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Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 2 Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis through Maps
Landscape Analysis through Maps Text Book Questions And Answers
Landscape Analysis Through Maps Kerala Syllabus Question 1.
The following map is part of a topo sheet (Fig 4.1). Find out how it differs from the maps you are familiar with.
- It gives details about comparatively small areas.
- They are large scale maps.
- It includes both natural as well as man-made features on the earth’s surface.
Landscape Analysis Through Maps Notes Pdf Kerala Syllabus Question 2.
Look at the number 45 D/10 noted above the given topo sheet What does this indicate? Do all the topo sheets contain such numbers?
The given topo sheet is 45th sheet of a topographical map. All the topo sheets contain such number.
Sslc Geography Chapter 4 Notes Kerala Syllabus Question 3.
Can you explain how the topo sheet in the fig.4.1 got the number 45 D/10.
This represents that India and its adjoining places are divided into 105 sheets. Each sheet again covering 4 latitudinal and 4 longitudinal extent. 45 is such type of a sheet. This sheet again divided into 16 equal parts. It covers 1 latitudinal and 1 longitudinal extent. D is one of such type of sheet. This sheet is divided into 16 parts according to 15 minute longitudinal and latitudinal extent. That is 10.
Landscape Analysis Through Maps Notes Kerala Syllabus Question 4.
Answer the following questions based on the figure 4.2.
a. The parts of states that are included in topo sheet number 45.
b. The Index number of topo sheets which cover the state Odisha.
c. The states that are included in topo sheet No 73.
d. The Index number of topo sheets which cover the state of Karnataka,
e. The index number of topo sheets which cover Kerala.
a. Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana.
b. Sheet number 64,65,73,74.
c. Odisha,West Bengal,Chattisgarh and Jhark hand
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Geography Question 5.
Find out the conventional colours used to represent information and complete the table 4.2
A → Black color
B → Blue color
C → Green color
D → Yellow color
E → White color
F → Red color
G → Brown color
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Notes Question 6.
Look at the given topo sheet (Fig 4.1). Find out the symbols and colors you have familiarized.
Cultivable land is represented by yellow color, forest, grassland etc. is represented by green color, rivers are represented by blue color, eastings, northings of their numbers are represented by red color, latitudes and longitudes are represented by black & barrier land is represented by white.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Question 7.
Haven’t you noticed the red lines drawn lengthwise and breadth wise in the given topo sheet (Fig 4.1)? What are they? What are their uses?
- These are north – south lines
- Their value increases towards the east.
- The value of the eastings immediately left to the geographic features is considered for identifying a location.
- These are lines drawn in the east-west direction.
- Their value increases towards the north.
- The value of the northings immediately to the south of the feature in the map is considered for identifying a location.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Social Science Question 8.
Find out the eastings and northings in the given toposheet (Fig 4.1)
- Eastings: 02 to 09
- Northings: 01 to 09
Sslc History Chapter 1 Notes Pdf Kerala Syllabus Question 9.
Locate the geographic features – fort, grave¬yard and settlements shown in the model grid using the 4-figure grid reference method.
- Fort- 8134
- graveyard – 8535
- settlement – 8534
10th Geography Notes Kerala Syllabus Question 10.
Locate the smaller geographic features such as temple, church, well, light house and bridge shown in the model grid(Fig 4.9) using the 6-figure grid reference method.
- Temple – 847346
- Light house – 854374
Now you have understood how the location of features is determined in topographic maps. Let’s see how the shape of the terrain is assessed.
Social Science Class 10 Kerala Syllabus Question 11.
Look at the smooth curved brown lines shown in the topographic map (Fig. 4.1), By what name are these lines known? What is their use?
These lines are known as contour lines. They are used to indicate the land forms such as mountains and hills.
Social Notes For Class 10 State Syllabus Question 12.
Find the contour interval in the topo sheet provided (Fig.4.1).
Contour interval is 20 meters.
Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Notes Kerala Syllabus Question 13.
Find out the contour lines of the elevated regions in Fig 4.1 Mark their contour values on a piece of paper and identify the shape of the land form.
Place a paper strip across the contour pattern of which the topography is to be assessed. Mark and label the values of contour lines cutting across the paper strip.Transfer these contour values on to the X-axis of graph pa-per and choose a convenient scale and mark the contour values on y-axis as shown in Figure 2.
Assessing the topography by tracing the con-tour lines: Draw a line AB through the center of contours as shown in figure 1. Draw the X and Y axes below the line AB. Draw vertical lines from the point where the contours cut across AB. Mark the points at which the vertical lines intersect. Thus we get the shape of the land form represented by contours as shown in figure.
Plot the topography represented by the fol-lowing contour patterns (Fig. 4.20 and Fig 4.21)
Determine the shape of the terrain represented by the given contour and complete the table by checking the inter visibility between the place M.N.O.P.
|Between M and N||Yes|
|Between N and 0||No|
|Between 0 and P||Yes|
|Between M and O||No|
|Between M and P||No|
|Between N and P||No|
The indicators regarding the marginal information of topo sheets labelled with such information are given (figure 4.25). Read the sheet based on the indicators and write down the marginal information. Marginal Information indicators
Toposheet number — (a)
Name of the place represented — (b)
Latitudinal location — (c)1, (c)2
Longitudinal location — (d)1, (d)2
Easting — (e)1, (e)2
Northing — (f)1, (f)2
Scale of the map — (g)
Contour interval — (h)
Year of survey — (i)
Year of publication — (j)
Agency in charge of survey — (k)
- Troposheet number — 56 D/11
- Name of the place represented — Karnataka (Gulbargan, Raichur)
- Latitudinal position 16° 15 ’, North to 16° 20’North
- longitudinal position — 76° 30’ East to 76° 35 East
- Eastings — 94 to 01,
- Northings 84 to 92
- Scale of the map 1:50,000,
- Contour interval 20 meters
- Year of survey — 1959 — 60
- Year of publication — 2005
- Agency in charge of survey — Dr.Parthish Nag
List the marginal information of the given Topography map [45 D/10] in Fig 4.1 as was done with toposheet [56 D/11].
- Toposheet Number — [45 D/10]
- Name of the place represented — Gujarat, Rajasthan(Banaskantha, Sihori districts)
- Latitudinal location — 24°30’ to 24° 35 ’
- Longitudinal Location — 72° 30’ to 72°35’
- Eastings — 02 to 09
- Northings — 01 to 09
- Scale of map 1:50,000
Find answers to the following questions by reading the Topo sheets (4.25) figure
1. Which is the major river flowing through this area?
2. In which direction does it flow?
3. On which bank of the river are the forests seen?
4. What is the name of the reserve forests in this area?
5. How many springs are seen in this region? locate them based on direction
6. Locate the open scrubs is this area
Find out the location of the following using 6 figure grid reference method
a. 476 A
c. The spring north of Parampur village.
- Major river flowing through this region is Krishna river.
- South west to North east direction (to locate or to find out direction of a river sea symbols or signs given or by contour
- inter val differences)
- Right bank of the river.
- Name of the reserve forest is Ling suguar reserve forest.
- Two springs one is situated is North east and another is in South east.
Open scrubs are found along the right bank of the river, North east side, south westside and in the middle part.
a. 944839 → 476 A
b. 016903 → 447
c. 013852 spring North of parampur village
Find answers to the following questions by reading the given toposheets (4.25).
1. Identify the districts in Karnataka to which the area belongs?
2. Based on which natural features is district boundary determined?
3. Where is the metaled road seen?
4. In which direction is the Gadala mari village situated?
5. Which are the villages where post offices can be found?
6. Find the location using the 4-figure grid reference method ?
7. Aldobhavi village?
8. Ganavathala village?
9. Fort to the North-eastern corner ?
10. Using the 6-figure grid reference method, find the locations of?
11. Temple near Gadalamari village?
12. Temple within the Lingusugar reserve forest?
13. Post office in Ganavathala village?
- Gulbarga,Raichur districts
- Based on Krishna river
- South-east side
- North-west side
- Aldobhai → 0090
- Ganavathala → 9386
- Fort to the North eastern comer 0192.
- Temple near Gadalamari village → 942917
- Temple with in the lingusugaryeserved forest → 004864
- Post office in Ganavathala Village → 937863
Interpret the toposheet No. 45 D/10 given in Fig.4.1 and prepare a report based on the physical and cultural features in it.
It is the map of Banaskantha, Sirohi districts of Gujarat and Rajasthan. It is surveyed in 1959 – 60, by Dr. Prithish Nag (Surveyor Gen-eral of India) Published in 2005. A lot of springs and rivers found in that region. Most of the settlements are dispersed and centra-lised settlements found in the northeast side.
Scale of the map = 1 : 50000.
Contour Interval: 20 metre.
Longitude: 72° 30 – 72° 35
Latitudes: 24° 35 -24° 30
It is between the eastings 1 to 10 and northing 0 to 10.
Landscape Analysis through Maps Let Us Assess
Find out the location of settlements and grave yard in the given grid using the 4 figure grid reference method.
- 4 figure grid reference of the settlement is — 2377
- 4 figure grid reference of the grave yard is — 2277.
Find out the location of spring, mosque, railway station, police station and well in the given grid. Using six-figure grid reference method.
- 6 figure grid reference of Spring — 358548
- 6 figure grid reference of Mosque — 343546
- 6 figure grid reference of Railway Station — 355543
- 6 figure grid reference of Police Station — 346543
- 6 figure grid reference of well — 352549
Match the contour in column A with the shape of land forms in column B.
Landscape Analysis through Maps Orukkam Questions and Answers
List out the important uses of topo sheets To interpret the both physical and cultural features.
- For military operations and the preparation of military maps.
- To identify and study the natural as well as cultural resources of a region as part of economic planning.
- For Urban Planning
- To know heights of the land forms.
Observe the picture 4.2 in the chapter and find out the toposheet with the number 58. List out the states which are represented by this toposheet.
Suppose a million sheet with the number 65 is given below. Divide this million sheet properly number them respectively.
Draw the respective signs and symbols used to represent the following features.
Find out the features which are represented by the following signs and symbols
3. International Boundary
List out the methods which are used to represent heights on a toposheets.
Form line, Spotlight
Observe the model grids which are depicted in the picture 4.9 and find out the four figure grid reference and six figure grid reference of the following features as indicated below.
|Four figure grid reference||Six figure grid reference|
|Four figure grid reference||Six figure grid reference|
Analyse the picture given below and find out whether the places marked are inter visible or not
|A and B are||Inter visible|
|B and C are||No|
|C and D are||Inter visible|
|D and A are||No|
Interpret to toposheet (pic 4.1) given in the chapter and complete the following table.
|Physical features||Cultural features|
|45/10||main river||Agriculture is the main occupation|
|Physical features||Cultural features|
|45/10||main river||Agriculture is the main occupation|
|20 M, Contour Interval||Spring||Post offices are there in Ganavathala|
Landscape Analysis through Maps Evaluation Questions
The toposheets belongs to “India adjacent countries map series’ are called million sheet write the reason.
The scale of each map sheet is 1 : 1000000 in India and adjacent countries. So they are called Million sheets.
What does 45 D/10 on a toposheet indicate? Ans.Index number of the million sheet is 45. The million sheet numbered 45 is divided into 16 sheets from 1 .to 16. Each sheet has 15’ latitudinal and longitudinal extent. Thus the topographical map got the number 45 D/10
Some parts of a toposheets are seen in green color. What does the green color represent
Draw the appropriate conventional signs and symbols of the following features.
1. Metalled Road
2. Unmetalled Road
4. Cart track
What does blue color on a toposheet represents?
Oceans, Rivers, Wells, Tube wells (Perennial water bodies)
How is the height represented on a toposheet if the actual height of an area is not available through survey as the area is inaccessible ?
When it is difficult to measure the elevation of places through land surveys due to rugged terrain, the elevation is represented with help of broken lines.These lines are Form lines.
Distinguish between Triangulated height and Bench Mark in a toposheet?
Triangulated height — Heights of place estimated through trigonometric surveys are recorded in in maps using symbol.
Bench mark — The height of reservoirs and prominent buildings are recorded along with the letters BM.
What are grids? How are they important in a toposheet?
Places are located on maps with the help of latitudes and longitudes. But it is difficult to show the precise location of minor geographical features in toposheets.To solve this difficulty north – south and east west lines in red are incorporated in the toposheets. The north-south lines are called eastings and the east-west lines are called northings. The grid formed by the eastings and the northings are called reference grid.Each grid with 2 cm width and 2 cm breadth covers an area with 1 kilometre length and 1 kilometer breadth on the earth’s surface (in 1: 50000 toposheets)
From the contour lines given below find out the value of the contour line which represents
What is intervisibility. How do we make intersibility of places in use?
If any two places are mutually visible, then we can establish that these places are inter visible. Intervisibility assessment is being applied for erecting electric posts, mobile towers, wireless communication towers etc.
The given below are some features on a toposheets. Catergories them an cultural features and physical features.
Road, Forest, Railway line, Rivers, Building Canal, Open Serub, Pond
|Cultural features||Physical features|
Landscape Analysis through Maps SCERT Questions and Answers
Toposheeets are maps prepared by incorpo-rating detailed information of comparatively smaller areas. What are its uses?
- Economic planning
- Urban planning
- Military operations
- Analysis of surface features of the earth
In the toposheet numbered 45 F/10 what does F indicate?
F indicates degree sheet
55 D/1 represents the number of a toposheet.
i. What is the scale of this toposheet ?
ii. What is indicated by the parts 55 and D in this toposheet number ?
i. 1 : 50,000
ii. 55 indicates the Million sheet which includes this toposheet. D indicates the Degree sheet which includes this toposheet.
Suppose the figure represents a 4° x 4° topographical map. Mark the position of 55 D/10 toposheet of scale 1: 50000 by dividing and numbering it in the respective order.
What is represented by the symbol λ in a topographical map?
Non – perennial river
Examine the symbol and mention the cultural features represented by this symbol in the topographical maps.
The symbols largely used in a toposheet to represent the transport are given. What is your inference regarding the transport facilities in there region?
- The symbols represent foot paths and unmetalled roads
- Thus transport facilities are limited in this region
Analyse the symbols and find suitable ones to each of them from those given below.
I. a. International boundary
b. State boundary
c. District boundary
d. Taluk boundary
II. a. State boundary
b. District boundary
c. Taluk boundary
d. International boundary
I. a. International boundary
b. State boundary
c. District boundary
d. Taluk boundary
Distinguish the features represented by conventional signs and symbols in toposheets and make inferences on them.
Observe the columns A and B and find the suitable matches from those given below.
I. 1a, 2b, 3c, 4d
II. 1a, 2c, 3b, 4d
III. 1d, 2c, 3b, 4a
IV. 1d, 2b, 3c, 4a
The Colours and symbols used in topographical maps are internationally accepted ones. Why?
This is for understanding the maps prepared by a country by any other countries
These two symbols represents railway lines. What is the main difference between them?
- Broad guage
- Metre guage
What is represented by the signs PO and PS in topographical maps?
- PO- Post Office
- PS-Police Station
What is indicated by the numbers given along with the contour lines?
What are the features represented by these two symbols? Name the symbols. What is the main difference between them ?
- Contour lines and Form lines.
- If the altitude of places are known, contour lines are drawn by joining the places having the same altitude above mean
- sea level. If the actual elevations of places are not known, broken lines are drawn instead of contours.
Three fourth of the total area in a topographical map is shown in yellow color. What is your inference regarding the main economic activity of the people in this region?
Agriculture is the main economic activity
What are the methods of representing relief in topographical maps other than contour lines?
- Form lines
- Spot heights
- Triangulated heights
- Bench marks etc.
Examine the model reference grid and mark the symbol required at the place where the river and road meets.
The lines drawn in North-South direction in the toposheets are the Eastings. Why these lines are called so?
The value of these lines increases eastwards.
Observe the model reference grids. Suppose there is a proposal to construct a water reservoir in this region. Suggest the suitable place for constructing a water reservoir across the river. Substantiate your answer.
- AB is the suitable place. Cost of construct-ion will be less because it is a narrow valley between the hills.
- Can have much water holding capacity.
The contour lines are closely spaced at place A and B are widely spaced at plAce B in a toposheet. What is your inference regarding the slopes at places A and B?
A. Steep slope
B. Gentle slope
Analyse the model reference grids given. Identify the suitable place for the construction of railway line and mark it with appro priate symbol
- Mark along the area in between the hills.
- Use the conventional symbol for railway line
Analyse the model reference grids and answer the following questions.
1. Find the direction of fort with respect to the temple.
2. Locate the temple in six figure grid reference method.
3. Find the actual length of the road in the area.
4. Locate the settlements in four figure grid reference method.
3. 6.5 Km
Landscape Analysis through Maps Exam Oriented Questions and Answers
In India which agency is entrusted with the preparation of topographic maps ?
The Survey of India
Name the imaginary lines joining places hav-ing the same elevation above the sea level.
Find out which is not a function of contour lines in the topographic maps.
a. To understand the height of a place
b. To understand the slope of the place,
c. To understand the pH of landform.
d To understand the shape of the landform.
To understand the pH of landform.
How did the word Toposheet derive?
The English term topographic is derived from the Greek terms ’topo’ and “graphic”.Topo means place and graphic means to write or explain.
Certain restrictions have been imposed on the Use of topographical maps why?
This is because of strategic regions owing to the national security concern.
What are the things that we should keep in mind while preparing or analyzing the topo-sheet?
- A thorough knowledge of the numbering scheme.
- local aspects.
- The conventional sign and symbols
- The elevation and slope of the terrain
- The methods of their representation
Study the figure 4.2 given in this chapter Analyze the figure 4.2. given is this chapter?
It refers to India and adjoining places covering 4° latitudinal and longitudinal extent into 105 sheets. One among the sheet is 55.This 55 sheet is again divided into 16 equal parts This sheets has 1° latitudinal and longitudinal extent. One such type of sheet is D given in this figure. This sheet again divided in to 16 parts. This consists of 15 minute latitudinal and longitudinal extent.
Given picture consists of various conventional symbols. What do they represent?
A. Metaled road
B. Unmetaled road
D. Cort track
E. Bridge with road
What are the indications of the conventional symbols given below?
A. Railway – broad gauge
B. Railway with station
C. Railway with meter gauge
D. Level crossing
E. Railway with bridge
What are the Geographical features given in the picture below?
A. International boundary
B. State boundary
C. District boundary
D. Taluk boundary
What are the geographical featuros given below?
C. Tidal river
F. Tube well
What are the methods used to represent height in topography sheets?
- Contour lines
- Form lines
- Spot height
- Triangulated height
- Bench mark
What are the various uses of Topgraphic maps?
- To analyse the physical and cultural features of the Earth.
- For military operations and the preparations of military maps.
- To identify and study the natural as well as the cultural resources of a region as a part of economic planning.
- For urban planning.
There are various methods used to represent height in topography sheet. Give a brief note on it.
Contour line — These are imaginary lines joining places having the same elevation above the sea level.
Form lines — When it is difficult to measure the elevation of places through land surveys due to rugged terrain, the elevation is represented with the help of broken lines – These are form lines.
Spot height — It represents the actual height of a place by recording the heights in digits beside a black dot.
Triangulated height — Height of places estimated through trigonometric surveys are recorded is maps using symbols.
Bench mark — The height of reservoirs and prominent buildings are recorded ‘along with the letters BM’.
Name the lines which are drawn both horizontally and vertically for grid reference?
Eastings and Northings are the lines used to for grid reference.
Eastings : The lines which are drawn from North – South in red color are called Eastings. Northings – The lines which are drawn from East – West in red color are called Northings
What is grid reference?
The grid formed by the eastings and the northings are called grid reference.
Write a short note on the relationship between grid reference in topography sheet and breadth on the earth surface?
Each grid with 2 cm width and 2 cm breadth covers and area with 1 km length and 1 km breadth on the earth surface (1:50,000 topo- sheet)
4 figures and 6 figures are used in topography sheet for grid reference. Write an explanation to this statement.
Larger geographic features are generally located through 4 figure. While comparatively smaller geographic features are located through the 6 – figure grid reference.
Find out the 4 figure grid reference of the taken given in the picture.
- Easting 52
- Worthing 18
- Grid reference 5218
One tube well is given in the figure. Find out 6 figure grid reference of the tube well.
- Easting – 155
- Northing – 766
- Grid reference – 155766
In a grid reference eastings is recorded as 165? What is meant by this?
1.6 is vertically drawn and marked in red colour. 5 means in between 16 and 17 imagine there are 10 equal lines,5 stands on 5th line.
Brown lines are shown in the topographic map. By what name are these lines known? What is its use?
Brown color lines represents contour lines.They are used to find out the altitude of the place shown in the map.
What are the contour lines?
Contours are imaginary lines drawn connecting places having equal elevation from the sea level. The respective altitude will be contour values.
What are the various uses of concur intervals in toposheet?
- To know about height of a place.
- To know about nature of slope of a place.
- Shape of the land form.
There are two ways to know about the shape of land forms by contour lines. What are the two ways?
Method -1: Place a paper strip, across the contour pattern of which the topography is to be assessed. Mark and label the values of the contour lines cutting across the paper strip. Transfer these values on to the x and y axis of a graph paper in picture 2. We get the shape of the land form after drawing shown in figure 3.
Method-2: Copy the contour lines on the tracing paper and transfer them on to another paper. Draw a line A B through the center of the contours as shown in figure 1. Drawn x and y axis below the line AB as shown. Join the points using pencil as again in picture 2
a. How is the English term Topographic formed ?
b. What are things should be considered while interpreting a Topography sheet?
c. List out various marginal/primary information to be collected from a topography sheet.
a. The English term topographic is derived from the Greek terms ‘topo’ and ‘graphie’ which mean ‘place’ and ‘to write or draw’ respectively. Topographic maps are also known as toposheets.
b. (i) Printing information
(ii) Physical features
(iii) Cultural features
c. (i) Toposheet number
(ii) Name of the place represented
(iii) Latitudinal location
(iv) Longitudinal location
(vii) Scale of the map
(viii) Contour interval
(ix) Year of survey
(x) Year of publication
(xi) Agency in charge of survey