Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 1 Revolutions that Influenced the World

Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 1 Revolutions that Influenced the World

Question 1.
‘American War of Independence was a movement of the English against England’. Substantiate the statement.
Answer:
The earlier colonies in America were established by a group of people who exiled to America from the religious persecution of the King of England in the 17th century on a ship called ‘Mayflower’. They were known as the Pilgrim Fathers. By the 18th century, England had established 13 colonies in the eastern coast of North America.

The British treated these colonies as centers for collecting raw materials for their industry and as markets for selling their products. The American War of Independence was the struggle of the American colonies against the wrong policies and taxes of the mother country. The forefathers of the American colonies were English. So American War of Independence is treated as a movement of the English against England.

Question 2.
How did the resentment of the middle class lead to the French Revolution?
Answer:
The French middle class included traders, writers, lawyers, officials, teachers, bankers and farmers. They enjoyed low social status. They were dissatisfied with the social inequality and the prevailing social order. They played a key role in the production of wealth and its ownership, but they had no role in the administration of the state.
They realised that it was impossible for them to achieve their demands under the existing structure. Therefore they decided to overthrow the government by leading the revolution.

Question 3.
Arrange the following events in the chronological order.
i. February Revolution
ii. Long March
iii. American Declaration of Independence
iv. Tennis Court Oath .
Answer:
i. American Declaration of Independence
ii. Tennis Court Oath .
iii. February Revolution
iv. Long March

Question 4.
How did the French Revolution influence the reforms of Napoleon?
Answer:
The concepts of French Revolution namely nationalism, liberty, equality and fraternity inspired the reforms of Napoleon. Nationalism strengthened in France under his rule. His reforms helped to bring about national unity in France. Farmers were made owners of land.

The middle class were allowed to operate with the nobles. Prepared a new and uniform code of law for France by codifying the existing laws. Exercised the state’s control over the clergy. Established the Bank of France to centralise finance. Formed sinking fund to avoid public debt. He also brought a change from feudal rule to republican rule.

Question 5.
How did the colonial rule influence the Latin American countries?
Answer:
The majority of the migrants from Europe to Latin America were Spanish and Portuguese. After colonizing the entire Latin America, the Spanish and the Portuguese propagated their language, religion and customs there. They built houses and churches in Spanish style. Several schools were started for imparting Spanish system of education. The Spanish farming methods and crops were introduced.

Racial discrimination was enforced to natives in all walks of life. Looted the resources and enslaved the people. The colonial powers took away gold, silver, etc. from the Latin American mines. Never allowed the people of the colonies to engage in trade with other countries other than Spain. Through such policies, the European countries implemented colonial domination in Latin American countries.

Question 6.
‘Russian Revolution helped the progress of the working class’. Do you agree with this statement? Why?
Answer:
The statement is true.
The leaders of working class led the revolution against the autocracy of the Tsarist emperors in Russia. In Russia, farmers and factory workers led a miserable life. Trade Unions were formed to find remedies for the plight of workers. Worker’s organizations called Soviets were formed all over Russia to conduct strikes.

The workers organised a protest March in 1917 and captured the city of Petrograd. The Bolsheviks propagated that only proletarians’ (workers) government could eradicate centuries old economic backwardness and inequality. The Bolsheviks attained power in Russia after the October Revolution of 1917.

Thus the first workers’ government assumed power in Russia under the leadership ofLenin. The new government distributed land among the workers, brought factories under public ownership and took many measures for the welfare of the workers.

Question 7.
How did China become a People’s Republic? Analyse.
Answer:
The Chinese Revolutions were against the foreign rule and monarchy. Dr. Sun Yat Sen led the revolution in 1911. It ended monarchy in China and made China a republic. Chiang Kai-Shek who succeeded Sun Yat-Sen asertained military autocracy in China. He gave opportunity for foreign powers including America to freely interfere in China and did not co-operate with the Communists.

Coal and iron industries, banking and foreign trade were all controlled by foreign countries. The Communists protested against the policy of Chiang Kai-Shek. They were brutally suppressed. In 1934, under the leadership of Mao Zedong, the Communist Party started a journey from Kiangsi in South China and ended at Yanan in North Western China. Throughout the journey they seized out agricultural land and villages from lords and distributed them among the workers.

The journey covered around 12000 kms. So it is known as the ‘Long March’. Chiang Kai-Shek had to seek political asylum in Taiwan, when the Red Army of Mao Zedong captured the centre of Kuomintang rule. China became the People’s Republic of China on 1 October 1949 under the leadership of Mao Zedong.

Question 8.
List the 13 British colonies in North America.
Answer:

  1. Georgia
  2. South Carolina
  3. North Carolina
  4. Virginia
  5. Maryland
  6. New Jersey
  7. Pennsylvania
  8. Connecticut
  9. Rhode Island
  10. New York
  11. Massachusetts
  12. New Hampshire
  13. Delaware

Question 9.
The mercantalist laws turned the American Colonial people against their mother land. Assess the statement.
Answer:
The British treated American colonies as centres for collecting raw materials for their industry and as market for selling their products. This policy implemented by the British merchants with the help of their motherland in the American colonies, is known as mercantilism. Several laws were implemented in the British colonies as part of this.

  • Restriction on cargo ships :
    Only British ships must be used to carry goods to and from.
  • Control over export:
    Products of colonies like sugar and wool could only be exported to England.
  • Stamp duty :
    British stamp must be affixed on all legal documents, newspapers, license, etc.
  • Import duty :
    Import tax must be paid for the import of tea, glass and paper.
    The above laws were harmful to the colonial people.

Question 10.
How did the laws implemented by the British affect the people of the colonies? Discuss based on the following hints.
i) Domestic trade in colonies
ii) Denial of rights
iii) Autocracy
iv) Inflation
Answer:
i) Domestic trade in colonies :
The controls and taxes in trade adversely affected domestic trade. The British treated the American colonies as centres for collecting raw materials for their industry and as market for selling their products. As part of Mereantalist Laws, products of colonies like sugar, wool, cotton and tobacco could only be exported to England, the goods to and from the colonies must be carried only in British ships and import tax must be paid for the import of tea, glass and paper.

ii)Denial of rights:
Imposed control over exports.

  • British troops to be maintained in the colonies.
  • British stamp must be affixed on all legal documents.

Exploitation :
Control over export, high tax, Stamp Act and the order to maintain British troops in the colonies paved the way for exploitation.

iii) Autocracy :
The Mereantalist laws denied the rights and freedom of the colonists. The imperialist policies of Britain led to the American War of Independence. Some of the autocratic policies of King George III of England led to the American revolution. The Townshend Act and the Stamp Act that Britain implemented in the colonies were examples of their autocracy.

iv) Inflation:
High tax and Stamp Act led to inflation.

Question 11.
The Revolution had been effected even before the war commenced. It was in the minds and hearts of people’. Evaluate the relevance of this remark made by John Adams, one of the leaders of the American War of Independence.
Answer:
The ideas of freedom and liberty that grew among the colonial people and the hatred towards the mother country were the main reasons behind the American War of Independence. The ideological conflict between the colonial people and the mother country influenced the American War of Independence. The attitude of freedom that grew among the colonial people forced them to oppose the laws of the mother country.

The ideologies of thinkers like John Locke and Thomas Paine also stimulated the people of the colonies to fight against the exploitative laws of the British. By raising the slogan ‘no taxation without representation’, the people of the colonies intensified their struggle against the British. From these, we can infer that the Revolution had been effected eyen before the war commenced, as stated by John Adams.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 1 Revolutions that Influenced the World 1

Question 12.
Prepare a short note on the thinkers and their ideologies that inspired the American War of Independence.
Answer:
The ideologies of some thinkers inspired the people of the colonies to fight against the exploitive laws of the British. English thinkers like John Locke, Harrington and Milton stimulated the American War of Independence.

John Locke argued that ‘Every one has some fundamental rights. No government has the right to suspend them’. Thomas Paine said that ‘There is something absurd in supposing a continent (North America) be perpetually governed by a foreign power (England)’.

Thomas Paine through his Pamphlet ‘Common Sense’ declared that it was wise for the Americans to break the ties with Britain. Thomas Jefferson who was inspired by the ideologies of French thinkers asked the people of the colonies to organise the revolt and get independence.

Question 13.
Prepare a flowchart illustrating the various events that led to the formation of the United States of America.
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 1 Revolutions that Influenced the World 2

Question 14.
Prepare a timeline on the various events that led to the American War of Independence.
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 1 Revolutions that Influenced the World 3

Question 15.
Prepare a note on the ideologies of the American War of Independence that are reflected in the Constitution of India.
Answer:

  • Republican system
  • Written constitution
  • Federation
  • Fundamental Rights
  • Bill of Rights
  • Judicial Review

Question 16.
Analyse the chart given in Page 15 of Textbook and answer the following questions.
i. Which estate enjoyed higher social privilege and status and led a luxurious life in France?
ii. To which estate did the majority of people belong?
iii. Which estate exploited the common people and accumulated wealth?
iv. Which estate desired a change in the system? Why?
Answer:
i. Clergy (First Estate), Nobility (Second Estate)
ii. Third Estate
iii. Nobility and Clergy

iv. The members of the Third Estate desired a change in the system. The First and the Second Estates enjoyed all the rights and privileges. The Third Estate had no rights. They had to pay different types of feudal taxes to the clergy and the nobles. The members of the Third Estate who were dissatisfied with the social inequality in France led the revolution.

Question 17.
Examine the membership strength of each estate given in the table below. Relate it with the demand regarding the voting system.

States General

The First Estate 285
The Second Estate 308
The Third Estate 621

Answer:
The French Parliament called ‘States General’ consisted of three estates. Traditionally, each Estate would vote as a group and had one vote. As a result, the nobility and the clergy could overrule the Third Estate. The first two Estates argued for Estate wise single voting system while the Third Estate demanded individual vote for each member of all the three estates. The total membership strength of the first two Estates was 593 and that of the Third Estate was 621.

The first two estates opposed the demand of individual vote for each member because the total membership strength of the Commons was more than that of theirs. Individual vote for each member meant that the Third Estate would get majority. Instead, Estate wise single voting system was allowed, the first and second Estate would get majority.

Question 18.
Analyse the events related to the French Revolution and evaluate how far it could attain the goals of liberty, equality and fraternity.
Answer:
The French Revolution

  • Threatened the autocratic rulers of Europe.
  • Ended the feudal system in Europe.
  • Helped the growth of middle class.
  • Led to the emergence of nationalism.
  • Contributed the concept of people’s sovereignty.
  • Proclaimed that nation is not merely a region, but the people.
  • Stimulated all the later revolutions in the world.

Question 19.
Analyse the aims and influence of French Revolution.
Answer:
French Revolution is the most important event in modern world history. It was a revolution that took place in France in 1789 against despotic rule of kings and feudal system. Its aim was to reconstruct the society based on the ideals of liberty, equality and fraternity.

It is also known as the ‘Mother of Revolutions’. The French Declaration of the Human Rights is an important episode in the history of the world. The French revolution influenced the whole of Europe.

Question 20.
Examine the reforms and policies of Napoleon and identify the ideologies of French Revolution reflected in them.
Answer:

The concepts of French Revolution

Policies and reforms of Napoleon

Rise of the middle class State’s control over clergy

Set up Bank of France

Formed Sinking fund

Codified the laws

Constructed roads

End of feudalism The farmers were freed from the clutches of nobles and were made owners of land.
Nationalism Established French national unity.

Tried to unify Europe under the leadership of France.

Progress in transport

Question 21.
Discuss the discriminations faced by the Latin American people.
Or
How did the exploitation and discrimination faced by the Latin American people lead to revolution?
Answer:
After colonizing the entire Latin America, the Spanish and the Portuguese propagated their language, religion and customs there. They built houses and churches in Spanish style. Instead of Latin American system of education, Spanish schools were established for imparting Spanish system of education.

The Spanish farming methods and crops were adopted. The native people were enslaved to work in plantations. The Latin Americans were not allowed to engage in trade with countries other than Spain. Racial discrimination towards the people of the colonies was enforced in all walks of life.

Question 22.
Enlist the countries of Latin America liberated from the colonial rule of the European countries.
Answer:

Spanish colonies liberated

Portuguese colonies liberated

Equador

Argentina

Bolivia

Uruguay

Peru

Chilie

Colombia

Brazil

Question 23.
The Latin American Revolution was not only for political liberation, but also for the life and culture of the people. Substantiate the statement.
Answer:
The Spanish and the Portuguese who colonized South America destroyed the native culture there. They looted the wealth and resources of Latin American countries and even erased their traditional culture. Instead of Latin American languages, Spanish was made as the official language.

Schools were established for imparting Spanish system of education. They took away gold, silver, etc. from the Latin American mines. The things produced in Spain were not permitted to be made in the colonies. Enslaved the natives to work in plantations.

The Spanish farming methods and crops were adopted in the colonies. Racial discrimination towards the people of the colonies was enforced in all walks of life. So the Latin Americans organized the revolt against the Europeans in order to protect their life, culture and freedom.

Question 24.
Russian revolution was greatly motivated by the despotic rule of Tzar. Discuss.
Answer:

  • The Tzarist emperors who ruled Russia were autocrats. They denied all rights and privileges of the people.
  • The common people had no role in administration.
  • Power and wealth were concentrated in kings and nobles.
  • The landless fanners had to pay huge tax.
  • Low agricultural and industrial production.

Time line on Russian Revolution

  • 1894 : Coronation of Czar Nicholas 11.
  • 1898 : Formation of Social Democratic Labour Party.
  • 1903 : Split of Social Democratic Labour Party as Mensheviks and Bolsheviks.
  • 1905 : Bloody Sunday. Formation of Duma.
  • 1914 : Beginning of First World War. Ignoring the protest from Duma, Tsar Nicholas 11 decided to participate in the war.
  • 1917 March 12 : February Revolution. Nicholas 11  abdicated. A provisional government under Kerensky.
  • 1917 : October Revolution. Bolsheviks under Lenin assumed power.
  • 1924 : Formation of Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR)
  • Majority of the Russian industries were controlled by foreingners.

Question 25.
Analyse the circumstances that led to form a provisional government in Russia.
Answer:
Ignoring the protest from Duma, the Legislative body, Nicholas II, the then Tsar decided to participate in the First World War that started in 1914. A lot of Russian soldiers were killed in this war. Workers’ organizations called ‘Soviets’ were formed all over Russia to conduct strikes when famine, poverty and unemployment became acute. Food shortage became severe by 1917.

Thousands of women marched along the streets of Petrograd on 8 March 1917 clamouring for bread. The workers organized protest march in Petrograd. The soldiers also joined with the workers and captured Petrograd. Nicholas II was thrown out of power. A provisional government was formed under Alexander Kerensky, the Menshevik leader. This is known as February Revolution.

Question 26.
Discuss the role of the October Revolution in establishing the proletariat government in Russia.
Or
Write a note on October Revolution.
Answer:
The provisional government of Russia failed to solve the problems of the people. A group of Soviets did not approve the provisional government. Lenin, who had been in Switzerland, came to Russia and strongly opposed the provisional government.

The Bolsheviks under Lenin propagated that only a proletarians’ government could eradicate centuries old economic backwardness and inequality. Lenin declared that what the people wanted was not war and famine, but peace and food.

In October 1917, the Bolsheviks organised an armed rebellion against the provisional government. Kerensky fled from the country and Russia came under the control of the Bolsheviks. This event, through which the Bolsheviks attained power, is known as the October Revolution.

Following this, a proletarians’ government came to power in Russia under Lenin. The new government seized the land owned by the nobles and distributed it among farmers. Factories, banks, transportation facilities and foreign trade were brought under public sector.

Question 27.
Compare the strategies of colonial powers in China with the strategies that they adopted in other colonies.
Answer:
The colonial powers of Europe and America adopted policies in China different from the ones they had implemented in the colonies of other parts of the world. They were opium trade and open door policy. Chinese silk, tea and earthernware were in great demand all over Europe. China gained huge profit through the export of these items. There was nothing to import to China from Europe.

As a result, the European traders suffered a great loss. As a remedy for this, the British traders imported opium, an intoxicant to China. This affected the Chinese trade and its consumption made the Chinese people mentally imbalanced. It resulted in economic and mental subjugation of the Chinese. Taking advantage of the weakness of China, the imperial powers exploited her.

To acquire the privilege that the other European . countries enjoyed in China. John Hey, the then State Secretary of the USA proclaimed the ‘Open Door Policy’. As per this policy, America argued for equal rights and opportunities for all countries in Chinese market. China was divided into different regions to be controlled by various countries. The aim of this policy was to create an opportunity for the USA to interfere in China. China was divided as markets for Europeans. Chinese became slaves of Europeans.

The European countries established colonies in Asia and Africa and adopted a policy to destroy the wealth and culture of those regions. They treated the colonies as centres to produce the goods that they need and also as markets to sell their products.

Question 28.
Examine the role of the Chinese government led by Sun Yat Sen in ending the foreign domination.
Or
Chinese Revolution of 1911 led to the liberation of China from foreign powers and monarchy. Examine the statement.
Answer:
The Manchu dynasty that ruled China favoured foreign interference and domination. In 1911, a revolution took place in China under the leadership of Dr. Sun Yat Sen against the Manchu dynasty. This ended monarchy in China. After the revolution, Kuomintang Party established a republican government in Southern China under the leadership ofSunYatSen. He gave importance to ideologies like nationalism, democracy and socialism.

  • Nationalism : to expel the Manchu dynasty and the imperial powers.
  • Democracy : to establish democratic rule.
  • Socialism: to control capital and distribute land equally.

He decided to nullify the unjust treaties signed with the foreign countries and wanted to maintain equality with western countries.

Question 29.
Prepare a note on the role played by Mao Zedong to make China a peoples republic.
Answer:
China was under the despotic monarchy of Manchu dynasty. The revolution of 1911 under the leadership of Sun Yat Sen ended monarchy in China. The Kuomintang party under the leadership of Sun Yat Sen established a republican government in Southern China.

Following the Russian revolution, the Communist Party was formed in China also. The Party stood for the welfare of farmers and workers. In the beginning, the Kuomintang and the Communists co-operated with each other. But this co-operation was disturbed when Chiang Kai-Shek became the head of the Republic following the death of Sun Yat Sen.

The role of Mao Zedong:
Mao Zedong rose to the leadership of Chinese Communist Party. The Communists protested the policies of Chiang Kaishek. So they were brutally suppressed. In 1934. under the leadership of Mao Zedong, a journey started from Kiangsi in South China. The adventurous trip ended at Yanan in North Western China.

Throughout the journey, they seized out agricultural land and villages from lords and distributed them among farmers. The journey covered around 12000 kms. So it is know n as the ‘Long March’. Hence Mao Zedong and the Communist Party became the symbol of struggle of the Chinese against foreign power.

Chiang Kaishek had to seek political asylum in Taiwan when the Red Army of Mao Zedong captured the centre of Kuomintang rule. China became the People’s Republic of China on 1st October 1949 under the leadership of Mao Zedong.

Question 30.
Prepare a Seminar paper on the liberation of China from foreign powers and monarchy and the formation of a republic.
Answer:
Seminar
Topic: Formation of People’s Republic of China Introduction:
In the twentieth century, China witnessed revolutions against the foreign rule and the monarchy. Ultimately it led to the formation of Chinese republic.

The colonial powers of Europe and America adopted policies in China different from the ones they had implemented in the colonies of other parts of the world. They were opium trade and open door policy.

Opium Trade:
China gained huge profit by the export of Chinese |ilk, tea and earthenware. The European traders Had nothing to export to China and so they suffered great loss. As a remedy, they exported opium, an intoxicant’to China. This affected the Chinese trade and its consumption made the Chinese people mentally imbalanced. It resulted in economic and mental subjugation of the Chinese.

Open Door Policy:
By the end of the 19th century, several European countries acquired many trade privileges in China. America could not acquire the privilege as it was not concerned about China at that time. To acquire the privilege, John Hey, the then State Secretary of the USA proclaimed the ‘Open Door Policy’.

As per this policy, America argued for equal rights and opportunities for all countries in Chinese market. The aim of this policy was to create an opportunity for the USA to enter China. As a result, China was divided into different regions to be controlled by the various countries.

The role of Dr. Sun Yat Sen:
The Mancliu dynasty in China favoured the foreign interference and domination. Some secret organizations in China revolted against this. This was known as Boxer Rebellion. Though this revolution failed, it stimulated the revolutions that came up later.

In 1911, another revolution took place under the leadership of Dr. Sun Yat Sen against the Manchu dynasty. This ended monarchy in China. After the revolution, the Kuomintang Party established a republican government in Southern China under the leadership of Sun Yat Sen. He decided to nullify the unjust treaties signed with the foreign countries and wanted to maintain equality with western countries.

The Kuomintang Republic adopted measures for the progress of agriculture and industry. China received assistance from Russia in various fields and the Chinese Communist Party was formed. In the beginning, the Kuomintang and the Communists co-operated with each other.

The Policies of Chiang Kaishek:
Following the death of Sun Yat Sen, Chiang Kaishek became the next ruler. The co-operation between, the Kuomintang and the Communists was disturbed during his rule. He was an anti-communist. Chiang ascertained military autocracy in China.

He gave opportunity for foreign powers including America to freely interfere in China and did not co-operate with the Communists. Coal and industries, banking and foreign trade were all controlled by foreign powers.

The role of Mao Zedong:
Mao Zedong rose to the leadership of Chinese Communist Party. The Communists protested the policies of Chiang Kaishek. So,they were brutally suppressed. In 1934, under the leadership of Mao Zedong, a journey started from Kiangsi in South China.

The adventurous trip ended at Yanan in North Western China. Throughout the journey, they seized out agricultural land and villages from lords and distributed them among farmers. The journey covered around 12000 kms. So it is known as the ‘Long March’.

Hence Mao Zedong and the Communist Party became the symbol of struggle of the Chinese against foreign power. Chiang Kaishek had to seek political asylum in Taiwan when the Red Army of Mao Zedong captured the centre of Kuomintang rule. China became the People’s Republic of China on 1stOctober 1949 under the leadership of Mao Zedong.

Question 31.
Compare the revolutions that took place in America, Europe and Asia and complete the table.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 1 Revolutions that Influenced the World 4
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 1 Revolutions that Influenced the World 5

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions