy from the oxidation of inorganic compounds. So the released energy is stored in the ATP molecules.

Question 23.
Cyanobacteria and some other photosynthetic bacteria don’t have chloroplasts. How do they conduct photosynthesis?
Answer:
Cyanobacteria and other photosynthetic bacteria have thylakoids suspended freely in the cytoplasm (i.e., they are not enclosed in membrane), and they have bacteriochlorophyll

Question 24.
With respect to fungal sexual cycle, choose the correct sequence of events.
Answer:

  1. Karyogamy, Plasmogamy and Meiosis
  2. Meiosis, Plasmogamy and Karyogamy
  3. Plasmogamy, Karyogamy and Meiosis
  4. Meiosis, Karyogamy and Plasmogamy

Question 25.
What is the principle underlying the use of cyanobacteria in agricultural fields for crop improvement?
Answer:
It is due to the presence of special nitrogen-fixing cell called heterocyst present between the filaments. So it helps to increase N2 content in the soil.

Question 26.
Methane is the main component of biogas and it is produced by bacteria.

  1. Name the bacteria.
  2. Identify the group in which it belongs.

Answer:

  1. Methanogens
  2. Archaebacteria

Question 27.
Based on the relationship, fill in the blanks.

  1. Sac fungi: Ascomycetes
    Imperfect fungi: …………
  2. Thermoacidophiles: Archaebacteria in hot springs
    …………………: Archaebacteria in Salty areas

Answer:

  1. Deuteromycetes
  2. Halophiles

Question 28.
Name the kingdom in which euglena belongs. Give the special type nutrition.
Answer:
Kingdom Protista, Mixotrophic nutrition (ie, both autotrophic and heterotrophic).

Question. 29
Some bacteria are different from others and they have the ability to survive in extreme conditions. Name it.
Answer:
Archaebacteria (halophiles, thermoacidophiles and methanogens).

Question 30.
Mycoplasma are included in five kingdom classification but not viruses. Why?
Answer:
Because mycoplasmas are living cellular organisms but viruses are acellular particles.

Question 31.
In which division of protista chief producers in ocean belongs. Give the cell wall composition of such organisms.
Answer:
Chrysophytes, silicified cell wall.

Question 32.
Nitrobactor and nitrosomonas are free living nitrogen fixers and chemoautotrophs but their functions are different. Do you agree. Give reasons.
Answer:
Yes. Nitrobactor converts nitrite into nitrate while nitrosomonas converts ammonia into nitrites.

Question 33.
Name the classes fungi shows exogenous and endogenous spore production. In which fruiting bodies they are found.
Answer:

  • Exogenous-Basidiomycetes. Its fruiting body is basidiocarp.
  • Endogenous-Ascomycetes. Its fruiting body is ascocarp.

Question 34.
Rust and smut diseases are caused by the members of basidiomycetes. Name it.
Answer:
Smut disease- Ustilago, Rust disease-Puccinia.

Question 35.
What are the events takes place in slime mould during favourable and unfavourable season?
Answer:
During favourable condition the cells aggregate and form plasmodium while in unfavourable season plasmodium differentiates and produce fruiting bodies that bear spores at tip.

Question. 36
Suppose you accidentally find an old preserved permanent slide without a label. In your effort to identify it, you place the slide under microscope and observe the following features

  1. Unicellular
  2. Well defined nucleus
  3. Biflagellate-one flagellum lying longitudinally and the other transversely.

What would you identify it as? Can you name the kingdom it belongs to?
Answer:
Dinoflagellates, Kingdom protista

Question. 37
What would you identify it as? Can you name the kingdom it belongs to?
Answer:
Dinoflagellates, Kingdom protista

Question. 38
Why lichens are called as dual organisms?
Answer:
Lichens are said to be dual organisms because they show a symbiotic association between a fungus and alga.

Question 39.
Name the asexual, reproductive structure of penicillium and yeast.
Can penicilium reproduce through sexual method? If the yes or no Give reason.
Answer:
Conidia – penicilium, buds – yeast
Yes, It is done by the production of ascospores in asci of Ascocarp.

Question 40.
Organise a discussion in your class on the topic virus. Are viruses living or non-living?
Answer:
They are filterable and may becrystalised. They are inert outside their specific host and able to reproduce inside the living host cell, so they are considered as living. They use the protein synthesising machinery of the host.
Eg. AIDS virus, mumps virus etc.

Question 41.
How are viroids different from viruses?
Answer:

Virus Viroid
1. Their size is smaller than bacteria 1. Their size is smaller than viruses
2. Protein coat is Present 2. Protein coat is absent
3. Genetic material may be DNA or RNA 3. Genetic material is only RNA
4. They cause AIDS, smallpox etc. 4. They cause potato spindle tuber diseases

Question 42.
Some bacteria are specialised and live in extreme habitat.

  1. Name the types of bacteria are specified in the above statement.
  2. Which is the part of bacteria modified to live in that condition?

Answer:
1. Types of bacteria

  • Methanogens
  • Halophiles
  • Thermo acidophiles

2. Ceil wall structure

Question 43.
The two nuclei per cell can be seen in fungal cell but it later fuse in some members.

  1. Name such type of fungal hyphae or mycelium.
  2. Identify the classes of fungi.

Answer:

  1. Dikaryotic mycelium
  2. Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes

Question 44.
Classify the pathogenic microorganisms and disease in different groups based on the following symptoms mosaic disease, citrus canker .potato spindle tuber disease, sleeping sickness, malaria.
Answer:
mosaic disease-virus, citrus canker-Bacteria, potato spindle tuber disease -viroids, sleeping sickness- Trypanosoma, malaria-Plasmodium vivax.

Plus One Botany Biological Classification Three Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Describe briefly the four major groups of protozoa.
Answer:
Protozoans are heterotrophs act either as predators
or parasites. They are of four groups

  1. Amoeboid protozoans: They capture their prey by using pseudopodia. They live in freshwater. Some are parasites eg: entamoeba.
  2. Flagellated protozoans: They are free-living or parasites. They cause diseases, eg: Trypanosoma-sleeping sickness.
  3. ciliated protozoans: They possess cilia in their body surface for locomotion. They have gullet for food intake. Eg: Paramecium
  4. Sporozoans: They are spore-producing organism that causes diseases eg: plasmodium causing malaria.

Question 2.
Different types of fungi are given
1. Classify them into their specific classes.

Groups Fungi
Phycomycetes Trichoderma
Ascomycetes Neurospora
Basidiomycetes Albugo
Deuteromycetes Mucor
Agaricus
Ustilago
Alternaria
Claviceps

2. Write the distinguishing characters of ascomycetes and basidiomycetes
3. The characteristic features of members of monera are given below.

Organisms lack cell wall, live without oxygen, smallest living cell and causes diseases. Identify the organism by analysing the above characters.
Answer:
1. specific classes.

  • Phycomycetes – Mucor, Albugo
  • Ascomycetes – Neurospora, Claviceps
  • Basidiomycetes-Agaricus, Ustilago
  • Deuteromycetes – Altemaria, Trichoderma.

2. In ascomycetes, Asexual mode of reproduction is prominent by conidiospores. In Basidiomycetes asexual spores are not found. Sexual spores are arranged in ascus with Ascospores in ascomycetes, whereas sexual spores are arranged in basidium in basidiomycetes.

3. Mycoplasma

Question 3.
Give a brief account of virus with respect to their structure and nature of genetic material. Also, name four common viral diseases?
Answer:
Viruses are organism having inert crystalline structure outside the living cell. They have genetic material RNA or DNA.which is either single-stranded/double-stranded. It is enclosed by protein capsid with subunits called capsomeres.

The viral genetic material takes control over the host cell mechanism during infection. Some common viral diseases are mumps, herpes, smallpox and influenza in animals and mosaic disease in plants.

Question. 4
In which groups are the following found- Sporangiophore, Conidia, zygospore and ascospore.
Answer:

  • Conidia are spores found in ascomycetes.
  • These are haploid asexual spores produced in chains exogenously.
  • Zygospores are the diploid resting spores found in mucor.
  • Ascospores are haploid sexual spores found in sac-like structure (ascus).
  • Sporangiophore is an aerial branch produced by hyphae in mucor that bear sporangia.

Plus One Botany Biological Classification NCERT Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is the nature of cell walls in diatoms?
Answer:
The cell walls in diatoms are embedded with silica, which makes them indestructible. They form two thin overlapping shells which fit together as in a soapbox. Thus diatoms have left behind large amounts of cell wall deposits in their habitat.

Question 2.
How are viroids different from viruses?
Answer:
Viroids are free RNAs without the protein coat, while virus have a protein coat encapsulating the RNA.

Question 3.
Describe briefly the four major groups of Protozoa.
Answer:
Four major groups of Protozoa are as given below:
1. Amoeboid Protozoa:
They are found in freshwater, seawater or moist soil. They have pseudopodia, like amoeba, hence the name ameoboid protozoa.

2. Flagellated Protozoans:
They have flagella helps in locomotion. Some are parasite. Eg. Trypanosoma causes sleeping sickness.

3. Ciliated Protozoa:
They have thousands of cilia present all over the body. The cilia helps in locomotion and steering of food into the gullet.

4. Sporozoans:
Many protozoans have an infectious spore-like stage in the life cycle. The spore-like stage helps them get transferred from one host to another host.

Question. 4
Plants are autotrophic. Can you think of some plants that are partially heterotrophic?
Answer:
Certain insectivorous plants, like bladderwort and venus fly trap, are partially heterotrophic.

Question. 5
What do the terms phycobiont and mycobiont signify?
Answer:
Lichens are good examples of symbiotic life of algae and fungi. Phycobiont is the name of the part composed of algae and Mycobiont is the name of the part composed of fungi. Fungi provide minerals and support to the alage, while algae provide nutrition to the fungi.

Question 6.
What are the characteristic features of Euglenoids?
Answer:
Features of Euglenoids.

  • No cell wall.
  • Protein-rich layer, called pellicle, which makes flexible body.
  • Two flagella of different lengths.
  • Autotrophs in sunlight, heterotrophs in the absence of sunlight. Example: Euglena.

Question 7.
Give a brief account of viruses with respect to their structure and nature of genetic material. Also name four common viral diseases.
Answer:
Virus Structure:
Outside a host cell, virus is a crystalline structure, composed of protein. Inside the crystal, there is genetic material, which can be either RNA or DNA. No virus has both RNA and DNA. Viruses, infecting plants, have single-stranded RNA. Viruses, infecting animals, have either single or double-stranded RNA or double-stranded DNA.

The protein coat is called capsid. Capsid is made of smaller subunits, called capsomeres, it protects nucleic acid. Diseases caused by Virus; AIDS, Mumps, Influenza, Herpes.

Question 8.
Find out what do the terms ‘algal bloom’ and ‘red tides’ signify.
Answer:
Dinoflagellates can be of different colours depending on the type of pigment present. The red dinoflagellate sometimes multiplies at a very rapid rate. This is called as algal bloom. This gives a red appearance to the part of affected sea. This is also known as ‘red tide’. Toxins released by them can kill other marine species.

Plus One Botany Biological Classification Multiple Choice Questions and Answers

Question 1.
The life form used as indicators of pollution
(A) Lichens
(B) Protozoa
(C) Algae
(D) Agaricus
Answer:
(A) Lichens

Question 2.
Kingdom monera comprises
(A) Amoeba, Bacteria,Trypanosoma
(B) Bacteria, Viruses,Virolds
(C) Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Mycoplasma
(D) Mycoplasma, Viruses, Bacteria
Answer:
(C) Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Mycoplasma

Question 3.
Who discovered two-kingdom classification
(A) Ivanowsky
(B) Stanley
(C) leuwernhoek
(D) Linnaeus
Answer:

Question 4.
Asexual reproduction takes place by Zoospores in
(A) Pythium
(B) Agaricus
(C) Rhizopus
(D) Ustilago
Answer:
(D) Ustilago

Question 5.
Identify the organism used as bioweapon
(A) Bacillus thuringiensis
(B) Bacillus anthracis
(C) Pseudomonas citri
(D) Rhizobium tumefacient
Answer:
(B) Bacillus anthracis

Question 6.
Reserve food in the form of glycogen and cell wall made up of chitin are characteristic of
(A) Protists
(B) bacteria
(C) Fungi
(D) protozoa
Answer:
(C) Fungi

Question 7.
The fruiting body of club fungi is
(A) Basidium
(B) Ascus
(C) Ascocarp
(D) Basidiocarp
Answer:
(D) Basidiocarp

Question 8.
RNA without protein coat are found in
(A) bacteria
(B) protozoa
(C) viruses
(D) viroides
Answer:
(D) viroides

Question 9.
The phycobiont and mycobiont are found in
(A) bacteria
(B) lichen
(C) viroides
(D) fungi
Answer:
(B) lichen

Question 10.
The organism which causing sleeping sickness belongs to
(A) Protists
(B) bacteria
(C) Fungi
(D) viruses
Answer:
(A) Protists

Question 11.
In which of the following groups are neurospora and Penicillium included?
(A) Phycomycetes
(B) Basidiomycetes
(C) Zygomycetes
(D) Ascomycetes
Answer:
(D) Ascomycetes

Question 12.
Occurrence of Dikaryon phase is characteristic feature of
(A) Bacteria
(B) Fungus
(C) Slime moulds
(D) Cyanobacteria
Answer:
(B) Fungus

Question13.
Methane producers are belongs to
(A) Archaebacteria
(B) Cyanobacteria
(C) Eubactenia
(D) Actinomycetes
Answer:
(A) Archaebacteria

Question 14.
Heterocyst are found in
(A) Nitrosomonas
(B) cyanobacteria
(C) fungi
(D) protozoa
Answer:
(B) cyanobacteria

Question 15.
Colletotrichum falcatum is a fungus causing the following disease
(A) Smut of wheat
(B) Wilt disease of cotton
(C) Red rot of sugar cane
(D) Late blight of potato
Answer:
(C) Red rot of sugar cane