## Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Trigonometry

### Trigonometry Text Book Questions and Answers

Textbook Page No. 103

Trigonometry Class 10 Kerala Syllabus Question 1.
In the triangle shown, what is the perpendicular distance from the top vertex to the bottom side? What is the area of the triangle?

The sides of the right angle triangle with angles 30°, 60°, 90° are proportional to the number 1 : √3 : 2
AD : BD : AB = 1 : √3 : 2
AB = 2x = 4cm
x = 2 cm
BD = 2√3cm
Perpendicular distance from the top vertex to the bottom side = AD = 2 cm
BC = 2BD = 4√3 cm
Area of triangle = 1/2 bh
1/2 × 4√3 × 2 = 4√3 cm2

Sslc Trigonometry Solutions Kerala Syllabus Question 2.
In each of the following parallelograms, find the distance between the top and bottom side? Calculate the area of parallelogram.

Sslc Maths Chapter 5 Kerala Syllabus Question 3.
A rectangular board is to be cut along the diagonal and the pieces rearranged to form an equilateral triangle as shown below. The sides of the triangle must be 50 centimetres. What should be the length and breadth of the rectangle?

The sides of the right angle triangle with angles 30°, 60°, 90° are proportional to the number 1 :√3: 2

Sslc Maths Trigonometry Kerala Syllabus Question 4.
Two rectangles are cut along the diagonal and the triangles got are to be joined to an-other rectangle to make a regular hexagon as shown below:

If the sides of the hexagon are to be 30 centimetres, what would be the length and breadth of the rectangles?

The sides of the right angle triangle APF with angles 30°, 60°, 90° are proportional to the number 1 :√3: 2

Length of the smaller rectangle = 25.98 cm
Breadth of the smaller rectangle = 15 cm
Length of the bigger rectangle = 51.96 cm
Breadth of the bigger rectangle = 30 cm

Trigonometry Sslc Kerala Syllabus Question 5.
Calculate the area of the triangle shown.

Angles of the first triangle are in ratio 45 : 45: 90. So sides are in ratio x : x: √2 x
Angles of the second triangle are in ratio 30 : 60: 90, sides are in ratio, y :√3y: 2y

Textbook Page No. 109

Trigonometry Problems For Class 10 State Syllabus Question 1.
The lengths of two sides of a triangle are 8 centimetres and 10 centimetres and the angle between them is 40°. Calculate its area. What is the area of the triangle with sides of the same length, but angle between them 140°?

If the angle between the sides is 140° sin 140 = sin(180 – 40) = sin 40 The area of the triangles will be same.

Trigonometry Questions For Class 10 Kerala Syllabus Question 2.
The sides of a rhombus are 5 centimetres long and one of its angles is 100°, Compute its area.

Sslc Maths Trigonometry Notes Kerala Syllabus Question 3.
The sides of a parallelogram are 8 centimetres and 12 centimetres and the angle between them is 50°. Calculate its area.

Trigonometry Class 10 Scert Kerala Syllabus Question 4.
Angles of 50° and 65″ are drawn at the ends of a 5 centimetres long line to make a triangle. Calculate its area.
If diameter is d

Sslc Trigonometry Kerala Syllabus Question 5.
A triangle is to be drawn with one side 8 centimetres and an angle on it 40°. What should be the minimum length of the side opposite this angle?
Trigonometry Questions and Answer: The side opposite to 40° will be at least

Textbook Page No. 114

Class 10 Maths Chapter 5 Kerala Syllabus Question 1.
The figure shows a triangle and its circumcircle: What is the radius of the circle?

∠BAC = 60°
∠BOC = 120°
The angle made by any arc of a circle on the alternate arc is half the angle made at the centre.

The sides of the right angle triangle ΔCOD with angles 30°, 60°, 90° are proportional to the number 1 : √3: 2 .

Sslc Maths Chapter 5 Solutions Kerala Syllabus Question 2.
What is the circumradius of an equilateral triangle of sides 8 centimetres?
The sides of the right angle triangle OBD with angles 30°, 60°, 90° are proportional to

Hsslive Trigonometry Kerala Syllabus Question 3.
The figure shows a triangle and its circum.

i. Computer the diameter of the circle.
ii. Compute the lengths of the other two sides of the triangle.

Maths Chapter 5 Class 10 Kerala Syllabus Question 4.
A circle is to be drawn, passing through the ends of a line, 5 centimetres long; and the angle on the circle on one side of the line should be 80°. What should be the radius of the circle?

Maths Trigonometry Class 10 State Syllabus Question 5.
The picture below shows part of a circle:

What is the radius of the circle?

First, complete the circle. Draw BD and join one of its end D to C. ∠BAC + ∠BDC= 180° ∠D = 40°, ∠BCD (angle on semicircle). So ABCD is right-angled.

Trigonometry Questions For Class 10 Scert Question 6.
A regular pentagon is drawn with all its vertices on a circle of radius 15 centimetres. Calculate the length of the sides of this pentagon.
Sum of angles of pentagon
= (n – 2)180
= (5 – 2)180
= 540°
One angle of regular pentagon = $$\frac { 540 }{ 5 }$$ = 180°

Textbook Page No. 117

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Maths Chapter 5 Question 1.
One angle of a rhombus is 50° and the larger diagonal is 5 centimetres. What is its area?
In rhombus ABCD, One angle of a rhombus is 50° and one diagonal is 5 centimetres.

Sslc Maths Chapter 5 Trigonometry Kerala Syllabus Question 2.
A ladder leans against a wall, with its foot 2 metres away from the wall and the angle with the floor 40°. How high is the top end of the ladder from the ground?
tan 40 = $$\frac { QR }{ 2 }$$
QR = 2 × tan 40
= 2 × 0.8391 = 1.6782
Height of the ladder from ground = 1.68m

Hss Live Guru 10th Maths Kerala Syllabus Question 3.
Three rectangles are to be cut along the diagonals and the triangles so got rearranged to form a regular pentagon, as shown in the picture. If the sides of the pentagon are to be 30 centimetres, what should be the length and breadth of the rectangles?

36°, 54°, 90°
Sin 54 = $$\frac { DG }{ 30 }$$
DG = 30 × 0.8090
= 24.27 cm
Cos 54° = $$\frac { EG }{ 30 }$$
EG = 30 × 0.5878 = 17.63 cm
Length of larger rectangle = 46.17 cm.
Length of smaller rectangle = 24.27 cm

10th Standard Maths Trigonometry Kerala Syllabus Question 4.
In the picture, the vertical lines are equally spaced. Prove that their heights are in arithmetic sequence. What is the common difference?

10th Trigonometry Questions And Answers Kerala Syllabus Question 5.
One side of a triangle is 6 centimetres and the angles at its ends are 40° and 65°. Calculate its area.
∠C = 180 – (40 + 65) = 75°
Draw a perpendicular BD from B to AC

Textbook Page No. 122

Trigonometry Hsslive Kerala Syllabus Question 1.
When the sun is at an elevation of 40°, the length of the shadow of a tree is 18 metres. What is the height of the tree?
In the right triangle ΔPQR
tan 40° = $$\frac { QR }{ 18 }$$
QR = 18 × tan40° =18 × 0.8391
Height of the tree = 15.1 m

Class 10 Maths Chapter 5 Trigonometry Kerala Syllabus Question 2.
When the sun is at an elevation of 35°, the shadow of a tree is 10 metres. What would be the length of the shadow of the same tree, when the sun is at an elevation of 25°?

Question 3.
From the top of an electric post, two wires are stretched to either side and fixed to the ground, 25 metres apart. The wires make angles 55° and 40° with the ground. What is the height of the post?

Question 4.
A 1.5-metre tall boy saw the top of a building under construction at an elevation of 30°. The completed building was 10 metres higher and the boy saw its top at an elevation of 60° from the same spot. What is the height of the building?
In the right triangle BDE,

Question 5.
A 1.75-metre tall man, standing at the foot of a tower, sees the top of a hill 40 metres away at an elevation of 60°. Climbing to the top of the tower, he sees it at an elevation of 50°. Calculate the heights of the tower and the hill.
In the right triangle CEF
BD = CE = AF = HG = 40m

AB = tower
DF = hill
Height of hill = 69.28 + 1.75 = 71.03 m
In the right triangle HGF,
$$\tan 50=\frac{G F}{H G}=\frac{G F}{40}$$
GF = 40 × tan 50= 40 × 1.1918 = 47.67 m
Height of tower = 71.03 – (47.67 + 1.75)
= 71.03 – 49.42 = 21.61 m

Question 6.
A man 1.8 metre tall standing at the top of a telephone tower, saw the top of a 10-metre high building at a depression of 40° and the base of the building at a depression of 60°. What is the height of the tower? How far is it from the building?

Height of the building = 10m
Height of the towerAG
Height of the man GF = 1.8m
AB = x
In the right triangle CHF
tan 40 = $$\frac { HF }{ x }$$
HF = x tan 40
= x × 0.8391
= 0.8391x
In the right ABF
$$\tan 60=\frac{A F}{A B}=\frac{A F}{x} \Rightarrow$$
AF = x tan 60 = 1.732x
BC = AH = AF – HF
= 1.732x – 0.8391x = 10
= o.8929x = 10

Height of tower = 19.4 – 1.8 =17.6 m
Distance from building to tower = 11.2m

### Trigonometry Orukkam Questions and Answers

Worksheet 1

Question 1.
Complete the table given below.

∠C = 90°
The sides of the right angle triangle with angles 30°, 60°, 90° are proportional
1 : √3: 2

Question 2.
Complete the table given below.

The sides of the isosceles right-angle triangle with angles 45: 45 :90 will have sides proportional to [opposite to corresponding angles] 1: 1: √2

Question 3.
Calculate the perimeter of the triangle.

i. BC = 10
∴ AB = 10

Question 4.
ABC Dis a square AC = 10cm . Find B, BACFind the length of AB. Find the perimeter of the square.
∠B = 90°
∠BAC = 45° = ∠BCA
$$\mathrm{AB}=\frac{10}{\sqrt{2}}=5 \sqrt{2}$$
Perimeter of the square D
= 4 × 5√2 = 28.28 cm

Question 5.
PQRS is a rectangle. Find angle SP R? Find angle PRQ. If PR = 30 then find P Qand QR. Calculate the perimeter of the rectangle.

∠SPQ = 90° ( ∴ PQRS is a square, so angles are 90° each.)
∴ ∠SPR = 90 – 30 = 60°

Question 6.
If C D = 5 then find ∠ACD,∠BCD . Find AB, AD, BD, BC. Find the angles of triangle ABC. If the angles are 45°, 60°, 75° find the ratio of the sides?

Worksheet 2

Question 7.
In the figure BC = 12 ∠D = 90°,Find ∠CBD, ∠ACD, ∠ABC . Find BD, C D, AD, AC, AB. Find the ratio of the sides of the triangle having the angles 30°, 15°, 135° C

∠ACD = 180 – (30 + 90) = 60
∠BCD = 60 – 15 = 45 ∠CBD = 45
∠ABC = 135 [∵ 180 – (30 + 15)]

Question 8.
In the figure AD = 7, CD = 8, BD = 5, ∠ADP = 50° then find ADB ?

Question 9.
Find the measure of the remaining part of the triangle from the figure given below

Question 10.
∠AOB = 2x, radius of the circle R. Find ∠AOC? Find sin x, AC and AB

Worksheet 3

Question 11.
Using the figure find AB

Question 12.
In the figure BD = 10,

∠ADB = 180 – 60 = 120°
∠BAD = 180 – (120 + 30) = 30

The sides of the right angle triangle with angles 30°, 60°, 90° are proportional to
1 :√3: 2
AD = 2 × 5√3 = 10√3
AC = 5 √3 × √3 = 15

Question 13.
In the figure QR = 7, find ∠QRP, ∠QPR Find the length of PR, PS and RS.

Question 14.
In the figure BD = 10, CD = x, find the length of BC. Using tan 40, tan 50 find the length of AC.

Worksheet 4

Question 15.
In triangle ABC , AB = 7, BC = 12, ∠B = 40 Find the area of the triangle. Calculate the length of AC.
Draw a perpendicular line
= 7 × 0.6428 = 4.4996 = 4.5
Area = $$\frac { 1 }{ 2 }$$ × BC × AD
= $$\frac { 1 }{ 2 }$$ × 12 × 4.5 = 27m2
BD = AB cos 40 = 7 x 0.7660 = 5.36
∴ CD = 12 – 5.36 = 6.64

∴ Length of AC = 8.02 units

Question 16.
In triangle ABC , AB = 7, BC = 12, ∠B = 40 Find the area of the triangle.
See the above question

Question 17.
In the figure AD = BD = C D = 5 ∠ADC = 50° . find the area of triangle AC D, triangle ABD and triangle ABC.

AD = BD = CD, So ΔABD and ΔACD are isosceles triangles. AE is the perpendicular from D to AC

Area of ΔABD = AF × DF
= 4.5 × 2.1 = 9.45
Area of ΔABC= $$\frac { 1 }{ 2 }$$ × AB × AC
$$\frac { 1 }{ 2 }$$ × 9 × 4.2 = 18.9m2

Question 18.
ABC D is a parallelogram, angle D = 120°, AB = 10, AC = 12. Calculate the area of the parallelogram.

Area of the parallelogram= $$\frac { 1 }{ 2 }$$ × AC × BD
In ΔABD, ∠A = 60°
ΔABD is an equilateral triangle.
BD = 10
Area of the parallelogram ABCD = $$\frac { 1 }{ 2 }$$ × 10 × 12 = 60m2

Question 19.
One angle of a triangle is 30°, prove that radius of the circumcircle is equal to the side opposite to 30°
For a right-angled triangle one of the angles is 30° then other one is 60°.
Side which is opposite to the angle of 90° is twice of the side which is opposite to the angle of 30°
Center of circumcircle is the midpoint of the side, which is opposite to the angle 90° that means half.
∴ Radius of the circumcircle is equal to the side opposite to 30°.

Question 20.
O is the centre of a circle having a chord
AB. AB= 12, angle AOB = 120°. Find the radius
AC = BC = 6
A perpendicular is drawn through center which can bisect the perpendicular line AB into half.
In ΔAOC , ∠AOC = 60°, ∠ACO = 90°

Question 21.
Above viewed the top of a tree at an angle of elevation 30°. He moved 10 m towards the tree and saw the top of the tree ant the angle 60° Find the height of the tree

Question 22.
In the figure BC =14, ∠5 = 40°, ∠C = 50° Find the area of triangle ABC.

Area of ΔABC =$$\frac { 1 }{ 2 }$$ × AB × AC
AC = BC sin 40 = 14 × 0.6428 = 8.99
AB = BC cos 50 = 14 × 0.7660 = 10.72
Area of ΔABC = $$\frac { 1 }{ 2 }$$ × 8.99 × 10.72 = 48.2 m2

Worksheet 5

Question 23.
A child observed an aeroplane flying horizontally at the height 1km at ah angle of elevation 60°at an instant. After ten seconds he saw the plane at the angle 30°. Calculate the speed of the plane.

speed = distance/time = 1150m/ 10sec = 115 m/s

Question 24.
In the figure BC = a, CD = b. Then prove that a = 3b.

Worksheet 6

Question 25.
A man observed the top of a tower at a distance a from its base at an angle of elevation 60°. He saw the top of the tower at an angle of elevation 30° from a point at the distance b from the base. Prove that height of the tower h = √ab

### Trigonometry SCERT Questions and Answers

Question 26.
The diagonal of a square is 4cm long. Find its perimeter and area. [Score: 2, Time: 3 minute]

Question 27.
AC and BC are two equal chords of a circle with diameter AB. If the equal chords have lengths 10cm find the area of the circle. [Score: 3, Time: 3 minute]

10 Diameter AB = 10√2 cm. (1)
Area = πr² = π × (5√2)2 = 5π sq. (1)

Question 28.
In ΔABC, AB = 10 cm. AC 8 cm, ∠A = 45°
a. Find the perpendicular distance from C to AB.
b. Find the area of the triangle. [Score: 2, Time: 3 minute]

Question 29.
One side of a rhombus is 12 cm and one angle is 135°.
a. Find the distance between the parallel sides?
b. Find the area of the rhombus. [Score:3,Time:3minute]

a. ABCD is a rhombus
AB = AD = 12 cm, ∠B = 135° ∠A = 180 – 135 = 45°
Angles of ΔADE are 45°, 45°, 90°

Question 30.
In ΔABC ∠A = 45°, BC = 6 c m. Find the diameter of the circumcircle. [Score: 4, Time:4 minute]

Draw diameter BD and Join CD. Angles of ΔBCD is 45°, 45°, 90° (1)

Question 31.
12 centimetre long diagonal of a rectangle makes an angle 30° With its one side. Find its perimeter and area. [Score: 4, Time:4 minute]

ABCD is a square
AC = 12cm , ∠BAC = 30° Angles of ΔABC are 30°, 60°, 90°

Question 32.
In ΔABC, AB = 20 cm ∠A = 30°, AC = 12 cm
a. Find the length of the perpendicular from C to AB.
b. Find the area of the triangle. [Score: 3, Time: 4 minute]

a. Draw CD perpendicular to AB. Angles of ΔADC are 30°, 60°, 90° (1)

Question 33.
In ΔABC, AB = 8 cm , BC = 10 cm and ∠B = 60°
a. Find the area of the triangle ΔABC.
b. Find AC. [Score: 4, Time:6 minute]

Question 34.
One angle of a triangle is 150° and its opposite side 3 centimetre. Find the diameter of its circumcircle. [Score: 3, Time:5 minute]

In DABC, ∠B = 150°, AC = 3 cm
Draw diameter AD and join CD (1)
∠ADC = 180 – 150 = 30°, ∠ACD = 90°
Angles of DADC are 30°, 60°, 90°
30° 60° 90°
1 : √3 : 2
↓    ↓     ↓
3 3√3 6 (1)

Diameter, AD = 6 cm (1)

Question 35.
In ΔABC AB = 12 cm, ∠A=45° and ∠B = 30°
a. Find the area of the triangle ABC.
b. Find the ratio of the sides of the triangle having angles 30°,45°,105° [Score: 5, Time:8 minute]

a. Angles of ΔABC are 45°, 45°, 90°
Angles of ΔBDC are 30°, 60°, 90°. (1)

Question 36.
The diagonal of a rectangle is 12 cm and it makes an angle 35° With one side. Find the perimeter of the rectangle. [sin 35° = 0.57, cos 35° = 0.82] [Score, 3, Time: 5 minute]

Let the breadth of the rectangle = x and length = y
sin 35° = $$\frac { x }{ 12 }$$ (1)
x = 12 × sin 35 = 12 × 0.57 = 6.84 cm.
cos 35° = $$\frac { y }{ 12 }$$
y = 12 × cos 35 = 12 × 0.82 = 9.84 cm. (1)
Perimeter = 2(6.84 + 9.84) = 2 × 16.68 = 33.36 cm (1)

Question 37.
In ΔABC, ∠A = 125°,BC = 8 cm. Find the diameter of the circumcircle. [sin 55 = 82] [Score: 3, Time:6 minute]

Draw diameter BD and jon CD. (1)
In ΔBCD, sin55° = $$\frac { BC }{ BD }$$ (1)

Question 38.
Can one cut out a triangle of one side 7 cm and its opposite angle 40° from a circular sheet of diameter 10 cm. Justify your answer. [sin 40° = 0.64]
[Score: 4, Time:7 minute]
The diameter of the circumcircle of a triangle with one angle 40° and it’s opposite
side 7 cm = $$\frac { 7 }{ sin 40 }$$ (1)
$$\frac { 7 }{ 0.64 }$$ = 10.93 cm
Diameter of the paper is 10 cm, which is less than 10.93 cm.
Hence triangle cannot be cutout. (2)

Question 39.
Find the area of a triangle Whose sides are a and b and the angle between those sides is C. [Score: 2,Time:3 minute]
In ΔABC Draw AD perpendicular to BC.
sin C = $$\frac { h }{ b }$$
h = b sin C
Area = $$\frac { 1 }{ 2 }$$ ah
= $$\frac { 1 }{ 2 }$$ ab sin C (1)

Question 40.
Find the sides of a triangle whose angles are A, B and C and its circumdiameter d. [Score: 3, Time: 5 minute]
Draw a diameter BD and join CD

∠BDC = A : BC = a (1)
sm A = $$\frac { a }{ BD }$$ = $$\frac { a }{ d }$$
Similarly
b = d sin B° = AC (1)
AB = c = d sin C°. (1)

### Trigonometry Exam Oriented Questions and Answers

Short Answer Type Questions (Score 2)

Question 41.
The angle of a right triangle is 30° and its hypotenuse is 4 cm. What is its area?

Triangle side ratio is 1 : : 2
Altitude = hypotenuse $$× \frac{\sqrt{3}}{2}=4 \times \frac{\sqrt{3}}{2}$$
Area = $$\frac { 1 }{ 2 }$$ × 23.46 = 3.46 cm2

Question 42.
In the figure, find the length of the side represented by x.

$$\tan 50^{\circ}=\frac{\text { opposite side }}{\text { adjacent side }}=\frac{x}{24}$$
x = 2.4 × tan 50° = 2.4 × 1.1918 = 2.86

Question 43.
Calculate the area of a right-angled triangle whose one angle is 45° and hypotenuse 20 cm.
Angle of the right 45°, 45°, 90°
Ratio of sides = 1 : 1 : √2
hypotenuse = 20cm
∴ The other two sides are $$\frac { 20 }{ √2 }$$ cm each
∴ Area of the right angled triangle
$$=\frac{1}{2} \times \frac{20}{\sqrt{2}} \times \frac{20}{\sqrt{2}}=\frac{1}{2} \times \frac{20 \times 20}{2}=100 \mathrm{cm}^{2}$$

Question 44.
Different sizes of isosceles triangle are given. In the table given below some of its sides are given. Fill the table.

a. 4. 4, √32
b. 2, 2, √8
c. 3, 3, √18
d. 10, 10, √200
e. 1, 1, √2

Question 45.
The area of a parallelogram with one side 8cm and an angle 30° is 80 cm2.
Find out the length of the other side.

Area of the parallelogram = 80cm2
8h = 80
h = $$\frac { 80 }{ 8 }$$= 10cm
The angles of ΔAPD are 30°, 60° and 90°
The sides are in the ratio 1 : √3 : 2
DP = 10cm

Short Answer Type Questions (Score 3)

Question 46.
In the figure, ∠BAC = 90°, AD = 6cm, CD = 9cm, ∠ACD = x.
a. What is tan x?
b. How much is ∠BA D
c. What is the length of BD?

Question 47.
In the quadrilateral ABCD shown below,
∠A = ∠C = 90% ∠ABD = 45° ∠CDB = 60° and AB = 6cm.
Find out the lengths of the other sides of the quadrilateral.

In ΔABD,
The angles are 45°, 45°, 90°
As the triangle is equilateral, sides are in the ratio, 1: 1: √2
AB = 6cm
∴AD = 6cm, BD = 6√2cm

Question 48.
P be a point on a circle having diameter AB. ∠ABP = 30°, BP = 6cm. Draw a rough figure.
Find the length of AP and area of circle ?
∠P = 90°, ∠A = 60°,
AP: PB: AB = 1: √3 :2
AP = 2√3 cm,
AB = 4√3 cm
Radius of circle = 2√3 cm
Area of circle = π(2√3)2
cm = 12 π cm2

Long Answer Type ? Questions (Score 4)

Question 49.
In ΔABC, ∠A = 110° and BC = 8cm Find out the radius of the circumcircle.

Draw diameter BD and Join D and C. The opposite angles of cyclic quadrilaterals are supplementary ∠D = 70°, BCD is a semicircle. ∠BCD is the angle in a semicircle, ∠BCD =90°

Question 50.
Length of two sides of a triangle are 20cm and 16cm and the angle between them is 135°.
a. Draw a rough figure and mark the measurements.
b. Find the perpendicular distance of the vertices to the side of length 20cm.
c. Find the area of the triangle.

b. Now AADB is a right triangle with angles 45°, 45°, 90°. Since the side opposite to 90° angle is 16cm, the other two sides are 8√2 each.

Perpendicular distance of the vertex to the side of length 20cm is 8√2 cm.

Long Answer Type Questions (Score 5)

Question 51.
A girl standing on a lighthouse built on a cliff near the seashore, observes two boats due East of the lighthouse. The angles of depression of the two boats are 300 and 600. The distance between the boats is 300m.
a. Draw a rough figure based on the given details.
b. Find the distance of the top of the lighthouse from the sea level. (Boats and foot of the lighthouse are in a straight line).

Distance of the top of the lighthouse from the sea level = 259.8m

Question 52.
In the figure, OR is perpendicular to OP and OP = 12cm. A, B and C are points on OR. If ∠OPA = 30°? ∠APB = 15°,and ∠BPC = 15°. Find OA, OB and OC. Also find AB: BC.

ΔOPA is a right triangle with angles 30°, 60°, 90°. Since the side opposite to 30° angle is 4√3

Now consider ΔOPB. It is a right triangle with angles 45°, 45°, 9Q° Since the side OP = 12cm, side OB is also 12cm.

Also ΔOPC is a right triangle with angles 30°, 60°, 90°. Since the side opposite to 30° angle is 12cm, the side opposite to the 60° angle ie OC is 12√3.
Thus OA = 4√3 cm,

## Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Physics Solutions Chapter 1 Effects of Electric Current

You can Download Effects of Electric Current Questions and Answers, Summary, Activity, Notes, Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Physics Solutions Chapter 1 help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

## Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Physics Solutions Chapter 1 Effects of Electric Current

### Effects of Electric Current Text Book Questions and Answers

Textbook Page No. 7

SSLC Physics Chapter 1 Question 1.
Some electrical devices are shown in the house of the child. What are they?

• Electric bulb
• Electric fan
• Mixi
• Induction cooker
• Microwave oven
• Storage batten,
• Inverter

Textbook Page No. 8

HssLive Physics Chapter 1 Question 2.
Write down the energy changes in them with respect to their use.

Heating Effect of Electric Current Class 10 Question 3.
which are the devices that give heating effect of electric current?

• Electric iron
• Electric stove
• Microwave oven
• Heating coil
• Induction cooker

Textbook Page No. 9

Heat Chapter Class 10 Questions and Answers Question 4.

→ How does the ni-chrome wire become red hot while passing electricity through the circuit?
Due to the resistance of Ni-chrome wire.

→ In this case which form of energy was converted into heat energy?
Electrical energy

→ How does this energy change occur?
This based on the concept that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. It can only be converted from one form to another (Law of Conservation of Energy) As the resistance of Ni-chrome is higher it produced more heat.

Lighting Effect of Electric Current Question 5.

If the ammeter shows a current I ampere on applying a potential difference V across the resistor of resistance R Ω
Current $$I=\frac{Q}{t}$$
Then, the charge that flows through the conductor in t second,
Q = ……………coulomb.
Q = I × t coulomb

Heat Chapter Class 10 Question 6.
factors influencing the heat developed when a current passes through a conductor.

• Electric current
• Resistance of the conductor
• Time of current flow

Textbook Page No. 11

Sslc Physics Chapter 1 Questions And Answers Question 7.
Complete the following table on the basis of Joule’s Law. (Page no.11).

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Physics Chapter 1 Question 8.
Analyse the table and find out the factor that influences heat the most.
Intensity of current

Sslc Physics Chapter 1 Questions And Answers Pdf Question 9.
Experiment (Textbook Page no. 11)

→ Of the water in beakers A and B which one got heated more? Why?
since nichrome has high resistance, more heat is produced. Hence temperature of water is increased.

→ What change is observed in the temperature of water in both the beakers when the current is increased using the rheostat?
As the current increases, the heat produced is increases.

→ What was the change that happened to the temperature of water in both the beakers on increasing the time?
Temperature is increased more

Textbook Page No. 12

10th Physics Chapter 1 Kerala Syllabus Question 10.
Heat generated = 2400 J
If 4.2 J is one calorie then H = ……… calorie
H = 2400 J = $$\frac{2400}{4.2}$$ = 571.42 calorie

Physics Chapter 1 Class 10 Kerala Syllabus Question 11.
Let’s find out the heat developed in 3 minutes by a device of resistance 920 Ω working under 230 V.
V = 230V,
R = 920W,
t = 3 × 60 sec
I = $$\frac { V }{ R }$$ = $$\frac { 230 }{ 920 }$$ = 0.25
H = I2Rt = 0.252 × 920 × 3 × 60 = 10350 J

→ Is there any difference in the amount of heat energy thus obtained?
No

Textbook Page No. 13

→ How this problem can be solved using the relation, H = VIt.
V = 230 V,
R=920 W,
t = 3 × 60 sec
I = $$\frac { V }{ R }$$ = $$\frac { 230 }{ 920 }$$ = 0.25
H = VIt = 230 × 0.25 × 3 × 60 = 10350 J

Effects Of Electric Current Class 10 Kerala Syllabus Question 12.
Let’s calculate the heat developed when 3 A current flows through an electric iron box designed to work under 230 V.
V=230 V,
I = 3 A
t = 30 m = 30 × 60 = 1800 s
H = VIt =230 × 3 × 1800 = 1242000 J = 1242 kJ

Sslc Physics Chapter 1 Notes Kerala Syllabus Question 13.
Table 1.3

→ Why does the heater having low resistance get heated more?
Intensity of electric current is high.

→ In which way does the change in resistance influence the heat developed?
As resistance increases heat decreases.

→ Find out the current in the heaters A and B and compare the heat developed.
I = $$\frac{V}{R}$$
Heater A: I = $$\frac { 230 }{ 1150 }$$ = 0.2
Heater B: I = $$\frac { 230 }{ 460 }$$ = 0.5
In heater A and B, I increase H increases.

→ How do the resistors bring about a change in the current in the circuit?
As resistance increases, I decrease.

Textbook Page No. 14

Physics 10th Class Chapter 1 Kerala Syllabus Question 14.
Consider the fig 1.4(a) and 1.4(b).

→ In which circuit does the bulb glow with high intensity?
Circuit A [figure 1.4(a)]

→ Remove one bulb from each circuit. What do you observe?
In figl.4 (a)
In figl.4 (b)
In fig 1.4 (a) : bulb glows
In figl .4 (a) : bulb does not glow

→ Why do the bulbs in Fig 1.4 (a) glow with maximum brightness?
Ans: Low resistance

Textbook Page No. 15

10 Physics Chapter 1 Kerala Syllabus Question 15.
Table 1.4.

Physics Class 10 Chapter 1 Kerala Syllabus Question 16.
Analyse the table and tick (✓) the best suited

Textbook Page No. 17

Sslc Physics Chapter 1 Questions Kerala Syllabus Question 17.
Complete Table 1.6 by analysing Tables 1.4 and 1.5.

 Resistors in series Resistors in parallel 1. Effective resistance increases 1. Effective resistance decreases 2. The current through each resistor is same as the main current. 2. The current through each resistor is different. It gets divided as per the value of resistors 3. The potential difference across each resistor is different. It gets divided as per the value of resistors. 3. The potential difference across each resistor will be the same 4. Each resistor cannot be controlled by separate switch, because the circuit is broken 4. Each resistor can be controlled by using separate switches.

Textbook Page No. 18

Class 10 Physics Chapter 1 Kerala Syllabus Question 18.
10 resistors of 2 Ω each are connected in parallel. Calculate the effective resistance.
R = $$\frac { 2Ω }{ 10 }$$ = 0.2 Ω

Textbook Page No. 19

Sslc Physics Chapter 1 Pdf Kerala Syllabus Question 19.
A few heating appliances are shown in the figure(1.8). Examine any one of them and answer the following questions. Record the answers in the science diary.

→ Name the part in which electrical energy changes into heat energy.
Heatingcoil

→ Which material is used to make this part?
Nichrome:
Heating coils are made of nichrome. It is an alloy of nickel, chromium and iron.

→ What are the peculiarities of such substances?

• High resistivity
• High melting points
• Ability to remain in red hot condition for a long time without getting oxidized.
• Thermal expansion is negligible.

Textbook Page No. 20

Physics Class 10 Chapter 1 Kerala Syllabus Question 20.
Which are the circumstances that cause high electric current, leading to the melting of fuse wire?

10th Standard Physics Chapter 1 Kerala Syllabus Question 21.
How is the fuse wire connected to a circuit? In series/ parallel?
in series

10th Physics 1st Chapter Kerala Syllabus Question 22.
You know that according to Joule’s Law, more heat will be produced when electric current is increased. What happens to the fuse wire due to this?
Fuse wire melts

Class 10 Physics Chapter 1 Kerala Syllabus Question 23.
When heat is generated, why does the fuse wire melt?
The melting point of fuse wire is lower than that of other metals

10th Physics Chapter 1 Notes Kerala Syllabus Question 24.
When the fuse wire melts, the circuit is broken. What happens to the current in the circuit?
The flow of current in the circuit stops simultaneously with the melting of fuse wire.

Class 10 Physics Chapter 1 Question Answer Kerala Syllabus Question 25.
Why is the? fuse used in a circuit called safety fuse? Explain.
The current in the circuit may increase due to reasons such as short circuit, overload, excess flow of current or any problems in the insulation. As the higher temperature produced in the circuit due to these reasons makes the fuse wire to melt and the flow of current stops. Thus the circuit and the appliances are protected.

Kerala Syllabus 10th Physics Chapter 1 Kerala Syllabus Question 26.
When a fuse wire is included in a household wiring. What are the precautions to be taken?

• The ends of the fuse wire must be connected firmly at appropriate points.
• The fuse wire should not project out of the carrier base.
• Use the fuse wire of proper amperage.

Physics Class 10 Chapter 1 Notes Kerala Syllabus  Question 27.
You might have noticed the marking of 500 W on an electrical appliance. What does it indicate?
It indicates the power of the instrument. The amount of energy consumed by an electrical appliance in unit time is its power.

10th Class Physics Chapter 1 Kerala Syllabus Question 28.
What is the unit of power?
Watt (W)

Textbook Page No. 22

Effect Of Electric Current Class 10 Questions And Answers Question 29.
If R= V/I What will be P ?
P = IR = I × ……… = ……….
P = I2R = I2 × $$\frac { V }{ I }$$ = VI

10th Standard Physics Kerala Syllabus Question 30.
A current of 0.4 A flows through an electric bulb working at 230 V. What is the power of the bulb?
V = 230 V
I = 4 A
P = VI
P = 230 × 4 = 92 W

Textbook Page No. 23

Question 31.
What happens if the interior of the bulb is not evacuated?
The interior of the bulb is evacuated to pr-event the oxidation of filament. When the tungsten comes in contact with the air in the heated condition
then it undergoes oxidation.

Question 32.
Why is the bulb filled with an inert gas or nitrogen?
To prevent the vaporization of filament.

Question 33.
What are the advantages of using tungsten as a filament?

• High resistivity
• High melting point
• High ductility
• Ability to emit white light in the white-hot conditions

Textbook Page No. 24

Question 34.
Nichrome is not used as filament in incandescent lamps. Why?
It can remain only in red hot condition but it can’t give light.

Question 35.
A filament lamp is lit for a short period of time. Touch it. What do you feel?
Heat is experienced.

Question 36.
What are the other types of lamps working on electricity? List them.

• Discharge lamp
• Fluorescent lamp
• Arc lamp
• CFL
• LED

Textbook Page No. 25

Question 37.
What are the advantages of using discharge lamps instead of incandescent lamps?
Loss of electricity in the form of heat is less, more life span, no shadow formation, more light is obtained, less consumption of electricity.

Question 38.
What are the factors to be considered when you select a bulb?
Efficiency, energy consumption, low energy loss, less environmental pollution.

Question 39.
Which are the lamps that are mostly used? Why?
LED: Low energy consumption, low energy 1 loss, less environmental pollution.

Question 40.
LED.

• LED’s are Light Emitting Diodes.
• As there is no filament, there is no loss j of energy in the form of heat.
• Since there is no mercury in it, it is not harmful to environment
• Very small
• It requires only small amount of power.
• No filaments

### Effects of Electric Current Let Us Assess

Question 1.
Fuse wire is to be used by understanding the amperage correctly. Write down the amperage of the fuse wires that are currently available in the market.
Fuse wire of suitable amperage should be selected. Amperage is the ratio of the power of an equipment to the voltage applied. Amperage increases with the thickness of the conductor. Thick wire takes more time to melt. Due to high current flow, the circuit may be damaged. If thin wire is used resistance is increased and hence current is reduced.
Amperage of available fuse : 0.1 A, 0.2 A, 0.5 A, 1.5 A, 3 A, 5 A.

Question 2.
0.5 A current flows through an electric heating device connected to 230 V supply.
a. the quantity of charge that flows through the circuit in 5 minutes is
i. 5 C
ii. 15 C
iii. 150 C
iv. 1500 C
b. How much is the resistance of the circuit?
c. Calculate the quantity of heat generated when current flows in the circuit for 5 minutes.
d. How much is the power of the heating device connected to the circuit if we ignore the resistance of the circuit wire?

Question 3.
According to Joule’s Law the heat generated due to the flow of current is H = I2 Rt. Will the heat developed increase on increasing the resistance without changing the voltage? Explain.
Heat decreases.
Reason H α $$\frac { 1 }{ R }$$

Question 4.
The table shows details of an electric heating device designed to work in 230 V. Complete the table by calculating the change in the heat and power on changing the voltage and resistance of the device. Analyze the table and answer the following questions.

a How does the voltage under which a device works affect its functioning?
b.What change happens to power on increasing the resistance without changing the voltage?
c. What change is to be brought about in the construction of household heating devices in order to increase their power?
a. As voltage increases, power increases
b. Power decreases
c. Use thick wire, use conductor of suitable material, use conductor of small length.

Question 5.
a. Complete the table based on the amperage of the fuse wire.

b. The amperage of the fuse wire used in a circuit that works on 230 V is 2.2 A. If so the power of the device is
i. less than 300 W
ii. 300 W to 500 W
iii. between 500 Wand 510 W
iv. more than 510 W
iii. between 500 W and 510 W

Question 6.
A 230 V, 115 W filament lamp works in a circuit for 10 minutes,
a. What is the current flowing through the bulb?
b. How much is the quantity of charge that flows through the bulb in 10 minutes?
a. I = $$\frac { P }{ V }$$ = $$\frac { 115 }{ 230 }$$ = 0.5 A

b.  Q = I × t = 0.5 × 10 × 60 = 300 c
Question 7.
An electric heater conducts 4 A current when 60 V is applied across its terminals. What will be the current if the potential difference is 120 V?
R = $$\frac{V}{I}=\frac{60}{4}=15 Ω If the voltage is changed to 120 V I = [latex]\frac{V}{R}=\frac{120}{15}$$ = 8 A

Question 8.
Three resistors of 2 Ω,3 Ω and 6 Ω are given in the class.
a. What is the highest resistance that you can get using all of them?
b. What is the least resistance that you can get using all of them?
c. Can you make a resistance 4.5 Ω using these three? Draw the circuit.
a. Highest resistance
R = R + R + R = 2 + 3 + 6 = 11 Ω

b. Least resistance

c. Yes

Question 9.
A girl has many resistors of 2 Q each. She needs a circuit of 9 Q resistance. For this draw a circuit with the minimum number of resistors.

Question 10.

If a bulb is lit after rejoining the parts of a broken filament, what change will occur in the intensity of the light from the lamp? What will be the change in the power of the bulb?

• Intensity of bulb
• Power increases.

Question 11.
Which of the following does not indicate the power of a circuit?
a. I28
b. VI
c. 1R2
d. V2/R
c. 1R2

Question 12.
How much will be the power of a 220 V, 100 W electric bulb working at 110 V?
a. 100 W
b. 75 W
c. 50 W
d. 25 W
d. 25 W

Question 13.
Which of the following should be connected in parallel to a device in a circuit?
a. voltmeter
b. ammeter
c. galvanometer
a. voltmeter

Question 14.
When a 12 V battery is connected to resistor, 2.5 mA current flows through the circuit. If so what is the resistance of the resistor?

Question 15.
If 0.2Ω, 0.3Ω, 0.4 Ω, 0.5 Ω, and 12Ω resistors are connected to a 9 V battery in parallel, what will be the current through the 12 Ω resistor?
I = $$\frac{V}{R}=\frac{9}{12}$$ = 0.75 A

Question 16.
How many resistors of 176 Ω should be connected in parallel to get 5A current from 220 V supply?
a. 2
b. 3
c. 6
d. 4
4

Question 17.
Depict a figure showing the arrangement of three resistors in a circuit to get an effective resistance of
(i) 9 Ω
(ii) 4 Ω
i.

ii.

### Effects of Electric Current Extended Activities

Question 1.
Analyse and describe the working of a microwave oven.
Microwave oven is a device which is used for heating effect of electric current. It produces heat without a heating coil. Eddy current is used in the working of microwave oven. The heat is generated as a result of microwave radiations. The water molecules are stimulated using ‘magnet one’ and thus attains high temperature. Metal utensils are avoided and the substances without water content are not heated by this.

Question 2.
How does an arc lamp help in rescue operations?
The intense light of arc lamps are used in search lights and rescue operations during night time. It is used to rescue the victims of natural calamities, boat accidents.

Question 3.
With the help of teachers and the Internet find out the following
a. What is the percentage of nickel, chromium and iron in Nichrome?
b. How much is the melting point of nichrome in degree Celsius?
c. How much is the resistivity of Nichrome?
d Does the result of your observation justify the use of nichrome as a heating element?
a. 61 % Ni, 15% Cr, 24% Fe
b. 1350°C
c. (1.0 – 1.5)x 10 – 6 Ωm
d. 1. High resistivity
2. High melting points
3. Ability to remain in red hot condition for a long time without getting oxidized. :
4. Thermal expansion is negligible.

Question 4.
Analyse the merits and demerits of the following lamps and find out which is best in the group. Justify your answers.
a. filament lamp
b. fluorescent lamp
c. arc lamp dCFL
e. LED bulb
a. Filament lamp:
Demerits: Loss of energy as heat, low light, low light.
Merits: Work in both DC and AC.

b. Fluorescent lamp:
Demerits: Cause environmental pollution,
Merit: Produce more light

c. Arc lamp:
Demerits: Carbon rods are to be changed frequently.
Merit: Intense light is produced.

d. CFL:
Merit: Produce more light at low power.
Demerits: Cause environmental pollution,

e. LED Bulb :
Merit: No environmental pollution, low energy consumption, long life. The best lamp is LED.

### Effects of Electric Current Orukkam Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Complete the table based on the effects of electric current and energy change.

a. Light energy
b. Mechanical effect
c. Heat energy
d. Chemical effect

→ Given below questions are related with heating of an electric iron box. Answer them.
a. Which is the part that produces heat in an electric iron?
b. Which nature of this part is made use in the above situation?
c. What is the relation between intensity of electric current and heat energy generated?
d. What are the factors that affect the heat generated in such heating appliances?
e. What is the relation connecting these factors with the heat generated?
f. What is this law known as?
g. Name a device that works on this law used for ensuring safety in electric circuits?
a. Heating coil
b. High resistivity, High melting point
c. As electric current increases, Heat energy increases.
d. Electric current, Resistance, time
e. H = I2 Rt
f. Joules law
g. Safety fuse

Question 2.
Incandescent lamp, discharge lamp, C.F.L, LED lamp, arc lamp are given for observation (Otherwise, make use of their pictures)
Answer the following questions after observing them.
a. Which metal is used to make filament of an incandescent lamp? What are the advantages of using this metal as a filament?
b. Name the lamps which belong to the group of discharge lamp.
c. The color of the light depends on the gas inside the discharge lamp. Which gases are to be filled for getting white light and yellow light?
d. Which lamps are harmful to environment because of the presence of mercury in it?
e. Which lamp is used in rescue work during night time and used in searchlights?
a. Tungsten. Advantages of tungsten are high ductility, high resistivity, high melting point
b. Fluorescent lamp, CFL, LED, Arc lamp.
c. For white light – Mercury
For yellow light- Sodium Vapour
d. Fluorescent lamps
e. Arc Lamp

### Effects of Electric Current SCERT Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Observe the circuit diagram given below and answer the following questions.

a. Which are the instruments labeled as P and Q in the diagram?
b. If you replace the copper wire AB with a Nichrome wire of same length and area of cross-section.
i. What change would you notice in the reading on the device Q? Why?
ii. What will happen to the heat produced in the conductor? Explain with reference to Joule’s Law.
a. P- Rheostat.
Q- Ammeter.

b. i. Reading will decrease. Due to higher resistance current decreases
ii. Because of Nichrome’s high resistivity, the current in the circuit will decrease. According to Joules law H= I2 Rt, decrease in the amount of current will reduce the amount of heat.

Question 2.
Write down the names of four types of lamps working on the lighting effects of electricity.
Discharge lamp, Fluorescent lamp, LED, Arc lamp.

Question 3.
Two types of lamps are given below.
1. Discharge lamp
2. Filament lamp.
a. If nitrogen gas is filled in each lamp, what change will happen to their working?
b. Why is it said that the use of filament lamp must be controlled?
a. Nitrogen filled discharge lamp will give red light, but in a filament lamp nitrogen is filled to reduce the evaporation of the filament.

b. In a filament lamp, major part of the electrical energy we supply is converted into heat energy.

Question 4.

a. Identify the device shown in the picture.
b. How are such devices used in rescue ope-rations?
a. Arc lamp

b. Light intensity in an Arc lamp is very high compared to other lamps, so Arc lamps are helpful in rescue operations even in adverse climatic conditions.

Question 5.
Observe the diagram and answer the questions below.

a. Which bulbs will glow when S1 switched on?
b. Which bulbs will low when S1 and S1 are switched on?
c. What change will happen to the circuit when S3 is switched on?
d. Calculate the amperage of the fuse to be used in the circuit,
e. Describe short circuit and overloading with the help of the given circuit
a. B1
c. The circuit breaks as fuse burns out due to short circuit.
d. Amperage
$$\frac{200}{100}=2 A(\text { more than } 2 \mathrm{A})$$
e. Short circuit happens when two wires in the mains in contact without the presen-ce of a resistance in between. Over loading is connecting appliances with more power in the circuit, that it can bear.

Question 6.
A 800W electrical device is designed to work in 200V. What will be its power if the device is working in 100 V?
Resistance of the appliance

Question 7.
Bulbs marked 200V and 500W are shown in the picture.

a. Calculate the resistance of each bulb in the circuit.
b. What is the power with which the bulb in circuit 1 glows?
c. What is the power of the bulb in circuit 2? Why?
d. How is the power and resistance of an electrical device related to each other when the voltage is the same?
Resistance of B1 = $$\frac { V2 }{ P }$$ = $$\frac { 200 × 200 }{ 50 }$$ = 800 Ω
Resistance of B2=800 Ω

b. Will work in 50 W

c. Since the 50 W bulbs are in series current will be equal and voltage will behalf. Since P=VI, Power also will become half.

d. P = $$\frac { V2 }{ R }$$ (No change in resistance, Power will change)

Question 8.
Electric bulbs are connected in a 240V supply line are shown in the figure.

a. What is the total wattage of appliances used in the circuit?
b. Calculate the amperage of the fuse to be used in the circuit.
a. P = 20 W+ 20 W + 20 W = 60W

Question 9.
Given below are the steps in the working of a fluorescent lamp. Arrange them in the proper order.
a. Ultraviolet rays are produced
b. Visible light is emitted.
c. Fastly moving electrons collide with the unionized molecules of mercury.
d. Due to electric current thorium oxide coated heating element becomes red hot.
(d),
(c),
(a),
(b)

Question 10.
Correct the mistakes, if any:
a. Amperage decreases in proportion to the decrease in the area of cross-section of the conductor.
b. Connecting appliances in a circuit beyond its power capacity is short circuit.
c. It is to reduce the heat loss that electric lamps are filled with inert gases.
b. Overloading is connecting appliances with more power in the circuit, than it can bear.
c. Inert gases are filled in filament lamps to reduce the rate of evaporation.

Question 11.
Power of an electric heater working in 230 V is 1000 W. Calculate the heat produced if the current passes for 5 minutes through the circuit.
Heat = P × t
= 1000 × 5 × 60
= 300000 J

Question 12.
An electric bulb has marking 110 V, 100 W on it.
a. How much energy is used per second by the circuit?
b. What is the resistance of electric bulb?

Question 13.
Fill up the blanks by finding the suitable relationship.

A= Fuse wire
B= High melting point

Question 14.
If the resistance of two soldering irons working in 250 V are 500 Ω and 750 Ω.
a. Calculate which one of these will carry more current.
b. Find out which soldering iron has more power.
c. Calculate the heat produced in 5 minutes in the soldering iron having resistance 750 Ω.

b. Soldering iron has less resistance

Question 15.
Two bulbs of 500 W and 100 W are connected parallel in a circuit of 250 V.
a. Which bulb will have more brightness?
b. Through which bulb is current greater?
c. Find out the resistance of filaments in each bulb.
d. Which of these two bulbs will glow with more brightness if they are connected in series? Explain the reason.
a. 500 W Bulb

b. Bulb which has power 500 W (P = VI).

c. 500 W bulb
R = $$\frac { V2 }{ P }$$ = $$\frac { 250 × 250 }{ 500 }$$ = 125 Ω
100 W Bulb
R = $$\frac { V2 }{ P }$$ = $$\frac { 100 × 100 }{ 250 }$$ = 40 Ω

d. 100 W bulb — Current will be the same in series, High resistance bulb will shine more brightly.

Question 16.
Fill in the blanks suitably using the relationship in the first pair,
a. Filament: High melting point
Fuse : ………………
b. Nitrogen filled discharge lamp : Red
………………………… : Blue
a. Low melting point

b. Hydrogen used in discharge lamp

Question 17.
Choose and write the facts related to LED lamps from the given list.
a. Require only a small quantity of power.
b. UV rays are produced due to electric discharge.
c. Not harmful to environment since there is no mercury.
d. Intense light is produced when high voltage is applied.
a, c

### Effects of Electric Current Exam Oriented Questions and Answers

Very Short Answer Type Questions (Score 1)

Question 1.
Using the relation from the first pair, complete the other.
Filament: Tungsten Heating coil:
Nichrome

Question 2.
Which of the given material has the highest resistivity?
a. Nichrome
b.Copper
c. Aluminium
d. Silver
Nichrome

Question 3.
What is the color of the light emitted by discharge lamp filled with nitrogen when it works ?
Red

Question 4.
Using the relation from the first pair, complete the other.
Fuse wire : low melting point
Tungsten: …………..
High melting point

Question 5.
Which among the following is the special characteristics of a material to be used as a heating coil in a electric heating device?
a. Low melting point
b. High resistivity
c. Large area of cross section
d. Low resistance
High resistivity

Question 6.
Which material is used as filament of bulb?
Tungsten

Question 7.
Find out the odd one from the following also write the reason.
[long glass tube, Mercury vapor, Fluorescent coating, Thin tungsten filament]
Thin tungsten filament. Others are parts of a fluorescent lamp.

Question 8.
If we apply 230 V for a device having 230 V and 400 W, what will happen the power of the device ?
(increases, decreases, doesn’t change)
decreases

Question 9.
In incandescent lamp nichrome is not used as filament. Choose the reason from the following
a. Glows brightly
b. It emit white light when it is in hot condition. ,
c. It can remain only in red hot condition but it can’t give light.
c

Question 10.
Find out the odd one which is not suitable for the advantages of LED.
a. It requires only a small quantity of power.
b. It is not harmful to environment.
c. Ultraviolet fays are formed due to discharge.
c

Short Answer Type Questions (Score 2)

Question 11.
A 400 W electrical device is designed to work in 100 V. What will be its power if the device is working in 100 V?
Resistance of the appliance
R = $$\frac { V2 }{ P }$$ = $$\frac { 100 × 100 }{ 400 }$$ = 25 Ω
Power when connected in 100 V
P = $$\frac { V2 }{ R }$$ = $$\frac { 100 × 100 }{ 25 }$$ = 400 Ω
b,
d,

Question 12.
An electric bulb marked 500 W, 250 V is connected to a 250 V supply.
a. Find the electric current through the circuit.
b. Calculate the resistance of the bulb.

Question 13.
What are the advantages of fluorescent lamps over incandescent lamps.

1. Saves electrical energy to a greater extent.
2. The inconvenience caused by shadow is minimized.
3. The life of fluorescent lamp is about 5 times that of incandescent lamps.

Question 14.
Complete the table suitably.

 Gas-filled in the discharge lamp Colour Hydrogen (a) (b) Orange-red Nitrogen (c) (d) Green

a. Blue
b. Neon
c. Red
d. Chlorine

Short Answer Type Questions (Score 3)

Question 15.
In figure, Beakers A and B contain 100 ml water. PQ is a nichrome wire and RS is a copper wire of same length and diameter.

a. Water in which beaker will be at higher temperatures? What is the reason?
b. If the current is doubled using the rheostat, what happens to the quantity of heat produced in the wire PQ?
a. Beaker A, since the combination is series, the current remain same. As nichrome has high resistance, more heat is produced in it. (H = I2 Rt)

b. Heat produced becomes 4 times.
Heat H = I2 Rt, Heat increases as current is squared.

Question 16.
Classify the following as those suitable for fluorescent lamps and for arc lamps.
a. The main part is carbon rods.
b. The heating coil is coated with thorium oxide.
c. used in searchlights.
d. more harmful for the environment.
e. more intense light.
f. ultraviolet rays are produced.
Arc lamps: a, c, e
Fluorescent lamps : b, d, f

Question 17.
Find out the relation and complete the missing parts.
i. tungsten: ………….. (A) ……………. : high melting point
ii. alloy of suitable : fuse wire: ……….(B)……….. metals
iii (C)…….. heating coils: high melting point
A. Filament
B. Low melting point
C. Nichrome

Question 18.
The filament of a filament lamp is broken. It is rejoined and is lit again.
a. What happens to the intensity of light from it? Describe the reason behind.
b. Incandescent lamps are filled with nitrogen at low pressure. What is the advantage of doing so?
c. You are given two filament lamps of resistance 75012 and 100012. Of these, which has more power?
a. Increases. Because resistance decreases and current increases when length decreasing.

b. Nitrogen doesn’t expand over less change in temperature. At normal temperature it behave as a inert gas. It is plenty in atmosphere.

c. 750 Ω

Questions 19.
Choose the appropriate items from the box.
Nichrome, Tungsten, Fuse Wire, Nitrogen
a. Which is used as heating coil ?
b. Which is an alloy of tin and lead?
c. Which is used as filament ?
a. Nichrome
b. Fuse wire
c. Tungsten

Short Answer Type Questions (Score 4)

Question 20.
a. What is meant by amperage ?
b. An appliance of power 690 W is used in a branch circuit. If the voltage is 230 V,what is its amperage?
a. Amperage is the ratio of the power of an equipment to the voltage applied.
b. A = $$\frac { P }{ V }$$ = $$\frac { 690 }{ 230 }$$ = 3 A

Question 21.
Analyse the table and fill it suitably.

(1) 9 times,
(2) Series,
(3) 1/16 times

Question 22.
An electric heater working at 230 V produces 1000 J energy in one second.
a. What is the power of the lamp ?
b. Calculate the resistance of the heating coil used in it.
c. Calculate the heat generated by it when it works for 5 minute.

Question 23.
Write down the reasons for the following statements.
a. Don’t throw unwanted fluorescent tubes.
b. Nichrome is not used as filament in incandescent lamps.
c. Fuse wire is melt when electric current increased.
d. Why is the incandescent filled with an inert gas or nitrogen?
a. It contains mercury which causes several environmental problems.
b. It can remain only in red hot condition but it can’t give light.
c. When current flows as the higher temperature produced in the circuit. Fuse wire has low melting point compared to other, so it melts.
d. To prevent the vaporization of filament.

Memory Map:

## Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard English Solutions Unit 5 Chapter 1 Vanka (Short Story)

### Vanka Textual Questions and Answers

Vanka Question Answers Kerala Syllabus 10th Question 1.
On the basis of your reading of the first two paragraphs of the story, complete die following table.
Protagonist of the story: Vanka Zhukov
Place: Shoemaker Alyakhin’s house, where Vanka is apprenticed.
Time: Christmas Eve
His family: Grandad Konstantin. His parents are dead. He has no relatives.
His mental state: Depressed and miserable.
His actions: Writes a letter to his Grandad telling him about his misery. Puts it in an envelope with incomplete address. Goes out and posts the letter in the letter box.

Vanka Letter To Grandfather Kerala Syllabus 10th Question 2.
What were the specialties of the dog Eel?
Eel had black coat and a long weasel-like body. He was respectful and always tried to get people’s affection. He looked at friends and strangers in the same manner. He did not give confidence to anyone. His respectful and obedient nature hid his hatred and vengeance. He could go quietly and bite somebody’s foot, creep into the icehouse and steal a peasant’s chicken. His back legs had been cut many times, twice he had been hung up, and every week he was beaten up very badly. But he survived all.

Vanka Summary In Malayalam Kerala Syllabus 10th Question 3.
Is there a shift in the setting of the story in paragraphs 3 and 4? Where do the events take place?
There is a shift. The events in paragraphs 3, 4 and 5 take place in the estate where Vanka’s grandfather worked.

Vanka Chapter Questions And Answers Kerala Syllabus 10th Question 4.
How does grandfather create an atmosphere of fun and laugher?
Grandfather creates an atmosphere of fun and laugher by playfully pinching one of the maids or cook and making them take snuff. He also gave snuff to the dogs. The women would sneeze and then the grandfather would say “Good for frozen noses”.

10th English Chapter Vanka Activities Kerala Syllabus Question 5.
Pick out words and phrases used to describe the night.
Dark night; trees were silver with rime; sky sprinkled with gaily twinkling stars; the Milky Way looked newly scrubbed and polished with snow.

Vanka Story In Malayalam Kerala Syllabus 10th Question 6.
What sort of life did Ivanka lead at the shoemaker’s place?
Vanka led a very miserable life there. He did not get enough food to eat. He had to rock the shoemaker’s baby in the night and this prevented him from getting enough sleep. He was badly beaten by Alyakhin. Senior boys ridiculed him.

Vanka Story Summary In Malayalam Kerala Syllabus 10th Question 7.
What, according to Vanka, would happen to him if his grandfather did not take him back home? Why did he think so?
If his grandfather did not take him back home, he would die. He thought so because it was impossible for him to continue with his cruel master Alyakhin, who made him work hard, starved him, made him rock his baby in the night and beat him up cruelly.

10th Class English Chapter Vanka Kerala Syllabus Question 8.
Why could not Vanka run away from the home of the shoemaker?
Vanka could not run away from the home of the shoemaker because he had no shoes or boots. He was afraid of frostbite.

Character Sketch Of Vanka Grandfather Kerala Syllabus 10th Question 9.
Vanka is working for a shoemaker, but he does not have boots. What do you understand from this?
This means although he works with a shoemaker he can’t have shoes of his own. This is the case with many workers. A worker in a five-star hotel will not enjoy the same food or facilities that he helps to give to the guests. It is like ‘Water, water everywhere, not a drop to drink!”

Vanka Story Summary In English Kerala Syllabus 10th Question 10.
What promises does Vanka make to his grandfather so that he would take him back home?
Vanka makes a lot of promises to his grandfather so that he would take him back home. He would grind his snuff. He would pray for him. He could even beat him as hard as he liked if he did mischief. He would clean the boots or go as a shepherd instead of Fedya. When he grows up to be a man he would look after him and he will not let anyone hurt him. When he dies, he would pray for his soul like he does for his Mummie.

Anton Chekhov Vanka Summary Kerala Syllabus 10th Question 11.
What beautiful memories of Christmas do Vanka Cherish?
Vanka remembers his grandfather going to get a Christmas tree for his employers. He had taken Vanka with him. How happy Vanka was then! Grandfather would laugh. The frost-covered trees would laugh and Vanka also laughed. Before cutting the tree, grandfather would smoke his pipe, take a long pinch of snuff. He would laugh at the shivering Vanka. The young firtrees, covered with frost, stood without moving. They were waiting to see which one would be cut. Suddenly a hare would appear. Grandfather would shout: ‘Stop it, stop it.’ Grandfather would drag the tree to the big house. They all would decorate it.

Vanka Character Sketch Kerala Syllabus 10th Question 12.
Who was Vanka’s favorite? Why did he like her?
Miss Olga Ignatyevna was Vanka’s favorite. She used to give Vanka sweets. She also taught him to read, write, count and also to dance.

Malayalam Short Story Summary  Question 13.
How did Vanka reach Moscow?
When he became an orphan, after the death of his mother Pelageya, he was sent to his grandfather. His grandfather apprenticed him to the shoemaker Alyakhin in Moscow.

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard English Notes Question 14.
“I have such a miserable life worse than a dog’s. ” What made Vanka say so?
Vanka said so for so many reasons. He did not get enough to eat. He could not sleep properly as he had to rock Alyakhin’s baby in the night. He was laughed at by the senior apprentices and above all he was often beaten by Alyakhin.

Question 15.
Do you think Vanka’s letter will reach his grandfather? Why?
It won’t reach his grandfather. He just wrote the name of his grandfather and simply the village’. Which village? Where? Nobody would know.

Question 16.
What did Vanka dream about in his sleep?
He dreamed of a stove. His grandfather was sitting on the stove-ledge, with his bare feet dangling. He was reading the letter to the cooks. Eel was walking backwards and forwards, wagging his tail.

Question 17.
Does the reference to the Eel have any significance in the story? How?
The Eel in spite of his reverential manner and docility had spite and malice in his heart. So did the grandfather to the gentry he worked for. If he got a chance he too would bite them, as did Eel when he got a chance.

Activity I

Question 1.
According to Vanka, what kind of a person is Konstantin Makarich? It was Makarich who had sent Vanka away, when Vanka’s mother Pelageya died. Do you justify Makarich’s decision to send Vanka away to Moscow? Why?
Vanka thinks Makarich is a good person. That is why he writes him a letter when he finds his life is miserable in Moscow. Makarich is a happy-go-lucky man having fun with the maids, the cook and the dogs. Some people might find fault with Makarich for sending the boy to Moscow. But we should know that he is an orphan with no education. He has to learn a trade to make a living. So Makarich’s sending Vanka to Moocow is justified. But unfortunately, Alyakhin turned out to be a cruel man.

Activity 2

Question 2.
How did the people in Alyakhin’s workplace treat Vanka?
Complete the following table using appropriate phrases/clauses from the story.

 Alyakin the Master The Mistress Other Apprentices

 Alyakin the Master The Mistress Other Apprentices He did not treat Vanka well. He did not give him enough food, clothes   and even a pair of boots. He punished him severely even for small things. She wanted Vanka to rock the baby during the night, not allowing Vanka to sleep properly. She mistreated him. We see her rubbing the head of the herring on Vanka’s face. They also mistreated Vanka. They sent him to buy vodka. They asked him to steal the master’s cucumbers. They made fun of him.

Activity 3

Question 3.
How is Moscow, the big town, contrasted with the village where Vanka lived?
Moscow is a big city. There are huge houses of rich men. They have horses. Children sold fishing hooks and lines there showing you could catch fish. There were shops there selling all kinds of guns. People hunted birds. Life was busy in the city. In the village, life was easy-going. There were a lot of sheep and dogs. The boys played with stars at Christmas and they sang songs in the church.

Activity 4

Question 4.
Study the story map of ‘Alice in Wonderland’. (See p. 17 of the Text.)
Now, prepare a story map of Vanka.

Activity 5

Question 5.
Attempt a character sketch of Grandfather in the story ‘Vanka’.
Vanka’s grandfather was a night watchman on the estate of a rich family. He was a small, lean old man about 65. But he was lively and agile. He had a smiling face but his eyes were bleary with drink. During daytime he slept in the dark kitchen or spent time joking with the cook and the kitchen maids. In the night he wore a sheepskin coat and walked around the estate making sounds with his rattle. With him there used to be two dogs. One was old Kashtanka. The other was Eel. His rattle would be tied to his belt. He liked to laugh and playfully pinch maids and cooks. He would show his snuff box and ask the women to take a nip. The women would take some snuff and put into their nostrils. They would sneeze.
Grandad would be shouting and laughing with joy, saying, “Good for frozen noses.” He even gave snuff to the dogs. He was a fun-loving old man. He sent Vanka to a shoemaker in Moscow as an apprentice.

this action can be interpreted in two ways. May be he wanted the orphaned boy to learn a trade to make a living for himself when he grew up. Bu some may think that he was running away from the responsibility of looking after his orphaned grandson. Whatever is the case, grandfather is a fun-loving fellow that makes us laugh with his antics.

Activity 6

Question 6.
Let’s reread the story and complete the table given:

Now, prepare an analysis based on the table. You may begin like this:
Anton Chekhov’s ‘Vanka’ is a story that haunts the reader for long. Vanka is an orphan. He is apprenticed to a cruel shoemaker in Moscow. In the house of the shoemaker, Vanka is seriously mistreated. He is not given sufficient food, he is made to rock the baby of Alyakhin in the night and so he cant sleep properly, the senior apprentices send him to buy vodka and to steal cucumbers from the master. They also make fun of him. Vanka wants to run away to his grandfather in the village, but he has no shoes and he is afraid of the frost. Tired of the life at the shoemaker’s house, Vanka decides to write a letter to his grandfather to come and take him back to the village.

He promises to help his grandfather in different ways if he is taken. But the innocent Vanka does not even know that a letter can be sent only if it has a correct postal address, and the cover is stamped. After writing about his sufferings on a crumpled sheet of paper, he puts it in an envelope. On the envelope he simply writes “To my grandfather Konstantin Makarich in the village”. He innocently thinks that this will reach his grandfather and he will be rescued. He goes to sleep dreaming of the joys he will have when he goes back to his village.

Anton Chekhov’s story touches our heart. His style is simple and straight forward with a message for the readers. He exposes a cruel society that ignores and even mistreats its children. After reading the story nobody would like to mistreat the orphaned children. The imagery is so beautiful that we can read the story as if we are watching an excellent film.

Activity 7

Question 7.
Usually stories featuring orphans like David Copperfield. Oliver Twist or Cinderella end with their escape from the horrid surroundings to find love and happiness. A story can have more than one ending. You can think of many alternatives like Vanka joining his grandfather or running away from the shoemaker’s house and so on. Suggest an alternative ending to the story and write it in your own words.
After writing the letter, Vanka waited for a month. He saw no signs of his grandfather coming to take him to the village. His life was becoming more and miserable at Alyakhin’s place. “I can’t continue like this,” he thought and made secret plans to run away. The extreme winter had gone and now the weather was getting warmer. There was no frost and so even without shoes he could walk on the ground. One morning, Alyakhin and his family and Vanka’s senior apprentices had gone to attend a marriage in a nearby village. Vanka thought this was the right time to quit his hellhole. He had very little to carry with him. Just a pair of clothes which he neatly bundled up. With determination, he left his miserable place.

He walked and walked. He was hungry and tired. Nearby he saw a park. He went and sat on a bench. Soon he fell asleep because of tiredness and hunger. A rich couple was sitting and talking on a nearby bench. They saw the boy. When he woke up he was crying. He did not know where to go. As he was crying the couple came to him and asked him what made him cry. He told his pathetic story to them. This couple had no children. So they decided to take Vanka with them. They were God-loving people and they thought it was their duty to help an orphan like Vanka.

They enrolled Vanka in a school nearby. With good food and proper clothes, Vanka looked cheerful and handsome. He would study, study hard. He would find a job and would live a comfortable life, Vanka decided. He thanked God for the happy turn of events in his life.

Activity 8

Question 8.
Imagine that there are many children in your locality who have similar experiences like that of Vanka. Write a letter to the editor of newspaper describing the sad plight of such children and the need to uplift them.
The Editor
The Indian Express
Kochi
10 June 2016
Sir,
This is to bring to your notice the sad plight of some children in my locality. Most of these children are from other States like Bihar, Orissa and West Bengal. Some of them are employed in the local hotels and some shops in the market. They are made to work from early morning to late into the night. They are given very small wages and their living conditions are very poor. Even with the little money they get, they drink alcoholic beverages and smoke ganja.

We all know about the Right to Education and Laws against child labour. But these children who are less than 14 are not going to any school and are badly mistreated by their employers. If people don’t open their eyes, the Law should come and make these cruel employers open their eyes. We speak of Metros, Airports, 6-line super highways and Info parks. How can we ignore the plight of these victims of Fate and speak of development?

Children are the wealth of the society. They are to be tomorrow’s leaders. We ought to do them justice, not on paper and pulpits, not by mere words but by deeds.

Yours truly
Sd /-
Kareena

Activity 9

Think of publishing a manuscript magazine on the lines suggested on p. 144 -145 of the Text.

Activity 1

Look at the following sentence.
Vanka put on his hat and ran out into the street.
When ‘on’ is added to put, it means wear.
a. Prepare a list of such phrasal verbs and use each of them in sentences of your own.
1. put off – postpone: The meeting was out off for next month.
2. put up with – tolerate: I can’t put up with your antics any more.
3. put down – write: Whatever you say put it down on paper.
4. put across: communicate properly: The teacher could not put across his view to the students.
5. put out – extinguish: The fire department failed to put out the fire.
6. put back – keep somewhere where you took it from: Put back the book after you have gone through it.
7. Put in – add: Put in more efforts next time you write the examination.
8. put into – deposit something: After using the shaver put into the drawer.
9. put forward – suggest – The new minister put forward some good ideas.
10. Put by – save: You have to put some money by for the rainy day.

b. Rewrite the paragraph given on p. 156 replacing the under lined words with suitable phrasal verbs from the table.

Vanka began his letter wishing his grandfather a happy Christmas. Even though he was conscious about his master’s arrival, he went on writing. He wanted to get back to his village where he lived peacefully. He could not put up with the cruelties of his masters any more. He begged his grandfatherto look after him. He never wished to call at Moscow again. He finished the letter and went through it once again. He put on his coat and went out to drop his letter in the post box.

Activity 2

Imagine that Grandfather receives the letter written by Vanka. The paragraph given below describes his thoughts and feelings.
Complete the paragraph using appropriate words from the box below.
Grandfather’s hands shivered as he opened the letter. Vanka’s face appeared ………… (a) ……… before him. The candle ……….. (b) ……… but the letters were ……….. (c)………. clear to him. The old man who was ……….. (d) ………… at hiding his emotions could not stop the tears from
flowing down ……….. (e) ……….. eyed, he recollected with warmth the ………. (f) …….. and ………. (g) ………. manner of his grandson. He longed to bring him back. The ………. (h) ………. eyes of the boy seemed to haunt him. They could enjoy the ……… (i) ……….. Christmas together. But the helpless old man gave a deep sigh!
[remarkably, bleary, distinctly, glorious, docility, flickered, insinuating, adept, imploring]
a) distinctly
b) flickered
c) remarkably
e) Bleary
f) docility
g) insinuating
h) imploring
i) glorious

Vanka (Short Story) About The Author

Anton Chekhov (1860-1904) is a master of modern short story and drama. His works make the readers ask questions. His important works are: “Three Sisters’’, “The Cherry Orchard” and “The Lady with the Dog”.

### Vanka (Short Story) Summary in English

1. Vanka Zhukov is 9 years old. He is apprenticed to Alyakhin, a shoemaker. Vanka did not go to bed on Christmas Eve. When his master, master’s wife, and the other senior apprentices went to Church, Vanka took a pen and a crumpled sheet of paper. Before starting to write he looked around the room, the door and window as if he was afraid. He looked at the lasts on the shelves and gave a sigh. Then he knelt on the floor and started writing.

2. “Dear Grandad Konstantin Makarich, I am writing a letter to you. I send you Christmas greetings and I hope God will send you his blessings. I have no father and Mummie and you are all I have left.”

P.146
3. Vanka saw his grandfather in his mind. His grandfather was a night watchman on the estate of a rich family. He was a small, lean old man about 65. But he was lively and agile. He had a smiling face but his eyes were bleary with drink. During daytime he slept in the dark kitchen or spent time joking with the cook and the kitchen maids. In the night he wore a sheepskin coat and walked around the estate making sounds with his rattle. With him there used to be two dogs. One was old Kashtanka. The other was Eel. Eel had black coat and a long weasel-like body. Eel was respectful and always tried to get people’s affection. He looked at friends and strangers in the same manner. He did not give confidence to anyone. His respectful and obedient nature hid his hatred and vengeance. He could go quietly and bite somebody’s foot, creep into the icehouse and steal a peasant’s chicken. His back legs had been cut many times, twice he had been hung up, and every week he was beaten up very badly. But he survived all.

P.147
4. Grandad was perhaps standing at the gate looking at the bright red light coming from the church windows, or chatting with the servants. His rattle would be tied to his belt. He would be laughing and pinching a maid or one of the cooks. He would show his snuff box and ask the women to take a nip. The women would take some snuff and put into their nostrils. They would sneeze. Grandad would be shouting and laughing with joy, saying, “Good for frozen noses.”

5. Even the dogs were given snuff. Kashtanka would sneeze, shake her head and walk away, feeling angry. But Eel very politely would wag his tail. The weather was good. The air was still and fresh. It was a dark night. But the whole village could be seen’ clearly because the houses had white roofs. Smoke rose from the chimneys. Trees were covered with frost. Snow was falling. The sky was filled with twinkling stars. The Milky Way was shining as if polished with snow.

6. Vanka continued with his letter: “Yesterday I got a lot of beating. The master took me by the hair and dragged me into the yard. He beat me badly with the stirrup-strap (the belt used to connect the foot rest of the rider to the saddle). I had gone to sleep while rocking his baby. One day last week, the mistress told me to clean a herring. I began from the tail. She took it and rubbed its head on my face. Other apprentices make fun of me. They send me to buy vodka and make me steal the master’s cucumbers.
I don’t get enough to eat. They give me bread in the morning, gruel for dinner and again bread for supper. I never get tea or cabbage soup. They take it all themselves. They make me sleep in the passage. When their baby cries, I don’t get any sleep at all. I have to rock it. Dear Grandad, for the Lord’s sake, take me away from this place. Take me home to the village. I can’t suffer it any longer. I beg you. I always pray for you. Do take me away or I will die….’’

P.148
7. Vanka’s lips trembled. He rubbed his eyes. He sobbed.

Vanka continued: “I will grind your snuff for you. I will pray for you. You can beat me as hard as you like if I do mischief. If you think I have nothing to do, I will clean the boots or go as a shepherd instead of Fedya. I wanted to run away to the village but I have no boots and I was afraid of the frost. When I grow up to be a man I will look after you and I will not let anyone hurt you. When you die, I will pray for your soul like I do for my Mummie.”

8. “Moscow is such a big town. There are many gentlemen’s houses and many horses there. There are no sheep. The dogs there are not at all fierce. The boys go about with a sta,r at Christmas. They don’t let you sing in church. Once I saw them selling fishing hooks of different sizes. I saw one hook that could hold a catfish weighing 30 pounds. I have seen shops selling guns like the one my master has. The guns might cost 100 roubles each. In the butcher’s shop we can buy grouse, woodcock (both mean different kinds of ‘kattukozhi’) and hares. The shopkeepers don’t say how they got them.”

9. “Dear Grandad, when they have a Christmas tree at the big house, take a fine nut for me and put it away in the green chest. Ask Miss Olga Ignatyevna and tell her it is for Vanka.”

10. Vanka sighed. He looked at the window glass. He remembered his grandfather going to get a Christmas tree for his employers. He had taken Vanka with him. How happy Vanka was then! Grandfather would laugh. The frost covered trees would laugh and Vanka also laughed. Before cutting the tree, grandfather would smoke his pipe, take a long pinch of snuff. He would laugh at the shivering Vanka. The young firtrees, covered with frost, stood without moving. They were waiting to see which one would be cut. Suddenly a hare would appear. Grandfather would shout: ‘Stop it, stop it.’

P.149
11. Grandfatherwould drag the tree to the big house. They all would decorate it. Miss Olga Ignatyevna, Vanka’s favourite, was the busiest of all. Pelageya was Ninka’s mother. She is dead. When she was working in the big house, Olga Ignatyevna used to give Vanka sweets. As her pastime, she also taught Vanka to read, write and count to a hundred. She even tried to teach him to dance. When his mother died, Vanka was sent to the back kitchen to his grandmother. From there he was sent to Moscow, to Alyakhin.

12. Vanka continued writing. “Come to me dear grandad. Take me from here. Feel pity for me. They always beat me and I am always hungry and miserable. I send my love to Alyona, one eyed-Yegor and the coachman. Don’t give my concertina to anyone. I remain your grandson Ivan Zhukov. DearGrandad do come.”

13. He folded the sheet and put into an envelope. He wrote the address: To Grandfather in the village. After some thought he added: To Konstantin Makarich’.

P.150
14. He was happy that nobody saw him writing. He put his cap and ran out into the street. He did not wear his coat. The men at the butcher’s had told him that letters are put into letter-boxes. Then they are sent all over the world in mail coaches with 3 horses and drunken drivers and jingling bells. Vanka dropped his letter in the letter box.

15. An hour later he fell asleep. He dreamed of a stove. His grandfather was sitting on the stove-ledge, with his bare feet dangling. He was reading the letter to the cooks. Eel was walking backwards and forwards, wagging his tail.

## Kerala SSLC Chemistry Model Question Paper 4 Malayalam Medium

Students can Download Kerala SSLC Chemistry Model Question Paper 4 Malayalam Medium Medium Pdf, Kerala SSLC Chemistry Model Question Papers helps you to revise the complete Kerala State Board New Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

## Kerala SSLC Chemistry Model Question Paper 4 Malayalam Medium Medium

General Instructions:

1. The first 15 minutes is the cool off time. You may use the time to read and plan your answers.
2. Answer the questions only after reading the instructions and questions thoroughly.
3. Questions with marks series 1, 2, 3 and 4 are categorized as sections A, B, C and D respectively.
4. Five questions are given in each section. Answer any four from each section.
5. Answer each question by keeping the time.

Time: 1½ Hours
Total Score: 40 Marks

## Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 8 Resource Wealth of India in Malayalam

Students can Download Social Science Part 2 Chapter 8 Resource Wealth of India Questions and Answers, Summary, Notes Pdf, Activity in Malayalam Medium, Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions helps you to revise the complete Kerala State Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

## Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions Chapter 7 Genetics for the Future in Malayalam

Students can Download Biology Chapter 7 Genetics for the Future Questions and Answers, Notes Pdf, Activity in Malayalam Medium, Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Solutions helps you to revise the complete Kerala State Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

## Kerala SSLC Physics Model Question Paper 4 Malayalam Medium

Students can Download Kerala SSLC Physics Model Question Paper 4 Malayalam Medium Pdf, Kerala SSLC Physics Model Question Papers helps you to revise the complete Kerala State Board New Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

## Kerala SSLC Physics Model Question Paper 4 Malayalam Medium

General Instructions:

1. The first 15 minutes is the cool off time. You may – use the time to read and plan your answers.
2. Answer the questions only after reading the instructions and questions thoroughly.
3. Questions with marks series 1, 2, 3 and 4 are categorized as sections A, B, C and D respectively.
4. Five questions are given in each section. Answer any four from each section.
5. Answer each question by keeping the time.

Time: 1½ Hours
Total Score: 40 Marks

## Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Maths Solutions Chapter 10 Polynomials in Malayalam

Students can Download Maths Chapter 10 Polynomials Questions and Answers, Notes Pdf, Activity in Malayalam Medium, Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Maths Solutions helps you to revise the complete Kerala State Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

## Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 5 Culture and Nationalism

Answer the following. Score 1 each.

A. Choose the correct option.

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Textbook Pdf Question 1.
The founder of Brahma Samaj.
Ram Mohan Roy
Swami Vivekananda
Swami Dayananda Saraswati
Ram Mohan Roy

Question 2.
Annie Besant
Mira Bai
Rema Bai
Rema Bai

Question 3.
Who founded Arya Samaj?
Swami Vivekananda
Swami Dayananda Saraswati
Ram Mohan Roy
Swami Dayananda Saraswathy

Question 4.
Lala Lajpat Rai

Question 5.
Who published the newspapers ‘Young India’ and ‘Harijan ’?
Annie Besant
Surendranath Banerji
Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi

Question 6.
The British Viceroy who enacted the Vernacular Press Act in 1878
Lord Lytton
Lord Rippon
Lord Macaulay
Lord Lytton

Question 7.
The first Indian Women University in Maharashtra was started by
Aurabindo Ghosh
D.K.Karve
G. GAgarkar
D.K.Karve

Question 8.
Who founded Kerala Kalamandalam?
Vallathol Narayana Menon
Amshi Narayana Pillai
Raja Ravi Varma
Vallathol Narayana Menon

Question 9.
The author of the Bengali play ‘Nil Darpan ’
Dinabandhu Mitra
Satyendranath Tagore
Sisirkumar Ghosh
Dinabandhu Mitra

Question 10.
Who authored the novel ‘Anandamath’?
Rabindranath Tagore
Bankim Chandra Chatterji
Dinabandhu Mitra
Bankim Chandra Chatterji

Question 11.
Who penned the famous patriotic song ‘Sore Jahan Se Accha, Hindustan Hamara’?
Prem Chand
Altaf Hussain Hali

Question 12.
Who wrote the famous Malayalam song ‘Varika Varika Sahachare ’?
Vallathol Narayana Menon
Kumaran Asan
Amshi Narayana Pillai
Amshi Narayana Pillai

Question 13.
Who painted the pictures ‘Sati’and ‘Village Drummer ’?
Nandalal Bose
Amrita Sher-Gil
Raja Ravi Varma
Nandalal Bose

Question 14.
The first person to hoist Indian tricolour flag in an international forum.
Aruna Asaf Ali

Question 15.
Who founded Ramakrishna Mission?
Swami Vivekananda
Swami Dayananda Saraswati
Atmaram Pandurang
Swami Vivekananda

Question 16.
The leader of ‘Self Respect Movement ’
E. V.Ramaswamy Naicker
Sree Narayana Guru
Jyotiba Phule
E.V.Ramaswamy Naicker

Question 17.
The founder of ‘Asiatic Society of Bengal’
William Jones
Jonathan Duncan
Warren Hastings
William Jones

Question 18.
The founder of Aligarh Movement
M.A.Ansari

Question 19.
Who is known as the ‘Liberation of the Indian Press ’?
William Bentick
Lord Lytton
Charles Metcalf
Charles Metcalf

Question 20.
The author of ‘Ente Gurunathan ’ and ‘Bappuji ’
Vallathol Narayana Menon
Amshi Narayana Pillai
Kumaran Asan
Vallathol Narayana Menon

B. Fill in the blanks based on the relationship of the pair.

1. a. Ram Mohan Roy : Brahma Samaj
b. Swami Vivekananda:……………….
Ramakrishna Mission

2. a. Prarthana Samaj : Campaigned for inter
caste marriage
b. Ary a Samaj : Opposed ………………….
Child marriage

3. a. Atmaram Pandurang : Social reformer
b. GSubramania Iyer:……………….
Journalist

4. a. Bal Gangadhar Tilak : Kesari
b. Lala Lajpat Rai :……………………….
Vandematharam

5. a. Bengali : Surendranath Banerji
b. Nation:…………………….
Gopal Krishna Gokhale

Education Society
b. Rabindranath Tagore:…………………
Visva Bharati University

7. a. Prem Chand : Hindi
b. Vishnu Krishna Chiplunkar : …………………….
Marathi

8. a. Ghora : Rabindranath Tagore
b. Rangabhumi :……………..
Prem Chand

C. Answer in a sentence each.

Question 1.
What is meant by nationalism?
Nationalism is the sense of unity that exists among the people of a nation irrespective of caste, creed, region and religion.

Question 2.
Write the reasons for the emergence of various social reform movements in the 19th century.
Liberal outlook, passion for modernization and rationalism nurtured in Indian society.

Question 3.
What was the primary aim of leaders of social reforms?
To bring about fundamental changes in Indian society.

Question 4.
Name the social reform movement founded by Ram Mohan Roy.
Brahma Samaj

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science First Term Question Paper Question 5.
When did the British government pass the Hindu Widow Remarriage Act? Which social reformer argued for remarriage of widows?

• The British government passed the Hindu
Widow Remarriage Act in 1856. –
• Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar argued for remarriage of widows.

Question 6.
Who founded Ramakrishna Mission? What were its main ideologies?
Swami Vivekananda founded Ramakrishna Mission
Ideologies:

• Opposed caste system and social evils.
• Propagated the concepts of liberty, equality and freedom of thought.

Question 7.
What were the main ideologies of the Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam?

• Opposed caste system and evil practices.
• Advocated for social and economic progress of the backward classes.

Question 8.
Name the newspaper published under the leadership of Annie Besant.

• New India
• Common Wheel

Question 9.
Which were the newspapers started by Ram Mohan Roy focusing on democracy and nationalism?

• Sambath Kaumudi in Bengali
• Mirat-ul-Akbar in Persian

Question 10.
Who founded Visva Bharati University? Where is it located?

• Rabindranath Tagore founded Visva Bharati University, focussing on universal brotherhood.
• It is in Calcutta

Question 11.
Who composed the song ‘Bandemataram’? From which book is this song taken?

• Bankim Chandra Chatterji composed the song Bandemataram.
• The song is taken from his novel ‘ Anandamath’.

Question 12.
Name the Bengali play depicting the severe exploitation suffered by indigo farmers in Bengal. Who wrote it?

• The Bengali play Nil Darpan
• It is written by Dinabandhu Mitra
• The play triggered farmer’s unrest in various parts of the country.

Question 13.
Name the Urdu poet who praised the beauty of India’s nature and unity of its people. Which is his famous song?

• His famous patriotic song ¡s ‘Sare Jahan Se Acchab Hindustan Hamara’.

Question 14.
Which were the books written by Vallathol Narayana Menon focussing on nationalism?

• Ente Gurunathan
• Bappuji
• Indiayude Karachil

Question 15.
What were the peculiarities of the water colour painting ‘Bharat Mata’ by Abanindranath Tagore?

• The painting ‘Bharat Mata’ depicts Bharat Mata giving food, cloth and knowledge to Indian masses.
• This painting helped to inculcate patriotism in Indian minds.

Question 16.
Why did Abanindranath Tagore start Indian society of Oriental Arts?

• To free Indian painting from western style.
• To promote oriental painting based on Indian culture and tradition.

Question 17.
Name the famous paintings of Nandalal Bose.

• Sati
• Village Drummer

Question 18.
What kind of attitude was created in favour of nationalism by the painting ‘Sati ’ of Nandalal Bose?

• The painting ‘Sati’ visualized the dilemma of a woman who was forced to commit Sati.
• This painting touched Indian hearts and stimulated protest against the social evils.
• An attitude to eradicate discrimination against women.

Answer the following. Score 2 each.

Question 1.
The 19th century India witnessed two types of protests in ideological and cultural spheres. Which were they?

• Protest against inequality, violations of rights and social evils which existed in Indian society.
• Protest against the economic exploitation of the colonial forces.

Question 2.
The social reform movements in India had two main objectives. Which were they?

• To eradicate evils and superstitions that existed in the Indian society.
• To ensure equal civil rights to education, travel and dress code.

Question 3.
What were the main ideologies of Arya Samaj founded by Swami Dayananda Saraswati?

• Campaigned against idol worship and child marriage.
• Promoted women education and widow re-marriage.

Question 4.
Write the main ideologies put forward by Satyashodhak Samaj.

• Satyashodhak Samaj started by Jyotiba Phule opposed social evils and domination of priests.
• Started educational institutions for backward classes.

Question 5.
Who enacted the Vernacular Press Act? Why?

• The Vernacular Press Act was enacted by Lord Lytton in 1876.
• The British realized the power of the Indian Press. So they decided to impose stringent measures to control them. The aim of the Vernacular Press Act was to curb the freedom of press in regional languages.

Question 6.
Identify the benefits of education.

• To bring about changes in society.
• To maintain unity.

Question 7.
Who proposed Wardha Education Plan? What are its features?
In 1937, Gandhiji proposed a special education plan called Wardha Education Plan.

• Its major objective was vocational education. Gandhiji thought that vocational training during education would help build up a good future.
• Gandhiji believed that such a generation could defend the British.

Question 8.
What were the major objectives of national educational institutions?

• Promotion of nationalism
• Opposition to social evils
• Rejection of western education

Question 9.
Visva Bharati University was an example for the international outlook of Rabindranath Tagore. Substantiate.

• Visva Bharati University founded by Tagore focused on universal brotherhood.
• Tagore aimed at a system of education that would bridge western and eastern cultures.

Question 10.
What did Bankim Chandra Chatterji illustrate through his novel ‘Anandamath’?

• Through his novel ‘Anandamath’ the Bengali writer Bankim Chandra Chatterji portrayed the plight of Indian society. Anandamath was based on the Sanyasi Revolt of Bengali peasants.
• Chatterji illustrated the agonies of Bengali farmers and disparity between rich and poor in Bengali society.

Question 11.
What were the specialities of the paintings of Amrita Sher-Gil?
Amrita Sher-Gil, a famous woman artist of India painted the sufferings of Indian villages in dark shades ably reflecting their predicaments. Her paintings also motivated people to think about a unified India.

Question 12.
Write the features of the first tricolour flag designed during the time of Swadeshi Movement.

• The tricolour flag was first designed during the time of the Swadeshi Movement.
• The flag contained 8 lotuses representing 8 provinces in British India and a crescent representing Hindu-Muslim fraternity.

Question 13.
What were the factors that urged Gandhiji to form a plan for vocational education?

• Vocational training during education would help to build up a good future.
• Such a generation ‘could resist the British.

Answer the following. Score 3 each.

Question 1.
Match the table suitably.

 Institution Founder Asiatic Society of Bengal Jonathan Duncan Theosophical Society William Jones Banaras Sanskrit College Annie Besant

 Institution Founder Asiatic Society of Bengal William Jones Theosophical Society Annie Besant Banaras Sanskrit College Jonathan Duncan

Question 2.
What were the aims of the British in implementing English education in India?

• To nurture a fraction of Indian society that would support Britain.
• To prepare a generation that favours English lifestyles.
• To create a class of persons Indians in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinions, in morals and in intellect.

Question 3.
What were the proposals of social reformers to bring about fundamental changes in Indian society during British rule?

• Provide education to all.
• Abolish child marriage and eliminate the supremacy of the clergy.
• Eliminate discrimination against women.
• Promote widow remarriage.
• Protect the rights of all.

Question 4.
Evaluate the role of literary works in regional languages in promoting the growth of nationalism.
Writers in various parts of India illustrated the agonies and atrocities faced by the people. The readers in other parts experienced these sorrows as theirs and ventured to fight them collectively. Writers shared their resentments with the people through poetry, novel, drama, etc.

The ‘Anandamath’ of Bankim Chandra Chatterji and ‘NilDarpan’ of DinabanduMitra depicted the sad plight of Bengali farmers, the exploitation that they suffered and the disparity between the rich and the poor. Literary works like ‘Ghora’ and ‘Gitanjali’ of Rabindranath Tagore, ‘Sevasadan’ and ‘Godan’ of Prem Chand and ‘Ente Gurunathan’ and ‘Bappuji’ ofVallathol Narayana Menon could inculcate a sense of a unified India among the public. These works developed a sense of patriotism and nationalistic feeling among the people.

Question 5.
Which are the national symbols that helped to nurture nationalism in Indian minds?

• National flag – The tricolour flag
• National Emblem – Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath
• National Anthem – Janaganamana
• National Song – Vande Mataram

Question 6.
Complete the sun diagram.

Question 7.

Some examples of news during the national struggle are given. Explain how the newspapers influenced nationalism through such news.

The newspapers of this period upheld nationalism, democracy and opposition to the oppressive rule.

• Disseminated information on massacres, oppression and repressive rule in various parts of the country. Eg. Firing and massacre in Punjab.
• Reported the calamities like plague and famine that killed thousands of Indians in various regions. Eg. Bengal famine.
• Kept abreast of the global agitation for freedom, democracy and equality. Eg. Freedom struggle in China.

Through the publication of each news, the news papers could intensitS’ the opposition to foreign rule and helped the growth of nationalism and national
consciousness.

Question 8.
How did the interference of the British, in the field of education, create a sense of unity among the people?

• The Indians who got English education found it necessary to resist the intrusion of the British.
• Those who had English education started national education institutions.
• They encouraged secular education.
• Jointly worked together against the inequalities of Indian society.

Question 9.
The protest of a writer against the existing exploitative system of a nation will create a sense of unity among the people of that country. Substantiate the statement on the basis of the works of writers during the British rule.

• Writers through their works opposed the economic exploitation of India by the British and the social evils that existed in the country.
• Writers described the miseries of people.
• Created a fellow feeling among the people so that the miseries of the people of other region were considered as their own.
• Writers described the realities of the lives of Indians.
• All these developed among the people a sense of patriotism and resentment to foreign rule.

Question 10.
Explain the role of newspapers in propagating the ideas of Indian national movement.

• Criticised the activities of the British government through newspapers.
• Made the people aware of the social reform movements formed against the social evils and practices of
Indian society.
• Newspapers were published in various languages.
• Newspapers gave emphasis on nationalism, social reform and democracy.

Question 11.
How did Indian leaders utilize education to promote unity among Indians against the British?
Education and nationalism :
India witnessed the conflict of two diversive interests in the 19thcentury. They were the British interest to gain political, economic and cultural hegemony over India and the Indian interest to free the country from political, economic and cultural domination of the British. Education was the major field which witnessed this conflict of interests.

The English educated Indians found it necessary to resist the intrusion of the British. They started national educational institutions. Encouraged secular education. Education helped Indians fight against the British colonial hegemony over India as well as the social inequality that existed in India. Thus, education created a nationalistic perspective among Indians.

• Establishing national educational institutions was the main means adopted for inculcating nationalism. They imparted secular education to all sections of the society. The Deccan Education Society founded in 1884 in Pune by GG Agarkar, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mahadev Govind Ranade was such an institution.
• The Swadeshi Movement started in 1906 founded many educational institutions for the propagation of national education.
• Visva Bharati, the University founded by Rabindranath Tagore in Bengal aimed at a system of education that would bridge western and eastern cultures.
• A team led by Maulana Mohammad Ali, Shoukath Ali, Dr.Zakir Hussain and M.A.Ansari founded the Jamia Millia Islamia in Aligarh to strengthen national movement through secular education.
All these have helped for the evolution of Indian nationalism.

Question 12.
Assess the role of national education in the emergence of Indian nationalism-
Role of national education in the emergence of Indian nationalism:
Education created a nationalist perspective among the Indians. The Indian leaders utilized education as a tool to nurture the concept of unity and for liberation from the British domination.

• Establishing national educational institutions was the main means adopted for inculcating nationalism. They imparted secular education to all sections of the society. The Deccan Education Society founded in 1884 in Pune by G.G.Agarkar, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mahadev Govind Ranade was such an institution.
• The Swadeshi Movement started in 1906 founded many educational institutions for the propagation of national education.
• Visva Bharati, the university founded by Rabindranath Tagore in Bengal aimed at a system of education that would bridge western and eastern cultures.
• A team led by Maulana Mohammad Ali, Shoukath Ali, Dr.Zakir Hussain and M.A.Ansari founded the Jamia Millia Islamia in Aligarh to strengthen national movement through secular education.

Question 13.
What were the contributions of Dinabandhu Mitra in the emergence of Indian nationalism?
Contributions of Dinabandhu Mitra:
Social reforms, press, education, literature and art paved the way for the emergence of Indian nationalism. The Bengali writer Dinabandhu Mitra wrote the play ‘Nil Darpan’. It depicted the severe exploitation suffered by the indigo farmers in Bengal.

It was staged in many places and greatly influenced the people. The Indian Association started by Surendranath Banerjee campaigned for the welfare of the Bengali farmers taking cue from the issues depicted in Nil Darpan. This play triggered farmer’s unrest in various parts of the country.

Answer the following. Score 4 each.

Question 1.
Why did Indian leaders find it necessary to resist the intrusion of English culture and ideologies into Indian society?

• When the Indian leaders realized that English culture and ideologies would destroy Indian culture, they began to resist its invasion.
• English educated Indians who internationalized the concept of democracy, liberty, rationalism, equality and civil rights opposed this cultural invasion.
• They ventured to reform the social customs and rituals prevailed in the country, thereby to defend the invasion of English culture.
• They tried to reform Indian society, language, art and literature.
• It motivated to protest against inequalities and violation of rights and created a sense of unity among the people.

Question 2.
Discuss the role of Ram Mohan Roy in the social reform movement in India.

• Ram Mohan Roy was the pioneer among social reformers who strived for the modernization of Indian society.
• He opposed caste system and ‘Sati’, the social evils in India and established Brahma Samaj.
• He propagated the idea of a unified Indian society in the place of a society fragmented over caste lines.
• His ideas prompted patriotism among the Indians.

Question 3.
Which were the social evils that the British abolished through law in India as a result of the activities of social reformers?

• Abolished Sati
• Permitted widow remarriage
• Banned female infanticide
• Prevented child marriage and polygamy
• Prevented marriage of girls below 12 years of age
• Abolished slavery

Question 4.
Evaluate role of newspapers in promoting the growth of nationalism among the Indians.
Or
How far did the newspapers influence the Indians during the period of National Smuggle?

• The newspapers functioned with the aims to create public awareness of various social issues, to motivate everyone to participate in the national movement and to prompt the people to treat the problem anywhere in the country as a national problem.
• Created public awareness on economic exploitation by the British.
• Disseminated information on massacres, oppression and repressive rule in various parts of the country.
• Kept abreast of the global agitations for freedom, democracy and equality.
• Motivated the people to protest against the British rule and evils in Indian society.
All these helped the growth of nationalism.

Question 5.
Analyse the role of education in the growth of Indian nationalism.

• The progress in education helped Indians fight against the British colonial hegemony over India as well as the social inequality that existed in India.
• Thus education created a nationalist perspective among the Indians.
• The establishment of national educational institutions inculcated the growth of nationalism. The Deccan Education Society and die Jamia Millia Islamia imparted secular education to all sections and it strengthened national movement and nationalism. They provided secular education.
• Indian leaders utilized education as a tool to nurture the concept of unity and for liberation from British domination.

Question 6.
The progress in the field of art strengthened Indian nationalism. Substantiate.

The water colour painting ‘Bharat Mata’ by Abanindranath Tagore helped to inculcate patriotism in Indian minds. It depicts Bharat Mata giving food, cloth and knowledge to Indian masses.

Nandalal Bose portrayed scenes from Indian literature and events in history. His famous painting ‘Sati’ visualized the dilemma of a woman who was forced to commit Sati, a social evil. This painting touched Indian hearts and stimulated protest against this social evil. His another painting ‘Village Drummer’ also helped to strengthen nationalism.

Amrita Sher-Gil painted the sufferings of Indian villagers in dark shades ably reflecting their predicaments. Her paintings also motivated people to think about a unified India.

Raja Ravi Varma visualized various scenes from Indian epics and literature.

Question 7.
The following are some literary works that helped the growth of Indian nationalism. Identify their authors and the language in which they are written.

Nil Darpan
Ente Gurunathan
Rangabhumi

 Works Authors Language Nil Darpan Dinabandu Mitra Bengali Ente Gurunathan Vallathol Narayana Menon Malayalam Rangabhumi Prem Chand Hindi Panchalisapadam Subramanya Bharati Tamil

Question 8.
Match the items in column A with the appropriate item in column B.

 A B Ary a Samaj Atmaram Pandurang Ramakrishna Mission Jyothiba Phule Prarthana Samaj Swami Dayananda Saraswati Satya Shodak Samaj Swami Vivekananda

 A B Arya Samaj Swami Dayananda Saraswati Ramakrishna Mission Swami Vivekananda Prarthana Samaj Atmaram Pandurang Satya Shodak Samaj Jyothiba Phule

Question 9.
How did the activities of Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar and Pandita Ramabai lead the social progress of women?

• Raja Ram Mohan Roy :
Opposed caste system and Sati. To improve the status of women, he advocated for the right of women to own property.
• Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar:
Argued for the remarriage of widows. As a result, the British government passed the Hindu Widow Remarriage Act in 1856. Established educational institutions for women.
• Pandita Ramabai:

Question 10.
What is the basis for the nationalism of Indians? List the factors contributed to the growth of Indian nationalism.
As a nation, unity in diversity is the solid foundation of India.
Factors contributed to the growth of Indian nationalism:

• British rule
• Economic exploitation of the British
• Social reform movements
• Educational progress
• Newspapers
• Literature and art

Question11.
Analyse the factors that prompted the British to introduce English education in India.

• An in-depth understanding of the socio – cultural life of the Indians was essential to strengthen the British rule.
• The realisation that people’s support is essential to implement administrative reforms and to continue the administration
• To prepare a generation that would be loyal to the British.
• The realisation that these could be accomplished through the introduction of English education.

Question 12.
Why is it said that social reforms decisively influenced the growth of Indian nationalism?

• Social reform movements helped to eradicate evils and superstitions that existed in the Indian society.
• Succeeded in defending the invasion of English culture.
• The educational activities of social reformers, helped to awaken nationalism among the people.
• Social reforms helped to instill a sense of unity among the people which took them to the main stream of national movement.

Question 13.
Discuss the role of newspapers in a democratic system.

• Disseminate news from all parts of the world.
• Formulate opinion to strengthen democracy.
• All the actions and policies of the government are subjected to criticism.
• Play the role of a constructive opposition.
• Disseminate scientific knowledge.
• Make the people aware of the social problems

Question 14.
List the ideas envisioned in national education.

• Secularism
• Nationalism
• Women empowerment
• Protest against foreign rule and caste system
• Internationalism

Question 15.
Who wrote the drama ‘Nil Darpan’? How did it influence the National Movement?
Nil Darpan :
Bengali writer Dindabandhu Mitra wrote the play ‘Nil Darpan’. The play depicted the severe exploitation suffered by the indigo farmers in Bengal. It was staged in many places and greatly influenced the people. Indian Association, started by Surendranath Banergee campaigned for the welfare of the Bengali farmers taking cue from the issues depicted in ‘Nil Darpan’. This play triggered farmers’ unrests in various parts of the country.

Question 16.
Compare the policies of British education and national education during national movement.

 British Education National Education Tried to create a generation interested in English lifestyle. Tried to get the support of a fraction of Indian society. Opposed inequalities of Indian society. Jointly protested British colonial rule. Created national outlook among the Indians. Establishing national educational institutions

Answer the following. Score 5/6 each.

Question 1.
Describe the various social reform movements in India in the 19’h century.
Liberal outlook, passion of modernization and rationalism nurtured in Indian society paved for the emergence of various social reform movements. The social reform movements in India had two main objectives.

• To eradicate evils and superstitions that existed in the Indian society.
• To ensure equal civil rights to education, travel and dress code.
The following were the social reform movements and their ideologies,

Brahma Samaj:
Ram Mohan Roy established Brahma Samaj. He was the pioneer among the social reformers who strived for the modernization of Indian society. He opposed the social evils like
Caste system and Sati. To improve the status of women, he advocated for the right of women to own property.

Arya Samaj:
Swami Dayananda Saraswati founded Arya Samaj. It campaigned against idol worship and child marriage. Swami Dayananda opposed Caste system, supremacy of the clergy, untouchability and polygamy. He also stood for women education.

Ramakrishna Mission:
Swami Vivekananda founded Ramakrishna Mission to propagate the message of his Guru Ramakrishna Paramahamsa. It opposed caste system and social evils. It propagated the concepts of liberty, equality and freedom of thought.

Aligarh Movement:
Sir Syed Ahmad Khan started the Aligarh Movement. It advocated for social and educational uplift of Indian Muslims.

Prarthana Samaj:
Atmaram Pandurang founded Prarthana Samaj. It campaigned for interdining, inter caste marriage, widow remarriage and the uplift of women and backward classes. The Samaj started orphanages, night classes and women education centres for social service and the spread of education.

Theosophical Society:
Annie Besant was the founder of Indian Theosophical Society. It stood for the resurgence of Hindu religion. It fought against child marriage. Annie Beasant started a Central Hindu School in Banaras.

HitakariniSamaj:
Veeresalingam founded Hitakarini Samaj. It campaigned for widow remarriage and women education. Opposed caste system and child marriage.

Satyashodhak Samaj:
Jyotiba Phule founded Satyashodhak Samaj. It opposed social evils and domination of priests. It also started educational institutions for backward classes.

Self Respect Movement:
E.V.Ramaswami Naicker founded Self Respect Movement. It opposed Brahmanical supremacy and Caste system.

Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam:
Sree Narayana Guru founded SNDP yogam. It opposed caste system and evil practices. It also advocated for social and economic progress of the backward classes.

Question 2.
Discuss the socio-cultural factors that led to the growth of Indian nationalism.
The various socio-cultural factors that paved the way for the growth of Indian nationalism were:

• Newspapers
• Education
• Literature
• Art
• Social reforms

Newspapers:
Indian leaders mostly depended on newspapers to propagate their nationalistic ideologies. The newspapers criticized the British policies and motivated national movement. The newspapers during freedom struggle functioned with the aims to create public awareness of various social issues, to motivate everyone to participate in the national movement and to prompt the people to treat the problem anywhere in the country as a national problem.

The newspapers created public awareness on economic exploitation by the British and on the massacres, oppression and repressive rule in various parts of the country. Newspapers like Sambath Kaumudi, Harijan, The Hindu and Bengali contributed greatly to the growth of nationalism.

Education:
Establishing national educational institutions was the main means adopted for inculcating nationalism. The Deccan Educational Society founded in 1884 in Pune was an educational institution established with a nationalistic perspective.

The Visva Bharati University founded by Rabindranath Tagore aimed at a system of education that would bridge western and eastern cultures. Education helped Indians fight against the British colonial hegemony over India as well as the social inequality that existed in India. Thus education created a nationalistic perspective among the Indians.

Literature:
The protest against the British rule as well as social evils existed in the Indian society reflected in Indian literature. Writers in various parts of India illustrated the agonies and atrocities faced by the people. The readers in other parts experienced these sorrows as theirs and ventured to fight them collectively. Writers shared their resentments with people through poetry, novel, drama, etc.

This developed among the people a sense of patriotism and dissent towards foreign dominance. The works like Gitanjali and Ghora of Rabindranath Tagore, Nil Darpan of Dinabandhu Mitra and the famous patriotic song ‘Sare Jahan Se Accha Hindustan Hamara’ by Muhammad Iqbal helped the growth of nationalism among the people. Creative expressions of Indian writers helped to inculcate the concept of a unified India among the public.

Art:
Artists and painters also contributed to the growth of nationalism among Indians. The water colour painting ‘Bharat Mata’ by Abanindranath Tagore helped to inculcate patriotism in Indian minds. He tried to free Indian painting from western style and promoted oriental painting.

The paintings ‘Sati’and ‘Village Drummer’by Nandalal Bose instilled nationalism among the people. The paintings of Amrita Sher-Gil who painted the sufferings of Indian villages in dark shades motivated people to think about a unified India.

Social reforms:
The social reforms that emerged in India in the 19th century paved the way for the growth of Indian nationalism. Ram Mohan Roy, the pioneer among social reformers is considered as The Father of Indian nationalism. The social reform movements of this period like Brahma Samaj, Arya Samaj, Theosophical Society, Ramakrishna Mission, etc. roused the awareness of nationalism among the Indians.

These movements tried to put an end to the caste system and social evils prevailing in the Indian society. Ram Mohan Roy propagated the idea of a unified Indian society in the place of a society fragmented over caste lines. This idea prompted patriotism among the people.

Question 3.
Match the items related to Column A-from Columns B and C.

 A B C Ram Mohan Roy Ramakrishna Mission Visva Bharati University Rabindranath Tagore Anandamath Nai Talim Vallathol Narayana Menon Gitanjali Sambath Kaumudi Swami Vivekananda Brahma Samaj Bande Mataram Bankim Chandra Chatterji Wardha Education Plan Kerala Kalamandalam Mahatma Gandhi Ente Gurunathan Liberty, equality and freedom of thought

 A B C Ram Mohan Roy Brahma Samaj Sambath Kaumudi Rabindranath Tagore Gitanjali Visva Bharati University Vallathol Narayana Menon Ente Gurunathan Kerala Kalamandalam Swami Vivekananda Ramakrishna Mission Liberty, equality and freedom of thought Bankim Chandra Chatterji Anandamath Bande Mataram Mahatma Gandhi Wardha Education Plan Nai Talim

Question 4.
Match the items related to Column A from Columns B and C.

 A B C Allama Muhammad Iqbal Nibandha Mala Hindi Abanindranath Tagore Kannan Pattu Persian Vishnu Krishna Chiplunkar Sure Jahan Se Accha Bengali painter Ram Mohan Roy Bharat Mata Urdu Subrahmanya Bharati Rangabhumi Marathi Prem Chand Mirat-ul-Akbar Tamil

 A B C Allama Muhammad Iqbal Sare Jahan Se Accha Urdu Abanindranath Tagore Bharat Mata Bengali painter Vishnu Krishna Chiplunkar Nibandha Mala Marathi Ram Mohan Roy Mirat-ul-Akbar Persian Subrahmanya Bharati Kannan Pattu Tamil Prem Chand Rangabhumi Hindi

Question 5.
Arrange the following events in chronological order.

• Established the first Women University in India
• Vernacular Press Act
• Wardha Education Plan
• British government passed the Hindu Widow Remarriage Act
• Haripura Session of Indian National Congress
• Introduced English education in India

• Introduced English Education in India (1835)
• British government passed the Hindu Widow Remarriage Act (1856)
• Vernacular Press Act (1878)
• Established the first Women University in India (1916)
• Wardha Education Plan (1937)
• Haripura Session of Indian National Congress (1938)

Question 6.
To what extent the ideas put forward by the social reform movements of India during the 19th century were suitable for social change in India? Evaluate.

• To protect the rights of all people.
• To promote the ideas of liberty, equality and freedom of thought.
• To eliminate discrimination against women.
• To promote widow remarriage.
• To abolish child marriage and eliminate the supremacy of the clergy.
• To provide education for all.
• To oppose Brahmin domination.
• To oppose evil practices.
• To encourage interdining and intercaste marriage.
• To work for the upliftment of women and backward classes.

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions

## Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Hindi Solutions Unit 1 Chapter 3 टूटा पहिया (टिप्पणी)

### टूटा पहिया Text Book Questions and Answers

टूटा पहिया विश्लेषणात्मक प्रश्न

टूटा पहिया कविता का अर्थ प्रश्ना 1.
अपने पक्ष को असत्य जानते हुए भी
बड़े-बड़े महारथी
अकेली निहत्थी आवाज़ को
अपने ब्रह्मास्त्रों से कुचल देना चाहें।
-इन पंक्तियों के आशय पर चर्चा करें।

उत्तर:
ये पंक्तियाँ महाभारत के एक प्रसंग पर आधारित है। अभिमन्यु ने चक्रव्यूह में अकेले ही प्रवेश किया। कौरव सेना के महारथियों ने उसे घेर कर उसके सब शस्त्रास्त्र नष्ट कर डाले। अभिमन्यु के शत्रु पक्ष के लोग जानते थे कि न्याय अभिमन्यु के पक्ष में है। फिर भी वे उसे कुचल देने के लिए, मार डालने के लिए तैयार हो गए।

Toota Pahiya Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard प्रश्ना 2.
तब मैं
रथ का टूटा हुआ पहिया
उसके हाथों में
ब्रह्मास्त्रों से लोहा ले सकता हूँ।
-इन पंक्तियों में चर्चित पौराणिक संदर्भ वर्तमान परिवेश में कहाँ तक प्रासंगिक है?

उत्तर:
जब सारा संसार किसी साहसी मनुष्य की आवाज़ को दबाने का प्रयास करेगा, तब मैं रथ का टूटा पहिया उसके हाथों में रहकर शत्रुओं के ब्रह्मास्त्रों का सामना कर सकता हूँ। टूटा पहिया उपेक्षित मानव का प्रतीक है। आजकल समाज में असत्य और अन्याय का बोलबाला है। इन असत्यों और अन्यायों के खिलाफ अगर कोई लड़ेगा तो कोई लघु मानव ही उसका सहारा बनेगा। यही इन पंक्तियों की प्रासंगिकता है।

टूटा पहिया कविता का सारांश प्रश्ना 3.
इतिहासों की सामूहिक गति
सहसा झूठी पड़ जाने पर
क्या जाने
सच्चाई टूटे हुए पहियों का आश्रय ले!
-इन पंक्तियों से कवि क्या बताना चाहते हैं?

उत्तर:
कवि कहते हैं कि पहिया यदि टूटा है तो भी उसे मत फेंको। यह संसार एक दुरूह चक्रव्यूह है। बड़े-बड़े महारथी असत्यों और अन्यायों की अक्षौहिणी सेनाओं को खड़ा करेंगे। उन महारथियों के कारण इतिहास की गति सहसा झूठी पड़ जाती है तो सच्चाई को टूटे पहिए का सहारा लेना पड़ेगा। इसलिए टूटे पहिए की उपेक्षा नहीं करनी चाहिए। .

### टूटा पहिया Text Book Activities & Answers

टूटा पहिया अभ्यास के प्रश्न

Toota Pahiya Notes Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard टूटा पहिया प्रश्ना 1.
कविता के प्रतीकों को चुनकर खंभे में लिखें। वर्तमान परिवेश में प्रतीक किसका प्रतिनिधित्व करता होगा?
उत्तर:

उत्तर:

टूटा पहिया विधात्मक प्रश्न

Toota Pahiya Summary in Hindi प्रश्ना 1.
‘टूटा पहिया’ कविता पर टिप्पणी लिखें।

उत्तर:
लघु न दीजिए डाल…
डॉ. धर्मवीर भारती हिंदी की प्रयोगवादी काव्य धारा के नए कवियों में अग्रणी थे। ‘टूटा पहिया’ भारती जी की एक छोटी कविता है। यह रचना भारती जी के ‘सात गीत वर्ष’ से चुनी गई है। टूटा पहिया लघु और उपेक्षित मानव का प्रतीक है, जिसे बेकार समझकर फेंक दिया गया है। नया कवि उसकी संभावनाओं को पहचानता है और उसकी क्षमताओं का मूल्यांकन करता है।

इसमें ‘मैं’ सर्वनाम का प्रयोग है। टूटा पहिया कहता है कि मैं टूटा हुआ हूँ। लेकिन मुझे मत फेंको। कौन जाने कि इस दुरूह चक्रव्यूह में अभिमन्यु जैसे कोई साहसी वी घिर जाए और बड़ेबड़े महारथी उस साहसी वीर की निहत्थी आवाज़ को कुचल देना चाहे।

जब सारा संसार उस साहसी मनुष्य की अकेली आवाज़ को दबाना चाहेगा, तब मैं रथ का टूटा हुआ पहिया उसके हाथों में लगकर शत्रुओं के ब्रह्मास्त्रों से लोहा ले सकता हूँ। मुझे टूटा हुआ मानकर फेंको मत। क्योंकि इतिहास की सामूहिक गति जब झूठी पड़ जाएगी तो शायद टूटा पहिया ही अकेले का आश्रय बनेगा।

‘टूटा पहिया’ एक प्रतीकात्मक रचना है। इस प्रतीक को कवि ने महाभारत के कथानक से लिया है। अभिमन्यु ने चक्रव्यूह में अकेले ही प्रवेश किया। कौरवसेना के महारथियों ने उसे घेर कर उसके सब शस्त्रास्त्र नष्ट कर डाले। उसने रथ के टूटे पहिए को अस्त्र बनाकर शत्रुओं का सामना किया। कवि ने इसी घटना के आधार पर यह प्रतीकर ग्रहण किया है।

समाज जब न्याय और सत्य के रास्ते से हटकर असत्य के मार्ग पर बढ़ना चाहेगा, तब उसका विरोध करनेवाला व्यक्ति अभिमन्यु के समान अपने को चक्रव्यूह में घिरा पाएगा। उस समय उसके लिए लघु और निस्सार समझे जानेवाला कोई आदमी सहायक बनेगा। टूटा पहिया जैसा लघु मानव की उपेक्षा नहीं करनी चाहिए, यही इस कविता का संदेश है।

### टूटा पहिया Orakkum Questions and Answers

गतिविधि – 1

Tuta Pahiya In Hindi Tippani Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard प्रश्ना 1.
सूचनाः संबंध पहचानें और मिलान करें।

 टूटा पहिया समस्याएँ चक्रव्यूह अधर्म का विरोधी अभिमन्यु महाशक्ति ब्रह्मास्त्र लघुमानव

उत्तर:

 टूटा पहिया लघुमानव चक्रव्यूह समस्याएँ अभिमन्यु अधर्म का विरोधी ब्रह्मास्त्र महाशक्ति

टूटा पहिया कविता का सारांश Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard प्रश्ना 2.
यहाँ मैं का प्रयोग किस केलिए किया गया है?
उत्तर:
उपेक्षित मानव या लघुमानव

Toota Pahiya Tippani Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard प्रश्ना 3.
अभिमन्यु किसका प्रतीक है?
उत्तर:
अधर्म का विरोधी।

टूटा पहिया कविता का आशय Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard प्रश्ना 4.
अभिमन्यु को क्यों दुस्साहसी कहा गया है?
उत्तर:
अभिमन्यु समस्या को अच्छी तरह न समझकर साहसी बन जाता है।

Toota Pahiya Summary In Hindi Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard प्रश्ना 5.
लघुमानव का दुस्साहस क्या हो सकता है?
उत्तर:
लघुमानव भविष्य के बारे में न समझकर अधर्म का विरोध करते हैं।

Tuta Pahiya Tippani Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard प्रश्ना 6.
वर्तमान प्रसंग में महारथी किसका प्रतीक हो सकता है?
उत्तर:
असत्य या अधर्म का प्रतीक है।

Toota Pahiya Tippani In Hindi Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard प्रश्ना 7.
अकेली निहत्थी आवाज़ किसकी हैं?
उत्तर:
लघुमानव के

Sslc Hindi Toota Pahiya Tippani Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard प्रश्ना 8.
कुयल देने का मतलब क्या है?
उत्तर:
असहाय को सर्वनाश करना।

Toota Pahiya Aashay Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard प्रश्ना 9.
‘लोहा लेना’ से आपने क्या समझा?
उत्तर:
लड़ाई करना।

टूटा पहिया कविता का टिप्पणी Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard प्रश्ना 10.
“अपने पक्ष को असत्य जानते हुए भी
बडे-बडे महारथी
अकेली निहत्थी आवाज़ को
अपने ब्रह्मास्त्रों से कुयल देना चाहें।”
उत्तर:
कविता का टिप्पणी
धर्मवीर भारती आधुनिक हिंदी साहित्य के प्रमुख लेखक, कवि, नाटककार और सामाजिक विचारक थे। उन का जन्म 25 दिसंबर 1926 को इलाहाबाद में हुआ। मुर्दै का गाँव, स्वर्ग और पृथ्वी, याँद और टूटे हुए लोग (कहानी संग्रह) ठंडा लोहा, कनुप्रिय (काव्य) गुनाहों का देवता, सूरज का सातवाँ घोडा (उपन्यास) अंधायुग आदि उनके प्रमुख कृतियाँ है। उनको पद्मश्री, संगीत नाटक अकादमी, भारत भारती, व्यास सम्मान आदि पुरस्कार मिले हैं। 4 सितंबर 1997 को उनका निधन हुआ।

अपने पक्ष को असत्य जानते हुए भी बड़े-बड़े महारधी कर्ण, द्रोण, भीष्म, आदि निशस्त्र अभिमन्यु को अपने महाशक्ति से सर्वनाश करना चाहते हैं। आज के समाज में भी इन जैसे लोगों का काम चलते हैं। हमारे समाज अधर्म की और जाए तो सत्य का पक्ष टूटे हुए पहिए का सहारा लेते हैं। टूटा पहिया उपेक्षित मानव का प्रतीक हैं। यह तो सार्थक हैं। तुच्छ सी लगनेवाली वस्तु भी सांत्वना देने में समर्थ हो सकती हैं। यहाँ कवि ने महाभारत के अभिमन्यु की कहानी को प्रतीकात्मक बनाकर वर्तमान युग की जटिलता का चित्रण किया है।

### टूटा पहिया SCERT Questions and Answers

गतिविधि – 1

सूचनाः ‘टूटा पहिया’ कविता का यह अंश पढ़े और अनुबद्ध प्रश्नों के उत्तर लिखें।
अपने पक्ष को असत्य जानते हुए भी
बडे-बडे महारथी
अकेली निहत्थी आवाज़ को
अपने ब्रह्मास्त्रों से कुचल देना चाहें
तब मैं
रथ का टूटा हुआ पहिया
उसके हाथों में
ब्रह्मास्त्रों से लोहा ले सकता हूँ।

Toota Pahiya Summary Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard प्रश्ना 1.
‘सकता हूँ’ क्रिया का संबंध किससे है? (रथ, ब्रह्मास्त्र, मैं)
उत्तर:
मैं

टूटा पहिया टिप्पणी Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard प्रश्ना 2.
‘सामना करना’ के अर्थ में कवितांश में प्रयुक्त मुहावरा कौन – सा है?
उत्तर:
लोहा लेना।

टूटा पहिया कविता का सारांश In Malayalam Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard प्रश्ना 3.
कवि ने पौराणिक प्रसंग द्वारा वर्तमान समय की चर्चा की है। इस पर अपना मत लिखें।
उत्तर:
बडे-बडे व्यक्ति, महान योद्धा जानते हैं कि वह जिस ओर से लड़ रहे हैं, वह अन्यायी हैं। वे अन्यायी शासक वर्ग अपनी शक्ति और अधिकार रूपी ब्रह्मास्त्र से निरायुध व्यक्ति को कुयल देना चाहते हैं। ऐसी अवसर पर मैं रथ का टूटा हुआ पहिया मानव-मूल्य बनकर निरायुध के हाथ में आ जाता हूँ और ब्रह्मास्त्रों से लोहा ले सकता हूँ। यहाँ महारथी शोषक वर्ग का और ब्रह्मास्त्र शासक वर्ग के द्वारा शक्ति और अधिकार का दुरुपयोग का प्रतीक हैं। इस कविता में महाभारत के अभिमन्यु की कहानी को प्रतीकात्मक बनाकर वर्तमानयुग की जटिलता का चित्रण किया है।

Toota Pahiya Poem Summary In Malayalam Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard प्रश्ना 4.
अकेली निहत्थी आवाज़ किसकी है?
उत्तर:
निरायुध व्यक्ति की है। जिस केलिए संसार में कोई बड़ा स्थान या धन नहीं।

Toota Pahiya Appreciation Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard प्रश्ना 1.
टूटे पहिए को क्यों फेंकना नहीं चाहिए?

उत्तर:
जिस चीज़ को हम फालतू समझकर फेंक देते हैं, उसका कभी उपयोग करने का मौका आ सकता है। इस लिए कहा है कि टूटे पहिए को फेंकना नहीं चाहिए।

Hindi Toota Pahiya Tippani Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard प्रश्ना 2.
‘टूटा पहिया’ कविता में कवि ने किस शक्ति की ओर संकेत किया है?

उत्तर:
टूटे पहिए के माध्यम से कविने उपेक्षित और लघु मानव की शक्ति का संकेत किया है।

Tuta Pahiya Question Answer Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard प्रश्ना 3.
टूटे पहिए से कवि क्या आशा करते हैं?

उत्तर:
आजकल समाज में असत्य और अन्याय का बोलबाला है। इन असत्यों और अन्यायों के खिलाफ अगर कोई लड़ेगा तो कोई टूटा पहिया यानी लघु मानव ही उसका सहारा बने। यही कवि की आशा है।

### टूटा पहिया Summary in Malayalam and Translation

टूटा पहिया शब्दार्थ

## Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Hindi Solutions Unit 4 Chapter 1 बसंत मेरे गाँव का

You can Download बसंत मेरे गाँव का Questions and Answers, Summary, Activity, Notes, Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Hindi Solutions Unit 4 Chapter 1 help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

## Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Hindi Solutions Unit 4 Chapter 1 बसंत मेरे गाँव का (लेख)

### बसंत मेरे गाँव का Text Book Questions and Answers

बसंत मेरे गाँव का विश्लेषणात्मक प्रश्न

Basanth Mere Gav Ka Summary In Hindi Kerala Syllabus प्रश्ना 1.
उत्तराखंड के हिमालयी अंचल में फूलदेई को बच्चों का सबसे बड़ा त्योहार मानते हैं। क्यों?

उत्तर:
फूलदेई के त्योहार में बच्चों की अहम भूमिका रहती है। इसमें बड़ों की भूमिका केवल सलाह देने तक सीमित रहती है। फूलदेई का त्योहार मनाने के लिए पहले बच्चे फूल चुनते हैं। टोकरियों में रखते हैं। सुबह बच्चे गाँव भर घूमकर घरों की देहरियों को फूलों से सजाते हैं। घरवाले बच्चों को चावल, गुड़, आदि दक्षिणा में देते हैं। इक्कीस दिन तक इसी प्रकार सामग्रियाँ इकट्ठी की जाती हैं। इन्हीं चीज़ों से अंतिम दिन सामूहिक भोज बनाते हैं। ये सारे काम बच्चे ही करते हैं। इसलिए इसे बच्चों का सबसे बड़ा त्योहार मानते हैं।

Hindi Notes 10th Class Kerala Syllabus प्रश्ना 2.
‘आपसी विश्वास के दम पर वर्षों से यहाँ यह लेन-देन चल रहा है।’ यहाँ गाँववालों की कौन सी विशेषता प्रकट होती है?

उत्तर:
यहाँ गाँववाले और पशुचारकों के बीच लेन-देन चल रहा है। वे ईमानदार और निस्वार्थ हैं। मनाफे की कोई प्रतीक्षा के बिना आपसी विश्वास से यह व्यापार चलता रहता है।

Prakrithi Varnana In Malayalam Kerala Syllabus प्रश्ना 3.
‘जब तक हिमालय रहेगा, ऋतुओं के बदलने का उल्लास बना रहेगा।’ इसका क्या तात्पर्य है?

उत्तर:
हिमालय की भौगोलिक स्थिति और इन ऋतुओं के बदलने में घना संबंध है। हिमालय अंचल की संस्कृति, कला, जीवन रीति आदि पर इन ऋतुओं का बड़ा असर है। इसलिए ऐसा कहा . गया है। – प्रकृतिवर्णन से युक्त वाक्य लेख से चुनकर लिखें।

### बसंत मेरे गाँव का Text Book Activities and Answers

बसंत मेरे गाँव का अभ्यास के प्रश्न

10th Class Hindi Notes Kerala Syllabus प्रश्ना 1.
प्रकृति वर्णन से युक्त वाक्य लेख से चुनकर लिखें। जैसे,
i. मकर संक्रांति के बाद सूरज पंचाचूली के शिखरों से चौखंभा पर्वत की तरफ खिसकना शुरु कर देता है।
ii. बसंत की गुनगुनी धूप जब दोपहरी में तपाने लगती है तब ऊँचे हिमालय शिखरों पर बुराँस चटकने लगते हैं।
रेखांकित अंशों पर ध्यान दें, और उनका विशेष अर्थ समझें। पाठभाग से ऐसे वाक्यों का चयन करें।
उत्तर:

• सूरज पंचाचूली से खिसककर जब नंदा पर्वत तक पहुँचता है तो पहाडों में फमूली के पीले । फूल खिलने लगते हैं।
• पहाड़ी के ढलानों पर खूबसूरती से कटे सीढ़ीनुमा खेतों में गेहूँ की हरियाली के बीच सरसों की पीलाई पसर जाती है।
• बुराँस के फूल पहाडों पर शानदार लालिमा बिछा देते है।
• गाँव की जड़ में बहती गंगा से सटकर बनी सीली सड़क में हलचल बढ़ जाती है।

10th Standard Hindi Notes Kerala Syllabus प्रश्ना 2.
पदत्त कार्य
मौसम के आधार पर भारत की सामाजिक गतिविधियाँ बदलती रहती हैं। यहाँ की ऋतुओं की बातें तो बिलकुल अनोखी हैं। हर ऋतु के साथ कई त्योहार भी जुड़े हुए हैं। सोचें और इस तालिका की पूर्ति करें:

उपरोक्त तालिका के आधार पर मौसम और त्योहार विषय पर निबंध तैयार करें।
उत्तर:

बसंत मेरे गाँव का बदलते त्योहार बदलते मौसम

हमारे त्योहार और मौसम के बीच घना संबंध है। वेदों में प्रकृति को ईश्वर का साक्षात् रूप मानकर उसके हर रूप की वंदना की गई है। इसके अलावा आसमान के तारों और आकाश मंडल की स्तुति कर उनसे रोग और शोक को मिटाने की प्रार्थना की गई है।

ऋतुएँ छह बताई गई हैं – वसंत, ग्रीष्म, वर्षा, शरद्, हेमंत एवं शिशिर । ऋषियों ने ऐसे प्रत्येक ऋतु में प्रत्येक त्योहार और नियम बनाए जिनका पालन करने से व्यक्ति सुखमय जीवन प्यतीत कर सके। वसंत ऋतु में होली, रंग-पंचमी, बसंत पंचमी, नवरात्रि, रामनवमि, हनुमान जयंती और गुरुपूर्णिमा उत्सव मनाए जाते हैं। ग्रीष्म ऋतु में निर्जला एकादशी वट सावित्री व्रत, शीतलाष्टमी, देवशयनी, एकादशी, और गुरुपूर्णिमा त्योहार आते हैं। श्रावण और भाद्रपद वर्षा ऋतु के मास हैं। वर्षा नया जीवन लेकर आती है।

यह माह जुलाई-सितंबर में पडता है। इस ऋतु के तीज, रक्षाबंधन और कृष्णजन्माष्टमी सबसे बड़े त्योहार हैं। शरद् ऋतु वातावरण में स्वाच्छता का प्रसार दिखाई पड़ता है। यह ऋतु अकतूबर से नवंबर के बीच रहती है। इस ऋतु के त्योहार हैं – श्राध्द पक्ष, नवरात्रि, दशहरा करवा चौथ । हेमंत ऋतु हिंदु माह के मार्गशीर्ष और पौष मास के बीच रहती है। इस ऋतु में शरीर प्रायः स्वस्थ रहता है। करवा चौथ, धनतेरस, रूप चतुर्दशी दीपावली, गोवर्धन पूजा, भाई दूज आदि त्योहार पडेंगे। शिशिर ऋतु माघ और फाल्गुन के महीने अर्थात् पतझड़ माह में आती है।

इस ऋतु में प्रकृति पर बुढ़ापा छा जाता है। इस ऋतु से ऋतुचक्र के पूर्ण होने का संकेत मिलता है। यह 15 जनवरी से पूरे फरवरी माह तक रहती है। इस ऋतु में मकर संक्रांति का त्योहार आता है। इसी ऋतु में फाल्गुन मास कृष्ण चतुर्दशी को महाशिवरात्रि का महापर्व मनाया जाता है।

Sslc Hindi Chapter 1 Notes Kerala Syllabus प्रश्ना 3.
i. बसंत फूलदेई का त्योहार लेकर आता है।
ii. देर शाम तक बच्चे फूल चुनते हैं।
iii. सुबह पौ फटते ही बच्चों की टोलियाँ गाँव भर में घूमती हैं।
रेखांकित शब्द क्रिया के किस समय को सूचित करता है? चर्चा करें।

उत्तर:
यहाँ आता है, चुनते हैं और घूमती हैं क्रियाएँ क्रिया के वर्तमान काल में होने की सूचना देती हैं। वर्तामान काल में क्रिया के आठ रूप बनते हैं। नीचे की तालिका से उन्हें समझें।

10th Std Hindi Notes Kerala Syllabus प्रश्ना 4.
ये वाक्य पढ़ें।
( इन फूलों को रिंगाल से बनी खास तरह की टोकरियों में रखा जाता है।)
यहाँ फूलों को रिंगाल से बनी खास तरह की टोकरियों में किसके द्वारा रखा जाता है?
अब यह वाक्य पढ़ें,
(बच्चे इन फूलों को रिंगाल से बनी खास तरह की टोकरियों में रखते हैं।)
इन दोनों वाक्यों पर चर्चा करें।

उत्तर:
पहले वाक्य में कर्म की प्रमुखता है। इस प्रकार के वाक्य को ‘कर्म वाच्य’ कहते हैं। इसमें कर्म ‘फूल’ है। कर्म वाच्य के वाक्यों की क्रियाएँ कर्म के लिंग-वचन के अनुसार बदलती हैं। लेकिन यहाँ कर्म के साथ ‘को’ परर्सा का प्रयोग हुआ है। इसलिए क्रिया का रूप पुल्लिंग एकवचन में है।

दूसरे वाक्य में कर्ता की प्रमुखता है। इसमें कर्ता ‘बच्चे’ है। इस प्रकार के वाक्य को कर्तृवाच्य कहते हैं। कर्तृवाच्य के वाक्यों की क्रियाएँ कर्ता के लिंग-वचन के अनुसार बदलती हैं।

10th Hindi Notes Pdf Kerala Syllabus प्रश्ना 5.
इस प्रकार के अन्य वाक्य ढूँढकर लिखें।
उत्तर:
1. पिछली शाम चुने गए फूल घरों की देहरियों पर सजाए जाते हैं।
2. दक्षिणा में मिली यह सामग्री पूरे इक्कीस दिन तक इकट्ठी की जाती है।
3. अंतिम दिन इकट्ठी की गई सामग्री से सामूहिक भोज बनाया जाता है।
चर्चा करें:
उपर्युक्त तीन वाक्य कर्मवाच्य के वाक्य हैं। कर्मवाच्य में कर्म की प्रधानता होती है। कर्ता के साथ ‘से’ प्रत्यय जाडेकर क्रिया का भूतकाल रूप के साथ ‘करना’ क्रिया के उचित रूप का प्रयोग होता है।

Hss Live Guru 10th Hindi Kerala Syllabus प्रश्ना 6.
हिमालयी अंचल के लोग प्राकृति से तालमेल रखकर जीवन बिताते हैं। यदि हम प्रकृति के साथ विनाशकारी हस्तक्षेप करें तो क्या-क्या मुसीबतें होंगी?

उत्तर:
मानव के अनियंत्रित हस्तक्षेप के कारण प्रकृतिक संसाधनों पर ज़्यादा असर होता है। प्रकृति के शोषण एवं स्रोतों के नशीकरण से प्राकृतिक संसाधनों पर बुरा असर पड़ता है। ऋतुचक्र में बदलाव आ जाता है। तेज़ गर्मी एवं ठंड इसीका परिणाम है। जनजीवन असहनीय बन जाता है। पेडों के काटने से जंगल नहीं के बराबर होते हैं। जीवजंतुएँ जंगल से निकलकर गाँव की ओर आ जाते हैं। भूकंप, हिम झंझावत, बाढ़, सूखा आदि प्रकृति शोषण के फलस्वरूप होते हैं।

### बसंत मेरे गाँव का Orakkum Questions and Answers

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Hindi Textbook गतिविधि -1

सूचना : संबंध पहचानें और सही मिलान करें।

 पाँच बर्फानी चोटियाँ फूलदेई चार शिसर फ्योंली पीले फूल पंचाचूली सीढ़ीनुमा औजी बच्चों का त्योहार चौखंभा बाँस की एक प्रजाति खेत चैती गीत गानेवाले रिंगाल

उत्तर:

 पाँच बर्फानी चोटियाँ पंचाचूली चार शिसर चौखंभा पीले फूल फ्योंली सीढ़ीनुमा खेत बच्चों का त्योहार फूलदेई बाँस की एक प्रजाति रिंगाल चैती गीत गानेवाले औजी

गतिविधि -2

सूचना : बसंत मेरे गाँव का’ लेख का यह अंश पढ़े और अनुबद्ध प्रश्नो के उत्तर लिखें।
बंसत फूलदेई का त्योहार लेकर आता हैं। देर शाम तक बच्चे फूल चुनते हैं। इन फूलों को रिंगाल से बनी खास तरह की टोकरियों में रखा जाता हैं। टोकरियों को रात भर पानी से भरी गागरों के ऊपर रख जाता है ताकि वो सुबह तक मुरझा न पाएँ।

Hindi Notes Class 10 State Syllabus प्रश्ना 1.
फूलदेई को बच्चों का त्योहार क्यों कहा गया है?
उत्तर:
इस त्योहार में सारे काम बच्चे करते हैं। बडों की भूमिका केवल सलाह देना है। इसलिए फूलदेई बच्चों का त्योहार कहा गया है।

10 Std Hindi Notes Kerala Syllabus प्रश्ना 2.
फूलदेई के अवसर पर उत्तराखंड पर्यटन विभाग इसका प्रचार करते हैं। फूलदेई त्योहार से संबंधित पोस्टर तैयार करें।
उत्तर:

गतिविधि – 3
सूचना : ‘बसंत मेरे गाँव का’ लेख का यह अंश पढ़ें और अनुबद्ध प्रश्नों के उत्तर लिखें।
वे जानवरों के साथ-साथ कीड़ाजड़ी, करण और च्यूर जौसी दुर्लभ हिमालयी जड़ी व औषधियाँ भी बेचते हैं। इन गांवों से इनका सादियों का रिश्ता हैं, इसलिए उसी वक्त पूरी कीमत चुकाना ज़रूरी नहीं होता। बर्फीले मौसम में निचले इलाकों की ओर जाते वक्त पुरानी वसूली की जाती है। मज़े की बात हैं कि नकत-उधार के आंकड़े कहीं दर्ज नहीं होते।

Hss Live Guru 10 Hindi Kerala Syllabus प्रश्ना 1.
पशुचारकों की पुरानी वसूली कब की जाती हैं?
उत्तर:
बर्फीले मौसम में निचले इलाकों की ओर जाते समय पुरानी वसूली की जाती हैं।

Class 10 Hindi Chapter 1 Kerala Syllabus प्रश्ना 2.
‘इनका’ – में निहित सर्वनाम कौन – सा हैं?
उत्तर:
ये

प्रश्ना 3.
‘नकद-उधार के आँकड़े कहीं दर्ज नहीं होते’ आपसी विश्वास के आधार पर सादियों से चली आ रही इस सिलसिले पर एक रपट तैयार करें।
उत्तर:
यहाँ नकद – उधार के आँकड़े कहीं दर्ज नहीं होता। उत्तराखड़ मकर संक्रांति से सूरज तपने के कारण गंगा में पानी की धारा तेज़ हो जाती हैं। उस समय यहाँ के हिमालय अंचल में ठंड के मौसम में बर्फीले इलाकों से निचले इलाकों में उतरे पशुचारक वापस घरों को लौटने लगते हैं। रास्ते में आनेवाले गाँवों से उनका लेन-देन भी होता हैं। गाँवों से इनका सादियों का रिश्ता है, इसलिए उसी वक्त पूरी कीमत चुकाना ज़रूरी ही। बर्फीले मौसम में निचले इलाकों की ओर जाते वक्त पुरानी वसूली की जाती है। मज़े की बात है कि नकद-उधार के आंकडे कहीं दर्ज नहीं होते। आपसी विश्वास के दम पर वर्षों से यहाँ ये लेन-देन चल रहा है।

गतिविधि – 4

सूचनाः ‘बसंत मेरे गाँव का’ लेख का यह अंश पढ़ें और अनुबद्ध प्रश्नों के उत्तर लिखें।
सूरज जब चौखंभा पर्वत के पीछे से उदय होने लगता है तब जेठ शुरू हो जाता है। पहाड़ की सड़कें गाड़ियों से भर जाती हैं। अपने घर की छत से जब में बद्रीनाध यात्रा-मार्ग की भीड़ देखता हूँ तो भूल जाता हूँ कि महज दो महीने पहले यह घाटी एकदम शांत थी।

प्रश्ना 1.
संबंध पहचानें और सही मिलान करें।

 दो महीने पहले जेठ शुरू हो जाता है। घर की छत से गाड़ियों से भर जाती है। पहाड़ियों की सड़कें घाटी एकदम शांत थी। चौखंभा पर्वत के पीछे से सूर्योदय होने लगता हैं। में भीड़ देखता हूँ।

उत्तर:

 दो महीने पहले घाटी एकदम शांत थी। घर की छत से में भीड़ देखता हूँ। पहाड़ियों की सड़कें गाड़ियों से भर जाती है। चौखंभा पर्वत के पीछे से सूर्योदय होने लगता हैं। जेठ शुरू हो जाता है।

प्रश्ना 2.
नमूने के अनुसार वाक्य बदलकर लिखें।
जेठ शुरू हो जाता हैं।
जेठ शुरू हो जाएगा।
सड़कें गाड़ियों से भर जाती हैं। …………………..
उत्तर:

 जेठ शुरू हो जाता हैं। जेठ शुरू हो जाएगा। सड़कें गाड़ियों से भर जाती हैं। सड़कें गाड़ियों से भर जाएँगी।

गतिविधि – 5
सूचनाः ‘बसंत मेरे गाँव का’ पाठ के ये वाक्य पढ़ें।
1. सूरज अब नंदा पर्वत से चौखंभा पर्वत की ओर बढ़ने लगता है।
2. पशुचारक वापस घरों को लौटने लगते हैं।
3. बुरांस के फूल पहाड़ों पर शानदार लालिमा बिछा देते हैं।
4. गंगा में पानी की धारा तेज़ हो जाती है।
5. सीली सडक में हलचल बढ़ जाती है।
6. पहाड़ की सड़कें गाड़ियों से भर जाती हैं।

प्रश्ना 1.
प्रत्येक वाक्य के रेखांकित क्रिया रूपों का सीध संबंध वाक्य के किस शब्द से हैं?
उत्तर:
वर्तमान काल के वाक्यों में कर्ता के लिंग, वचन के अनसार क्रिया रूप बनता हैं। इसके लिए ता है, ते है, ती है, ती हैं, ता हूँ, ती हूँ, ते हो, ती हो आदि क्रिया पूरकों का प्रयोग करता है।

बसंत मेरे गाँव का आशयग्रहण के प्रश्न

प्रश्ना 1.
फूलदेई के त्योहार के सिलसिले में बच्चे पहले क्या किया करते हैं?

उत्तर:
बच्चे देर शाम तक फूल चुनते हैं और इन फूलों को रिंगाल से बनी खास तरह की टोकरियों में रखते हैं।

प्रश्ना 2.
फूलों को ताज़ा रखने के लिए क्या करते हैं?

उत्तर:
फूलों को रिंगाल की टोकरियों में रखा जाता है। टोकरियों को रात पानी से भरी गागरों के ऊपर रखा जाता है।

प्रश्ना 3.
फूलदेई त्योहार के दिन सुबह से बच्चे क्या करते हैं?

उत्तर:
बच्चे टोलियाँ बनकर गाँव-भर घूमते हैं। पिछली शाम चुने फूलों को घरों की देहरियों पर सजाते हैं।

प्रश्ना 4.
घरवाले बच्चों को क्या देते हैं?

उत्तर:
घरवाले बच्चों को चावल, गुड़, दाल आदि देते हैं।

प्रश्ना 5.
दक्षिणा में मिली चीज़ों से क्या करते हैं?

उत्तर:
दक्षिणा में मिली चीज़ों को पूरे इक्कीस दिन तक इकट्ठा की जाती है। अंतिम दिन इकट्ठी की गई सामग्री से सामूहिक भोज बनाया जाता है।

प्रश्ना 6.
चैती गीत क्या है? उसकी विशेषता क्या है?

उत्तर:
चैती उत्तराखंड का चैत माह पर केंद्रित लोकगीत है। इन गीतों में पांडवों की हिमालय यात्रा के किस्से होते हैं और पहाड़ के वीरों की शौर्य गाथाएँ भी शामिल होती है।

प्रश्ना 7.
बदलती ऋतुएँ और पशुचारकों के ज़िंदगी में क्या संबंध है?

उत्तर:
ठंड के मौसम में पशुचारक बर्फीले इलाकों से निचले इलाकों में उतर आते हैं। महीनों तक फैले चराहगाहों, घने जंगलों और अनजान बस्तियों में भटकते हैं। पशुचारकों के साथ उनके पालतू जानवर भी होते हैं। गर्मियों के दिन के आने पर वे वापस घरों को लौटने लगते हैं। यह खुशी उत्सव का माहौल रचती है। वे गीत गाते हैं नाचते हैं।

प्रश्ना 8.
रास्ते के गाँववालों का पशुचारकों के जीवन में क्या स्थान है?

उत्तर:
गाँवालों से पशुचारकों का लेन-देन होता रहता है। वे जानवर, दुर्लभ हिमालय जड़ी व औषधियाँ बेचते हैं। इन गाँववालों से उनका सदियों का रिश्ता है। इसलिए उधार में भी व्यापार चलता है। अगले साल ठंड के मौसम में इसकी वसूली की जाती है।

प्रश्ना 9.
जेठ की शुरूआत पर गाँव में कौन-सा परिवर्तन आता है?

उत्तर:
बद्रीनाथ, केदारनाथ, गंगोत्री और यमुनोत्री की ओर आनेवाले यात्रियों की गाड़ियों से सड़कें भर जाती हैं। घाटी की शांत वातावरण बदल जाता है।

### बसंत मेरे गाँव का Summary in Malayalam and Translation

बसंत मेरे गाँव का शब्दार्थ

## Kerala SSLC Biology Previous Year Question Paper March 2019 Malayalam Medium

Students can Download Kerala SSLC Biology Previous Year Question Paper March 2019 Malayalam Medium Pdf, Kerala SSLC Biology Model Question Papers helps you to revise the complete Kerala State Board New Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

## Kerala SSLC Biology Previous Year Question Paper March 2019 Malayalam Medium

Instructions:

• The first 15 minutes is the cool-off time.
• Answer only on the basis of instructions and questions given.
• Consider score and time while answering.

Time: 1½ Hours
Total Score: 40 Marks

## Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard English Solutions Unit 4 Chapter 3 The Never Never Nest

You can Download The Never Never Nest Questions and Answers, Summary, Activity, Notes, Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard English Solutions Unit 4 Chapter 3 help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

## Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard English Solutions Unit 4 Chapter 3 The Never Never Nest (One-Act Play)

### The Never Never Nest Textual Questions Activities and Answers

The Never Never Nest Questions And Answers Kerala Syllabus Question 1.
Why did Aunt Jane exclaim ‘charming’?
Aunt Jane exclaimed ‘charming’ because the lounge of the home where Jack and Jill lived looked very cosy and pretty.

Never Never Nest Questions And Answers Kerala Syllabus Question 2.
What was really wonderful according to Aunt Jane?
The fact that Jack and Jill had fine furniture, a car, a piano, a refrigerator and a radio was really wonderful according to Aunt Jane.

The Never Never Nest 10th Class Kerala Syllabus Question 3.
Aunt Jane had wanted to give a cheque for 200 Pounds as a wedding gift to Jack and Jill. But when she came to their house she saw that they had a pretty lounge with fine furniture, a radiogram and a piano. They also had a refrigerator and a car. This makes Aunt Jane think that she must have mistakenly written 2000 Pounds instead of 200 in the cheque and that is why they could buy all these luxury items. This thought made her worried.

The Never Never Nest 10th Class Questions And Answers Kerala Syllabus Question 4.
What arguments did Jack give in support of purchasing a house on installment basis?
If they didn’t purchase a house, they would go on paying rent year after year. But they could buy a home just for 10 Pounds. Then of course they have to pay quarterly installment payments. By buying the house they have become Owners of the house and not mere Tenants.

The Never Never Nest Summary Kerala Syllabus Question 5.
According to Jack, which parts of the car does he really own now?
He owns the steering wheel, one tire and about two of the cylinders.

The Never Never Nest Question Answers Kerala Syllabus  Question 6.
Why did Aunt Jane refuse to sit on the furniture?
Aunt Jane refused to sit on the furniture because it belongs to Mr. Sage, from whom they bought it on installment. So only a part of the sofa belongs to Jack arid Jill and the rest belongs to Mr. Sage.

The Never Never Nest 10th Class Pdf Kerala Syllabus  Question 7.
How did they plan to pay their installments?
They would borrow money from the Thrift and Providence Trust Corporation.

10th Class English The Never Never Nest Kerala Syllabus Question 8.
Why did Aunt Jane hesitate to travel in Jack’s car?
Aunt Jane hesitated to travel in Jack’s car because he owns only some parts or the car. The other parts belong to the man who sold it to him on installments.

The Never Never Nest Summary In Malayalam Kerala Syllabus Question 9.
What did aunt Jane want them to do with the cheque?
Aunt Jane wanted them to make at least one thing in their house their own by paying for it fully, using the cheque.

Summary Of The Never Never Nest Kerala Syllabus Question 10.
What did Jill do with the cheque?
She endorsed the cheque to Dr. Martin, to whom they owed money because of their baby’s birth, and sent it to him by post.

The Never Never Nest 10th Class Summary Kerala Syllabus  Question 11.
Why did Jill send the cheque to Dr. Martin?
Jill sent the cheque to Dr. Martin because she wanted to make the final payment and make the baby their own. This way she will fulfill the desire of Aunt Jane who wanted them to use the cheque to make ‘something’ in their house their own.

### Let’s Revisit

Activity 1

 Title Significance of the title ……………………………………. Characters 1. Jack – a representative of consumer society Characteristics of each 2. 3. 4. Settings Plot Message of the play

A. Complete the table:

 Title Significance of the title Never-Never Nest means their nest (home) will never be completed. Their desire for things will go on without ever ending. Characters 1. Jack – a representative of consumer society Characteristics of each 2. Jill – a housewife (homemaker) who encourages her husband to get things on installment. 3. A sensible aunt who wants Jack and Jill to live within their means. 4. She looks after the baby of Jack and Jill and does other small jobs for them. Settings The villa at New Hampstead where Jack and Jill live with their baby. Plot Jack and Jill are a young couple with a baby. Jack earns only 6 Pounds a week. Jill is a housewife! But they go on getting all kinds of luxury items on installments. The monthly installments come to more than 7 Pounds. To make up the deficit they will take a loan which will further increase their financial burden. Message of the play Live within your means. Don’t fall into the “Buy Now and Pay Later” trap.

B. Prepare a review of the drama based on the table.
“The Never-Never Nest” is a one-act Play by Cedric Mount. It exposes the shams of contemporary society which tries to live beyond its means. It warns the people against the modem “Buy Now Pay Later” scheme which tempts people to buy things which are not essential for them. Since they don’t have to pay immediately, they are tempted to buy things that are available on installments. In the play we see Jack and Jill, a young couple with a baby. Jack earns only 6 Pounds a week.

Jill is a housewife. But they go on getting all kinds of luxury items on installments. The monthly installments come to more than 7 Pounds. To make up the deficit they will take a loan which will further increase their financial burden. In their lounge in the villa, they have fine furniture, a radiogram and a piano. They also have a refrigerator and a car. But all these and the villa itself are bought on installments. So nothing is their own, even their baby, as they owed money to the doctor. They have to finish the installments to make the baby fully their own. Their Aunt comes and pays them 10 Pounds and Jill pays it to the doctor hoping that at the least the baby in the house will be their own. The play 1 is a warning to those who live beyond their means and go on buying things on installments.

Activity 2

Based on your understanding of the play ‘The Never – Never Nest’, organise a classroom debate on the topic: ‘Is Equated Monthly Instalment Scheme – a boon or bane to middle- class families?
Based on your understanding of the play “The Never- Never Nest”, organize a classroom debate on the topic: “Is Equated Monthly Instalments Scheme a boon or bane to middle-class families?”
Here are the points to argue:
It is a Boon (Blessing):

1. People can get things when they want.
2. They can pay for things in easy monthly instalments instead of paying the whole amount at once.
3. It will force people to save money to make the payments.
4. You can have the comfort of many things at the same time.
5. You will be forced to work harder to get enough money for making the payments.
6. You will cut down your avoidable expenses to make timely payments.

It is a Bane (Curse):

1. People will be tempted to buy things they do not really need.
2. It makes people live beyond their means.
3. It encourages luxury.
4. It brings trouble when people find it difficult to make the payments.
5. Living with things which are not your own is not gentlemanly.
6. If you fail to make payments in time, the company will threaten you and take you to court.
7. There are cases where people have committed suicide as they could not make payments in time.

Activity 3

Question 1.
Discuss the features of a script of a play.

• A play script will include a list of characters at the very beginning.
• It may be divided into acts which are then divided into scenes.
• Each scene will have a description of the setting at the start and then the characters’ dialogue.
• Dialogue is set out with the character’s name on the left, then a colon and then the dialogue.
• Stage directions for the actors are written every now and again in brackets.

Prepare a script based on the story “The Scholarship Jacket”, highlighting the following scenes.

Question 1.
The argument between Mr. Schmidt and Mr. Boone
(A Classroom. Mr. Schmidt, the history teacher and Mr. Boone, the Maths teacher, are engaged in an argument. The students are out fortheir PE Classes.)
Mr. Boone: (In a pleading voice) Mr. Schmidt, this year we should give the Scholarship Jacket to Joann and not to Martha.
Mr. Schmidt: (Angrily) I refuse to support you. Joann’s grades are nowhere near Martha’s. How can you even think of doing such a thing?
Mr. Boone: Joann’s father is on the School Board. He owns the only store in town.
Mr. Schmidt: I don’t care who Joann’s father is. I won’t lie or falsify Martha’s records. She is a straight A+ and you know it.
Mr. Boone: But Martha is a Mexican.
Mr. Schmidt: So what? She is our student and here we have to treat all students alike. I insist that the Scholarship Jacket should be given to Martha. If it is given to Joann, I will resign.

Question 2.
The first meeting of Martha with the Principal.
(Principal’s room. The Principal looks unhappy and uncomfortable. He is pretending to look at some papers.)
Martha: May I come in, Sir?
Principal: Yes, come in!
Martha: Sir, The peon told me you wanted to see me.
Principal: Yes, I wanted to see you because I wanted to tell you something. There is a change in the policy about the Scholarship Jacket. It used to be free. But from this year the Board has decided to charge 15 dollars from the recipient of the jacket.
Martha: 15 dollars, Sir! I don’t think my parents can afford to pay that much money.
Principal: Then the Jacket will be given to the one next in line.
Martha: Sir, I will speak to my grandfather about the change in the policy and request him to give me 15 dollars. I will tell you the result tomorrow.
Principal: It’s Okay, You can go now!
Martha: Thank you, Sir!

Question 3.
Conversation between Martha and Grandfather.
(Grandpa is working in the bean field at the back of his house. Martha meets him there.)
Martha: Good Afternoon, Grandpa.
Grandpa: Good Afternoon, Martha! What news?
Martha: Iwantabigfavourfromyou.
Grandpa: Favourfrom me! What favour?
Martha: Grandpa, I am eligible to get the Scholarship Jacket. But this year it is not free. I have to pay 15 dollars for it. If I don’t pay 15 dollars, it will be given to somebody else.
Grandpa: What does a scholarship jacket mean?
Martha: It means you have earned it by having the highest grades for 8 years and that is why they are giving it to you.
Grandpa: (After a long pause causing Martha to cry) Martha, if you pay for it, it is not a scholarship jacket anymore. Tell the Principal that I will not pay 15 dollars for the scholarship jacket.

Question 4.
Second Meeting of Martha with the Principal.
(Principal’s room. Martha enters the room with a sad face.)
Martha: Sir, I asked my Grandpa to give me 15 dollars to pay for the scholarship jacket.
Principal: (Looking into the eyes of Martha) Did he give you the money?
Martha: No, Sir, he didn’t.
Principal: (walking towards the window and looking outside and then turning his head towards Martha) Why won’t your grandfather pay? He has a 200-acre ranch!
Martha: He told me that if I paid for the scholarship jacket it would no more be a scholarship jacket. It would be a jacket bought with a price. You may give the Jacket to Joann.” (She walks towards the door to go out.)
Principal: Martha, wait! We would make an exception and give you the Jacket.
Martha: (Tears of joy rolling out of her eyes) Thank you, Sir! Thank you very much!

Question 5.
Presentation of the Scholarship Jacket
(The Assembly Hall. All the Board Members, teachers and many parents are present in the Hall. The Hall is beautifully decorated. There is joy on all faces except those of Joann, her father and Mr. Boone.)
The Principal speaks: Respected Board Members, my dear teachers, parent and students,
I am very happy to announce that the Scholarship Jacket this year is presented to Martha. She has been an A+ student throughout the 8 years of her stay here. She is an exemplary student. And she deserves it. There was a proposal to charge 15 dollars for the scholarship jacket. But after a lot of thinking, I have decided that no money would be charged and the Scholarship Jacket will be given to Martha free since she earned it through her diligence and hard work. (A big round of applause from the audience.)
(Martha goes to the stage and accepts the jacket. She thanks everyone, especially Mr. Schmidt, for her success.)

### Let’s Find Out How Language Elements Work

Activity 1

The Use of the enough
Enough means as much as we need or want. Enough is placed before a noun, but after adjectives and adverbs. (See the notes and examples given on p. 136 of the Text.)

Question 1.
Complete the following sentences adding ‘enough’ with a suitable word from the box given and identify the parts of speech of the word modified by ‘enough’.
(old, loud, high, courage, thick)
2. She is to travel by herself.
4. The ice had to walk on.
5. He spoke to be heard.
3. enough courage (noun)

Activity 2

Relative Clauses
Relative clauses are clauses starting with the relative pronouns who, that, which, whose, where and when. These clauses do the work of adjectives, adverbs and nouns.

Read the notes on p. 136-137.

Question 1.
Complete the following sentences using appropriate relative pronouns.
(Who, When, Which, Where, Whom, Whose, That)
1. Do you know the man ………. climbed the mountain yesterday?
2. Can I have the pencil ………. I gave you today morning?
3. A notebook is a computer ………. can be carried around.
4. I won’t eat in a restaurant ………. is not clean.
5. I want to live in a place ………. there are lots of shops.
6. Yesterday was a day ………. everything went wrong!
7. He is a teacher ………. we all respect.
8. He ………. never climbs never falls.
1. who
2. that (which)
3. that (which)
4. that (which)
5. where
6. when
7. whom
8. who

Question 2.
Look at the table on p. 137. Here are sentences for completing the table.

For Persons:
Subject:
1. The thief who stole my money was caught.
2. The minister who was corrupt was forced to resign.

Object:
1. The girl whom you saw in my house is my cousin.
2. The man who gave me the book is my neighbour.

Possessive:
1. The article is about Nehru whose daughter became the PM later.
2. That lady whose children have abandoned her is very poor.

For Things:
Subject:
1. This is the watch that/which created the big problem.
2. That is the horse that/which came first in the race.

Object:
1. The bike which/that I bought was very expensive.
2. The letter which/that I wrote brought me trouble.

Possessive:
1. This is the Prize of which I am always happy.
2. This is a gain of which the government is proud.

Activity 3

Question Tags (p. 138)
We often change a statement into a question by adding a tag to it. The rule is if the statement is positive, the tag must be negative. If the statement is negative the tag must be positive. We repeat the auxiliary in the statement. If there is no auxiliary, we use do, does or did according to the context.

I. Identify the correct question tag and fill in the blanks.

Question 1.
He sometimes reads the newspaper, …………..?
(don’t he?/doesn’t he?/does he?)
doesn’t he?

Question 2.
I think he’s from Maldives,…………..?
(doesn’t he?/ don’t I?/ isn’t he?)
isn’t he?

Question 3.
Don’t talk while I am teaching,…………..?
(do you?/ amn’t you?/ will you?)
will you?

Question 4.
Let’s go swimming,…………..?
(aren’t we?/ let we?/ shall we?)
shall we?

Question 5.
Pass me the salt,…………..?
(do you?/ won’t you?/ are you?)
won’t you?

Question 6.
He could have bought a new car,…………..?
(couldn’t he?/ haven’t he?/ could he?)
couldn’t he?

Question 7.
The girl won’t sing in the party,…………..?
(does she?/ will she?/ do she?)
will she?

Question 8.
He went on a tour,…………..?
(aren’t he? / didn’t he?/ don’t he?)
didn’t he?

II. Fill in the blanks

Question 1.
You are an Indian,…………..?
aren’t you?

Question 2.
I’m late,…………..?
aren’t I?

Question 3.
The boy is from Kottayam,…………..?
isn’t he?

Question 4.
He’ll never know,…………..?
will he?

Question 5.
Ann has cleaned the plates,…………..?
didn’t she?

Question 6.
Anu and Manu will arrive tomorrow,…………..?
won’t they?

Question 7.
Vivek played football yesterday,…………..?
didn’t he?

III. Read the dialogue between two friends and fill in the blanks appropriately.

Rajeev: Good morning Madhav, I’m not too early, …………..?
Madhav: No, not at all. You have brought all the documents,………?
Rajeev: I’ll get ready soon. You wouldn’t mind waiting for five minutes,……….?
Madhav: Ok. No problem. At what time shall we leave?
Rajeev: By 9 o’ clock. I think we will reach the bank in time,………?
i. am i?
ii. haven’t you?
iii. will you?
iv. won’t we?

Activity 4

(Reported or Indirect Speech)
When we report what someone else has said, we have to make some changes in what he said. For example: “Where is Grandpa?” I asked Grandma. When we report it, it will be: I asked Grandma where Grandpa was. We notice that there are some changes:
a) The word order is changed.
b) The tense is changed, ‘is’ becoming ‘was’.
c) Instead of the question mark we use a full stop in the reported speech.
d) There are no quotation marks.

b.
I asked Grandma where Grandpa was.

• what type of a sentence is reported?
• which reporting word is used here?
• Which word is used as a linker?
• What kind of changes are made in the sentence in direct speech?
• Are there changes in punctuation?

• a question
• No linker is used here
• Changes are mentioned above.
• There are changes in the punctuation.

Report the following sentences and analyse the changes you make while reporting them.
1. ‘What are you doing in America?’ he asked the man.
3. ‘Can you help me?’ she asked the boy.
4. ‘Watch him carefully,’ she said to her mother.
5. ‘Why did you come late?’ the teacher asked her.
6. ‘Please don’t touch it,’ he said to her.
8. ‘I am not going to sit here,’ said Aunt Jain.
9. ‘Let us pay the hospital bill with this money. said Jill.
1. He asked the man what he was doing in America.
3. She asked the boy if he could help her.
4. She told her mother to watch him carefully.
5. The teacher asked her why she came late.
6. He requested her not to touch it.
7. The principal asked her what her grandfather said.
8. Aunt Jane said that she was not going to sit there.
9. Jill wanted to pay the hospital bill with that money.

### Let’s Edit

Read the following summary of the story written by a student of Std X. There are some errors in it which are given in bold letters. Edit the passage and rewrite it.

The Scholarship Jacket’ is a story by Marta Salinas and is about a Mexican girl named Martha. Every year in the Texas school, a scholarship Jacket were (a) presented to the class valedictorian. This scholarship Jacket was the only object in Marthas (b) mind. She was a skinny girl which (c) was not very pretty. However, she was enough smart (d) and had maintained an A plus average in her eight years of school. One day, she overheard two teachers arguing on why the Jacket should be give (e) to Joann. The next day the principal fold her that the scholarship Jacket was going to cost fifteen dollars, and if she couldn’d (f) pay for it, it would be given to the runner-up. Martha left a (g) school in tears, and was even more heartbroken when her grandfather said she couldn’t have the money. The next day, she told the principal dejectedly that she couldn’t have the scholarship Jacket and explained what (h). As she was about to exit the office she mentioned Joann’s name. The principal, feeling guilty told Martha why (i) she would have the scholarship Jacket. Finally, Martha realised that she had earned her Jacket, and hadn’t (j) purchased it.
a) was
b) Martha’s
c) who
d) smart enough
e) given
f) couldn’t
g) the
h) why
i) that

### The Never Never Nest Summary in English

“The Never- Never Nest” is a one-act play about a young couple named Jack and Jill. They have a small baby. They make full use of the “buy-now-pay-later” marketing scheme. One day, their aunt, whose name is Jane, visits them. She is surprised to find that even though Jack’s salary is not very high, they live in a beautiful house with all comforts. There was fine furniture, a radiogram, a piano, a car and a refrigerator. Jane then began to wonder if as a wedding gift she had given them a cheque for 2000 Pounds instead of the 200 she had planned to give. Otherwise how could Jack and Jill buy all these things? She also thought the rent for such a big house must be very high. Then Jack tells her they pay do not pay rent as they owned the house. They had bought it on instalment just like they bought all the other things in the house.

Aunt Jane then realizes that though Jack and Jill have everything in their house, nothing really belongs to them. They bought everything on instalment basis. In their car, only a tyre and one or two other things have been paid for. Only one leg of the sofa has been paid for. The total amount to be paid as instalments per week comes to more than seven Pounds. Jack earns only six pounds a week. Jill is a housewife. When Aunt Jane asks how they could pay seven Pounds a week when he is earning only six Pounds, Jack says that they would take a loan. Aunt Jane was shocked at the way Jack and Jill ran their home. Before she left, she gives them a cheque for ten Pounds asking them to make at least one article completely their own, using that money.

While Jack goes with Aunt Jane to the bus stop, Jill sent the money to Dr. Martin. Jack comes back and says that he wants to pay two months’ instalments on the car using that money. But Jill says that she has already sent that money to Dr. Martin so that at least their baby would become completely theirs!

## Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 2 Chapter 7 India: The Land of Diversities

You can download India: The Land of Diversities Questions and Answers, Summary, Activity, Notes, Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 2 Chapter 7 help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

## Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 2 Chapter 7 India: The Land of Diversities

### India: The Land of Diversities TextBook Questions and Answers

India is a large country with liverse topography. The major peographical features are the Northern mountain ranges, the trans-Himalayan, the Himalayas and the Eastern high lands, the northern plains. The Himalayan rivers, the desert which is part of the northern plains. In the peninsular India, the mountains are the Aravalli mountains, Vindhya, satpura, western ghats, and the eastern ghats. The long western and eastern coastal plain and the islands of laccading and Andaman and Nicolas Islands also is part of India.

India The Land Of Diversity Sslc Kerala Syllabus Chapter 7 Question 1.
Answer the following questions with the help of Atlas.
i) Countries of Indian subcontinent
ii) Countries sharing land frontier with India
iii) Neighboring countries situated in Indian Ocean
i) Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh
ii) Afghanistan, Pakistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar
iii) Sri Lanka, Indonesia, and Maldives

Sslc Geography Chapter 7 Kerala Syllabus Question 2.
Mountains of Northern Mountain system are depicted in the figure. Name the places.

A) 1) Karakoram
2) Himachal
3) Siwalik
C) 1) Patkai Bum
2) Naga hills
3) Khasi, Garo,
4) Mizo hills

India The Land Of Diversities Kerala Syllabus Chapter 7 Question 3.
Name the in the Eastern hill region.

• Assam
• Nagaland
• Meghalaya
• Mizoram
• Manipur
• Sikkim
• Tripura

Sslc Geography Chapter 7 Notes Kerala Syllabus Question 4.
Mark the mountain ranges belonging to the northern mountains in the outline map of India provided.

India The Land Of Diversity Kerala Syllabus Chapter 7 Question 5.
Observe the figure and write down the Himalayan rivers, their tributaries, and the states through which they flow.

India The Land Of Diversity In Geography Kerala Syllabus Chapter 7 Question 6.
Identify the states included in Northern Great Plains.
1. West Bengal
2. Bihar
3. ……….
4. ……….
1. West Bengal
2. Bihar
3. Rajastan
4. Punjab
5. Uttarakhand
6. U.P
7. Assam

Scert Class 10 Social Science Kerala Syllabus Chapter 7 Question 7.
Name the region where alluvial soil is found in India.

• Northern great plains
• Coastal plains
• Riverbanks

Sslc Social Science Notes Kerala Syllabus Chapter 7 Question 8.
In between which physiographic divisions is the Northern Great plains located?
Between Northern mountains and peninsular plateau.

Hss Live Social Science 10th Kerala Syllabus Chapter 7 Question 9.
The Northern Great Plains have a good network of roads, rail, and canals. Why?
The Northern Great plains are formed by the alluvial deposits of Himalayan rivers. This is one of the largest alluvial plains of the world. Since it has a flat topography, construction of roads, rail and canals is easy.

Social Science Class 10 Kerala Syllabus  Question 10.
The Marusthali-Bagar region of Rajasthan is least populated. Why?
Marusthali-Bagar which constitutes the western part of Northern Great Plains receives very less rainfall. This has become a desert. The hottest place in India, Jaisalmer, is in this desert. Desert soil with rich salt content and less moisture content is found here. This soil is not suitable for agriculture. Shrubs and thorny plants grow here. Due to these, this region is least populated.

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Notes Chapter 7 Question 11.
Prepare a seminar paper on the topic: The Influence of Northern Great Plains in India’s Development.
Northern Great Plains situated between Northern mountain system and Peninsular plateau play a decisive role in the economic development of India. Northern Great Plains is formed due to the continuous depositional activity of the Himalayan rivers. With several thousand kilometers of thickness, these plains spread to about 7 lakh km2. This plain is one of the world’s most extensive alluvial plains. The plains are also known as Indo- Gangetic-Brahmaputra plain.

Alluvial soils are the major type of soil in there plains. There soils are highly fertile. So there plains are called the backbone of Indian agriculture. The Northern Plains are also known as the granary of India. Major crops cultivated here are wheat, maize, paddy, sugarcane, cotton and pulses. Fertile soils, flat land and the availability of waterthroughout the year attract people to these plains. So it is the most densely populates region in India. A variety of food crops and cash crops which add to the economic prosperity of India are produced here.

Along with agriculture, many agro-based industries and mineral-based industries are located here. The growth of industries paved the way for the emergence of many cities. The major Indian cities are located in these plains. The plains have well-connected road and railway network which help to transport goods to different parts of the country. The Great Plains are the birthplace of Indian culture. Many Hindu pilgrim centers are located here. Thus the Great Plains help in the cultural life of India also.

Sslc Social Science Malayalam Medium Kerala Syllabus Chapter 7 Question 12.
Mark the major features of the peninsular plateau in the outline map of India. Provides map of India
Provides map of India

Social Notes For Class 10 State Syllabus Chapter 7 Question 13.
Observe the map (fig 8.2) and find out the rivers flowing through the peninsular plateau.

Sslc History Chapter 1 Notes Pdf Kerala Syllabus Chapter 7 Question 14.
Peninsular rivers and the direction flow:

 West flowing East flowing North flowing 1. Narmada 1. Mahanadi 1. Chambal 2. Tapti 2. Godavari 2. Betwa 3. Krishna 3. Son 4. Cauvery 4. Ken

10th Social Science Notes Pdf State Syllabus Chapter 7 Question 15.
The Himalayan ranges are known as a natural barrier. What changes would have happened in India if this mountain range was not there? Explain with example.
The Himalayan ranges influence the culture, economy, and climate of India. The Himalayan ranges run at a distance of about 2400 km from Kashmir to Indian border in the east.

• The Himalayas, the world’s highest mountain system, separates Indian subcontinent from the Asian continent and helped India from foreign aggression and the development of its own culture.
• Protects the North Indian states from severe cold by preventing the cold winds blowing from north Asian regions.
• It obstructs the monsoon winds and brings the whole of India under rainfall.
• The glaciers and ice fields in the Himalayan peaks are storehouse of freshwater. These are the sources of origin for the Himalayan rivers which help in the economic prosperity of India.
• Indo-Gangetic plains, formed by the alluvial deposits of these rivers are the backbone of India agriculture and the granary of India.
• The Himalayas is the habitat of rare species of plants and animals.
• This region with cool climate and beautiful natural scenery is a tourist paradise.
• In the absence of the Himalayas, all the above-mentioned factors would not have been available to India.

Social 10th Class Notes State Syllabus Chapter 7 Question 16.
What are the characteristics of Peninsular rivers compared to Himalayan rivers?
Peninsular rivers have:

• Less catchment area
• Intensity of erosion is less
• Deep valleys are not formed because they flow through hard rocks.
• Less potential for inland navigation.
• Rainfed only

Question 17.
The Northern Great Plains are the most densely populated region in India. Give reason.
Alluvial soil, the most fertile soil is found in the Great Plains. The Great Plain is known as the granary of India. The Himalayan rivers flowing through the plains provide water throughout the year. Flatland enables the construction of good network of roads and railways. India’s agriculture and industries are concentrated here. Road, rail and canal transport help to carry people and goods. Due to these rea¬sons, the Northern Great Plains are the most densely populated region in India.

Question 18.
Most of the peninsular river enters the plain by forming waterfalls. Why is it so?
Most of the peninsular mountains and through the plateau regions. So when they enter the plain waterfalls are formed.

Question 19.
Complete the table showing details of Peninsular rivers.

What Plants Grow on Mount Everest Question 20.
Name the highest waterfall in India.
Jog falls in Saravathi river in Karnataka

10th Standard in India Question 21.
Using the indicators, complete the columns in the table.

 Indicators Himalayan rivers Peninsular rivers Catchment area Erosive capability Availability of water Inland navigation

 Indicators rivers Himalayan rivers Peninsular Catchment area Extensive Comparatively small Erosive capability High Low Availability of water Snow fed and rain-fed Rainfed Inland navigation More chance Less chance

Average Height of Kerala Question 22.
The names of some major towns and cities situated along the river banks are given below. Prepare a. table in the given format by identify the river banks along which each is located. Also, locate these towns and cities in the outline map of India.
New Delhi: Agra, Devaprayag, Varanasi, Allahabad, Patna, Guvaheti, Kolkata, Ludiyana, Srinagar, Ahamedabad, Surat, Vijayawada, Thiruchirapally, Tanjavur, Coorg.

Question 23.
Delta are commonly formed along the east coastal plain, but not along the west coastal plain, why is it so?
When compared to the western coastal plain, eastern coastal is wider. So the east-flowing rivers at its lower coast flows through vast plains creating deltas.

Question 24.
Mark the Lakshadweep Islands and Andaman and Nicobar on the pep of India.

Question 25.
Point out 2 features of desert soil.

1. Rich salt content
2. Very little moisture content

Question 26.
Mark the answers to the following geoinformation in the outline map of India.

a) The southernmost Himalayan range
b) Major type of soil in Marusthali Bagar plain
c) Coromandel Coast
d) The southernmost point of India
a) Siwalik
b) Desert soil
c) Coromandel Coast
d) Indira Point

Question 27.
From which state do the following rivers originate?
Krishna, Godavari

Question 28.
The names of some rivers are given. List them as originating from the Himalayas and from the Western Ghats.
Jhelum, Cauvery, Yamuna, Krishna, Kosi, Godavari

 Rivers originating from Himalayas Rivers originating from Western Ghats 1. Jhelum 1. Cauvery 2. Yamuna 2. Krishna 3. Kosi 3. Godavari

Question 29.
Why is Peninsular plateau called the storehouse of minerals?

1. There are large deposits of different minerals occur in this area.
2. Iron ore, coal, manganese, bauxite, limestone, etc. are found.

Question 30.
Which are the river valleys in eastern coastal plain where paddy is cultivated on a large scale?
River valleys of Cauvery, Krishna, Godavari, and Mahanadi
Climate:
In India like physiography climate also is diverse. Latitude, physiography nearness to ocean and attitude are the factors influencing the climate of India. In India seasons can be generally classified into winter season December, January, February. Summer: March, April, May, June, Southwest monsoon season June, July, August, September, Northeast monsoon season October, November, Summer, and winter is severe in north India. In peninsular India there is not much difference in the summer and winter temperature. Southwest monsoon brings plenty of rainfall to the western coast of India, whereas the coromandel coast receives rain from the northeast monsoon.

Question 31.
Which are the winter months in India?
December, January, February

Question 32.
Coastal regions experience comparatively high temperatures. why?
Water has a higher heat capacity than soil and rock. So the ocean takes much longer to heat and to cool than the land.

Question 33.
Which are the months of southwest monsoon season in India?
June, July, August, September

Question 34.
Rainfall is comparatively less along the eastern slopes of the western ghats, why?
The eastern slope of the western ghats lies to the law and side of the southwest monsoon. So this region has become a rain shadow region.

Question 35.
By what name is the southwest monsoon rain known in Kerala?
‘Idavapathi’

Question 36.
What is the role of eastern high lands in the heavy rainfall in the northeastern states?
The Bay of Bengal branch of the southwest Mon¬soon advances northward by absorbing more mois¬ture from the Bay of Bengal. Again it bifurcates and one branch
which turns towards northeastern states is blocked by the eastern highlands bringing plenty of rainfall.

Question 37.
‘What causes the rightward deflection of these winds?
In the northern home, sphere winds deflect towards right due to the conolis effect and the southward movement of the sun.

Question 38.
By what name is the northeast monsoon rain known in Kerala?
Thulavarsham

Question 39.
Observe the map on your textbook page 131 and answer the following questions.
i) Places receiving more than 200cm rainfall
ii) Places receiving less than 60cm rainfall
iii) Reason for the imbalance in the distribution of rainfall.
i) Kerala, Northeastern states
ii) Rajasthan, Interior of Decan and the earth of the sahadris.
iii) Physiography, Distance from the sea

Question 40.
What is western disturbance? Write its benefit.
During the cold-weather season of India, low pres¬sure systems develop over the Mediterranean sea and travel towards east under the influence of jet streams and enter India. This causes winter rainfall in North plains, especially in Punjab. This is known as western disturbance. This is most suitable for the cultivation of rabi crops like wheat and barley.

Question 41.
Explain ‘October heat’.
The northeast monsoon season experienced in the months of October and November is an interval between rainy season and cold weather season. The high temperature and humidity experienced all over India during this time make the day time very un-comfortable or sultry. This phenomenon is called October heat.

Question 42.
Though northeast monsoon winds are dry, they cause heavy rainfall over the Coromandel coast of India. How?
During the northeast monsoon period, low pressure areas are formed over the Bay of Bengal and attract air from land. The monsoon winds which blow from land to ocean get moisture from the Bay of Bengal and move in south-east direction. These winds cause heavy rainfall over the Coromandel coast.

Question 43.
Which are the different types of soil found in India?

1. Alluvial soil
2. Black soil
3. Red soil
4. Laterite soil
5. Desert soil
6. Mountain soil

Question 44.
Complete the following flow chart.

Question 45.
Mention the heights of
i) Mount Everest
ii) Mount K2
i) 8848 m
ii) 8661 m

Question 46.
Match the following.

 A B Brahmaputra Khasi Indus Mount K2 Trans Himalayas Himachal Pradesh Purvachal Chemayundung

 A B Brahmaputra Chemavunduna Indus Himachal Pradesh Trans Himalayas Mount K2 Purvachal Khasi

Question 47.
Regions close to oceans experience high temperatures during winter season. Why?
Land gets heated up and cools quickly than ocean. Land experiences high pressure during winter season and ocean low pressure. The dense air from regions lying close to ocean move to less dense air area of ocean. This reduces the cold of those places.

Question 48.
During southwest monsoon period, less rainfall is experienced on the east of Western Ghats. Why?
The Western ghats obstruct the rain-bearing Arabian sea branch of southwest monsoon winds and cause heavy rainfall on the western margins in the state of Kerala, Karnataka, Goa, and Maharashtra. But the east of Western Ghats receives only less rainfall. This is because by the time the monsoon winds cross the Western Ghats and reach the east, the moisture content in them will be lost. This is the reason why Tamil Nadu gets scanty rainfall during southwest monsoon period while Kerala receives heavy rainfall. The eastern part of Western Ghats is a rain shadow region.

Question 49.
What are the reasons for regional distribution of rainfall in India?

1. Physiography
2. Location of mountain ranges
3. Nearness to oceans
4. Distance from oceans
5. Direction of wind.
6. Extent of land

Question 50.
How is India divided on the basis of the distribution of rainfall?

• Heavy rainfall regions (above 200 ems): West coast plains, northeastern states and sonic parts in the Himalayan regions.
• High rainfall regions (between 100 and 200 ems): Western Ghats regions, most parts of North Indian Plains, Northeastern parts of Peninsular India and northeastern regions.
• Moderate rainfall regions (between 60 and 100 ems): Southwest of Kashmir, Malwa Plateau, Deccan Plateau and central parts of Tamil Nadu.
• Low rainfall regions (below 60 ems): Rajasthan, western parts of Gujarat, central parts of Deccan Plateau and northern parts of Kashmir.

Question 51.
What are the peculiarities of Lakshadweep?

• Located in the Arabian Sea about 300 kms away from Kochi.
• Consists of 36 islands.
• Only 11 islands are inhabited
• Kavarathi is the capital of Lakshadweep
• Lagoons, sandy shores, and coral reefs are present.
• Agriculture is only namesake and people mainly depend on sea for livelihood.
• Fishing and tourism are the main sources of incomb.

Question 52.
Write the peculiarities of Andaman and Nicobar islands.

1. Situated in the Bay of Bengal.
2. Consist of two groups of islands – Andaman with 200 islands and Nicobar with 19 islands.
3. Majority of the islands are uninhabited.
4. Most of them have thick forests.
5. The only volcano of India is situated in the Barren island here. –
6. Port Blair is the capital.

Question 53.
Complete the following table showing the features of soils in India.

Indira Point which is the southern tip of Nicobar islands is treated as the southernmost part of India.

Question 54.
Which are the two branches of southwest monsoon winds? Identify the regions where they cause rainfall.
Due to the peculiar shape of the Indian peninsula, the southwest monsoon winds enter India by bifurcating into two branches -Arabian Sea branch and Bay of Bengal branch.

Arabian Sea Branch:
The Arabian sea branch which reaches Kerala coast by the beginning of June gives heavy rainfall in the western parts of Kerala, Karnataka, Goa, and Maharashtra.

Bay of Bengal branch:
The Bay of Bengal branch which absorbs moisture from Bay of Bengal advances through Sundarban delta and enters West Bengal and bifurcates into two. One branch enters the Brahmaputra plains and gives heavy rainfall in the northeastern states. Khasi, Garo hills obstruct the winds to cause rainfall.

The other branch enters the Ganga plains and gives rainfall in the states of West Bengal, Bihar, and Utter Pradesh. This branch joins with the Arabian Sea branch in the Punjab plain, moves northward and gives heavy rainfall in the foothills of the Himalayas.

Question 55.
The highest peak in India is ………………
Mount K2

Question 56.
After studying the features of Indian coastal regions, Suresh said that eastern coast is entirely different form western coast
a) Do you agree with this?
b) Why?
a) Yes, I agree
b) The reasons are given below.

 East coast West coast 1. Located between Eastern Ghats and Bay of Bengal 1. Located between Western Ghats and Arabian sea 2. Stretches from Sundarbansto Kanyakumari 2. Stretches from Rann of Kutch to Kanyakumari 3. Comparatively wider Deltas are formed 3. Comparatively narrow Lagoons and estuaries are formed 4. Influenced by northeast monsoon 4. Influenced by southwest monsoon

Question 57.
Prepare a short description about the Northern Mountain region.
These mountain ranges starting from the northwest of Kashmir and extending up to the eastern boundary of India is known as the Northern Mountains. This mountain range is classified into Trans Himalayas, Himalayas and Eastern Highlands.

Question 58.
Prepare a description about the Himalayas.
The Himalayan mountain ranges extend between the Trans Himalayas and the eastern high lands. These mountain ranges have a length of 2400 km. Many of the world’s highest peaks are situated here. The height of these mountains tends to decrease towards the east. The physical division extending over 5 lakh sq.km, comprises of three parallel mountain ranges.

Question 59.
What are the features of Himadri, which is part of Himalayas?

1. The highest mountain range.
2. Average altitude is 6000 meters.
3. Origin of the rivers Ganga and Brahmaputra has a number of peaks above 8000 meters.

Question 60.
Differentiate Himachal from Himadri and Siwalik.
Situated to the south of the Himadri Average altitude is 3000 mts. The hill stations like Shimla, Darjeeling, etc. are situated in the southern slopes of this range.

Question 61.
What are the features of Siwalik?

1. Situated to the south of the Himachal.
2. Average altitude is 1220 meters.
3. As the Himalayan rivers cut across this range, its continuity breaks at many places. Broad flat valleys seen
4. along these ranges are called Duns.

Question 62.
Cherrapunji, the place receiving the highest rainfall in the world is located in which mountain?
Eastern highlands/ Poorvachal

Question 63.
On which mountain range are the hill stations like Shimla and Darjeeling?
b. Himachal
c. Siwalik
d. Poorvachal
b. Himachal

Question 64.
What are ‘Duns
Broad flat valleys formed as Himalayan rivers cut across this range are called Duns.

Question 65.
Identify the correct statements related to Himalayas rivers.
a. Comparatively smaller catchment area.
b. Extensive catchment area.
c. Intensity of erosion is less.
d. Intensive erosion
(i) ‘a’ and ‘c’ are correct
(ii) ‘b’ and ‘d’ are correct
(iii) ‘b’ and ‘c’ are correct
(iv) ‘b’ and ‘d’ are correct,
‘b’ and ‘d’ are correct

Question 66.
On which coasted plain do deltas are formed?
Eastern coastal plain

Question 67.
What is ‘October heat’?
During October-November, which is the transition period between the rainy season to winter. During this time the days become unbearable due to high temperature
and humidty. This phenomenon is known as October heat.

Question 68.
Which Monsoon season brings rainfall to the coromandel coast?
North-East Monsoon/ Retreating Monsoon.

Question 69.
The Himalayan ranges are known as a natural bar¬rier. What changes would have happened in India if this mountain range was not there? Explain with example.
The Himalayan ranges influence the culture, economy, and climate of India. The Himalayan ranges run at a distance of about 2400 km from Kashmir to Indian border in the east.

• The Himalayas, the world’s highest mountain system, separates Indian subcontinent from the Asian continent and helped India from foreign aggression and the development of its own culture.
• Protects the North Indian states from severe cold by preventing the cold winds blowing from north Asian regions.
• It obstructs the monsoon winds and brings the whole of India under rainfall.
• The glaciers and ice fields in the Himalayan peaks are storehouse of freshwater. These are the sources of origin for the Himalayan rivers which help in the economic prosperity of India.
• Indo-Gangetic plains, formed by the alluvial deposits of these rivers, are the backbone of India agriculture and the granary of India.
• The Himalayas is the habitat of rare species of plants and animals.
• This region with cool climate and beautiful natural scenery is a tourist paradise.
• In the absence of the Himalayas, all the above-mentioned factors would not have been available to India. ‘

Question 70.
Distinguish between Himalayan rivers and Penisular rivers.

 Himalayan rivers Peninsular rivers Originate from the hills of Himalayan ranges Originate from the hills of Peninsular plateau Extensive catchment area Comparatively less catchment area High erosive capability Intensity of erosion is less Develop canyons (gorges) in the mountains and meanders in plains Deep valleys are not formed because they flowthrough hard rocks Large volume of water Less volume of water inland navigation is possible in the plains Rainfed and snow-fed High irrigational capacity Less chances for inland navigation Rain fed only Low irrigational capacity

Question 71.
What are the characteristics of Peninsular rivers compared to Himalayan rivers?
Peninsular rivers have:

• Less catchment area
• Intensity of erosion is less
• Deep valleys are not formed because they flow through hard rocks.
• Less potential for inland navigation.
• Rainfed only

Question 72. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Given is the map showing the direction of monsoon winds. Observe the map and prepare a description based on the hints given.

1. Monsoon season
2. Nature of winds
South-west monsoon winds enter the Indian subcontinent after bifurcating due to the peculiar shape of peninsular India. The Arabian sea branch enters the western coast and brings rainfall to the western coasted area. The Bay of Bengal branch enters India through odishe and Sudarban delta and again bifurcates and brings rainfall to northeastern.

Question 73. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Identify the rivers hinted below and write any two features of them.
a) River originating from the Chema-yung-dung glacier in the Kaila’s ranges.
b) One of the major tributaries is Yamuna
Brahmaputra flows through Tibet first and enters India and flow 725KM through India and enters Bangladesh Ganga is the longest river flowing through India. It joins Brahmaputra after entering Bangladesh.

Question 74. (Qn. Pool-2017)
While comparing it is understood that the Himalayan Rivers are quite different from the Peninsular rivers in every respect. Substantiate.

 Himalayan Rivers Peninsular River 1. Originate from the mountain Himalayan 1. Originate from the mountain ranger in the peninsular plateau 2. Extensive catchment area 2. Caperatively smaller catchment area 3. Intensive erosion 3. Intensity of erosion less 4. Creats gorges in the mountain region and meandering courses in the plains. 4. Do not create deep valleys due to herd and resistant rocks 5. High irrigatives potential 5. Less irrigation potential 6. Navigable along the plains 6. Navigalious potential is low

Question 75. (Qn. Pool-2017)
What are the factors causing variations in the cli¬mate experienced in India?

1. Latitude
2. Physiography
3. Nearness to ocean
4. Attitude

Question 76. (Qn. Pool – 2017)
Describe the characteristics of the different seasons in India.
Major seasons experienced in India are

• Winter season from December to February. During this time extreme cold and snowfall in the Himalayan region is usual. Due to the origin of cyclone the Mediterranean and its shift towards eart under the influenced of the stream brings rainfall in Punjab and Hariyana known as the western disturbance.
• Summer season: Summer months are March to June in India. During this time extreme heat is experienced in rest India.
• Southwest monsoon season: This is the highest rainfall season in India. Sun is in the northern hemisphere low-pressure area increated and as a result wind defect right and reach Indians sub continued.
• Northeast monsoon season. By the end of September, then sun is in the southern hemisphere low pressure is created over bay of Bengal and the Monsoon winds deflect right and blow from the northeast directions.

Question 77.
Write notes by mentioning the major soil types and the major crops cultivated in the northern plains as well as in the peninsular plateau.

 Area Major soil type Crops Northern plateau Alluvial soil desert soil wheat, maize, rice, sugarcane, cotton pub Peninsular plateau Black soil Red soil Laterite soil Cotton sugarcane, groundnut Pulses Rubber

Question 78. (Qn. Pool – 2017)
Name the branches of southwest monsoon bifurcated by the Indian peninsula. How do these branches influence the climate of India?
Arabian sea branch. The Arabian sea branch reaches the coast of Kerala by early June comes heavy rainfall in the western coastal areas. The Bay of Bengal branch of the Southwest

Question 79. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Write the location of India based on latitudes and longitudes.
Between the latitudes 8° 4′ North and 37° 25′ North latitudes.
Between the longitudes 68° 7′ East and 97° 25′ East longitudes.

Question 80. (Qn. Pool-2017)
The names of a few mountain ranges are given below. Categorize and tabulate them suitably, TransHimalayas, Himalayas, Eastern mountains.
a) Karakoram
b) Jaintia
c) Himachal
d) Shiwalik
f) Naga hills

 Trans Himalayas Himalayas Eastern mountains Karakoram Ladak Himachal Shiwalik Jaintia Naga hills

Question 81. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Write notes on the Himalayan rivers based on the given hints.
1. Origin
2. Tributaries
3. Length
4. States through which they flow
5. Sea to which they join
1. Indus – Manasarovar lake – 2280 km – Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, Sutlej – Jammu & Kashmir
2. Ganga – Gangothri Glacier/Gaumukh caves – 2500 km – Yamuna, Son, Ghaghra, Kosi, Gandak – Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal- Bay of Bengal
3. Brahmaputra – Chema-Yung-dung glacier – 2900 km – Tista, Manaas, Luni, Subansiri – Arunachal Pradesh, Assam

Question 82. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Which are the physiographic divisions between which the Northern Great Plains are situated?
Between the Northern mountains/ Himalayas and the Peninsular plateau.

Question 83. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Which is the most common soil type found in the Northern Great Plains and in the coastal plains?
Alluvial soil

Question 84. (Qn. Pool-2017)
The road, rail and canal network in India is largely concentrated in the Northern plains. Why?

• Extensive and level topography
• High density of population.
• Necessity of various means of transportation for agriculture, industry, etc.

Question 85. (Qn. Pool -2017)
The role of Northern plains is decisive in the agricultural economy of India. Do you agree with the statement? Why?

• Fertile alluvial soil – water availability – favorable climate.
• Wheat, rice, maize, sugar cane, cotton, pulses, etc. are largely cultivated here.
• The Northern plains is also known as the granary of India.

Question 86.(Qn. Pool-2017)
Which are the major mountain ranges within the Peninsular plateau?
Vindhya, Satpura, Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats, Aravallies, etc.

Question 87. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Identify the physiographic division from where the following rivers originate and flow. Classify these rivers as east-flowing rivers and west-flowing rivers. Narmada, Mahanadi, Godawari, Krishna, Kaveri, Tapti

1. Peninsular plateau
2. East-flowing – Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri

Question 88. (Qn. Pool-2017)
A few peninsular rivers flow northwards and join river Yamuna and river Ganga. – Identify the rivers.
1. River joining Ganga-Son
2. Rivers joining Yamuna – Chambal, Betwa, and Ken

Question 89. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Which are the major peninsular rivers? Describe them based on the elements – like origin, direction of flow, length, tributaries, states through which they flow and the sea to which joins.

• Mahanadi – Maikala ranges – East flowing – 857 km – lb, Tel – Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha – Bay of Bengal
• Godavari – Nasik district in Maharashtra – East-flowing – 1465 km – Indravathi, Sabari – Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh – Bay of Bengal
• Krishna – Mahabaleswar hills – East-flowing – 1400 km – Bhima, Thungabhadra – Maharashtra, Andhrapradesh Bay of Bengal
• Kaveri – Brahmagiri hills – 800 km – East-flowing – Kabani, Amaravathi, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Bay of Bengal
• Narmada – Maikala ranges – 1312 km – West¬flowing – Hiran, Banjan – Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat-Arabian Sea
• Tapti – Muntai plateau – 724 km – West-flowing – Anar, Girna – Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra – Arabian Sea

Question 90. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Waterfalls are usually created along peninsular rivers. Give reason.

1. The edges of the plateau remain elevated from the surroundings
2. The rivers enter the coastal plains from the plateau by creating waterfalls along these edges.

Question 91. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Deltas are not formed along the west coastal plain as that of east coastal plain. Why?

1. West-flowing rivers are comparatively small.
2. Smaller amounts of sediments are deposited.

Question 92. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Distribution of rainfall is not uniform everywhere in India. List out the geographical factors influencing the distribution of rainfall.

• Physiography
• Latitudinal location
• Nearness to sea
• Altitude
• Direction of winds (any 4)

Question 93. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Write down the location of physiographic divisions of India with respect to the other physiographic divisions.

• Northern mountains – North of the Northern great plain
• Northern Great plain – Between the Peninsular plateau and the Northern mountains.
• Peninsular plateau – Between the Northern plains and the Coastal plains
• Coastal plains – Between the peninsular plateau and the coastal plains.

Question 94. (Qn. Pool-2017)
The Northern mountain region consists of a number of mountain ranges. Which are those mountain ranges?

• Himalayas – Himadri, Himachal, Siwalik
• Eastern hills – Patkaibum, Naga hills, Garo, Khasi, Jaintia hills, Meso hills.

Question 95. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Each mountain ranges in the Himalayas consists of distinct features. Substantiate the statement.
1. Himadri – i. Average height 6000 m
ii. The major rivers such as Ganga, Yamuna, etc.
iii. Comprises the peaks like Kanjanjunga, Nandadevi, etc.
2. Himachal – i. Average height 3000 m
ii. Comprises major hill stations like
iii. – Shimla, Darjeeling, etc.
3. Siwaliks – i. Average height 1220 m
ii. The continuity breaks at many places as the rivers cut across them
iii. Broad and flat valleys called Dunes

Question 96. (Qn. Pool-2017)
The types of vegetation in the Himalaya mountain region varies with altitude. Substantiate the statement.

• The trees such as oak, chestnut, maple, etc. at an altitude between 1000 and 2000 meters.
• Coniferous trees such as deodar, fir, etc. are grown beyond 2000 meters.

Question 97. (Qn. Pool-2017)
What are the peculiar features of eastern hills?

• At an altitude of about 500 to 3000 meters.
• Cherrapunji, the place receiving the highest rainfall in the world is located here.
• Dense tropical evergreen forests.

Question 98. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Which is the most common soil type in the northern mountain region? Mention its characteristics.

• Mountain soil
• Black or brown in color, High fertility

Question 99. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Write a description on the human life in the Northern mountain region.

• Animal rearing – sheep are reared on commercial basis in Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, etc.
• Agriculture – Potato, barley, saffron, apple, orange, tea, etc. are cultivated in the Siwaliks ranges.
• Tourism – Shimla, Darjeeling, Kulu, Manali, etc. are the hill stations in the Himachal range.

Question 100. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Explain the influence of Northern mountains in the climate and human life of India.

• Protects to a certain extent from the foreign invasion from the north since ancient times.
• Causes rainfall throughout north India by blocking the monsoon winds.
• Prevents the cold winds blowing from the north from entering India.
• Place of diverse flora and fauna.
• The source region of major north Indian rivers.

Question 101. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Why is the Northern plains called as ‘the granary of India’?

• Availability of fertile soil and water are favorable for agriculture.
• Crops like wheat, rice, maize, sugar cane, cotton, pulses, etc. are largely cultivated here.

Question 102. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Write a note by explaining the geographical features of western part of the Northern plains.

• Dry desert soil
• Thrones and shrubs
• Meager rainfall.

Question 103. (Qn. Pool-2017)
The Peninsular plateau is a physiographic division with some unique characteristics. Which are these characteristics?

• Hard crystalline rocks
• Most extensive and old landform
• Area of 15 sq. km
• Storehouse of minerals
• Presence of black soil

Question 104. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Which are the soils found along the peninsular plateau? Explain their peculiarities.

• Black soil, Red soil, Laterite soil
• Peculiar features of each soil type

Question 105. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Complete the table by incorporating the information related to the given Himalayan Rivers.

Question 106. (Qn. Pool-2017)
What are the factors influencing the climate of India?

• Latitude
• Physiography
• Nearness to sea
• Altitude (any 3)

Question 107. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Name the season during which the climatic phenomenon called western disturbance occur and explains the formation.

• Winter
• The low pressure originating over the Mediterranean Sea moves eastwards due to the jet streams and reaches India. This causes rainfall in the northern plains, especially in the Punjab region.

Question 108. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Give reasons for the regional variation in the distribution of the south-west monsoon rains.

1. Rainfall is maximum along the windward slopes of the mountains. Thus the western side of the Western Ghats, the eastern highlands, and rain.
2. As the amount of moisture decreases with the advancement of Arabian Sea branch and Bay of Bengal branch, the amount of rainfall decreases from the coast towards the interior.
3. The eastern slopes of the Western Ghats is rain shadow region.

Question 109. (Qn. Pool-2017)
What are the characteristic features of north-east monsoon season?

1. Retreating monsoon season
2. High temperature and humidity makes the days unbearable (October heat)
3. Heavy rain along the Tamil Nadu coast
4. Rain also occurs along Kerala and Karnataka

Question 110. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Compare the characteristic features of Himalayan rivers and Peninsular rivers.

 Himalayan rivers Peninsular rivers Originates from the Himalayan in ranges Originates from the mountains the peninsular plateau Extensive catchment area catchment Comparatively small area Intense erosion Less intensity of erosion Forms gorges in the mountain region and meanders along the plains. Deep valleys are not created because of hard and resistant bedrocks High irrigation potential Less irrigation potential High inland navigation potential for along the plains Comparatively less potential inland navigation

Question 111. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Ken, Kabani, Sabari, and Tista are some of the tributary rivers. Mention the main rivers to which these tributaries join.
Ken — Ganga
Kabani — Kaveri
Sabari — Godavari
Tista — Brahmaputra

Question 112. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Mark and label the below mentioned geoinformation in the outline map of India.
a) River originated from the Maikala ranges and joins the Bay of Bengal
b) Plateau formed by volcanic activity
c) The southernmost major seaport.
d) The mountain range south-east of Thar Desert
b) Deccan plateau
c) Tuticorin
d) Aravalli ranges (These features are to be marked and labeled in map)

Question 113. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Compare the Himalayan rivers and Peninsular rives based on the given hints.
1. Intensity of erosion
2. Water availability
3. Catchment area

 Himalayan rivers Peninsular rivers Receives water from rain and snowmelt Receives water only from rain Extensive catchment area area Comparatively small catchment

Question 114. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Write anyone peculiar feature each for Himadri, Himachal and Shiwalik.
1. Himadri — i. Average height 6000 m.
ii. The major rivers such as Ganga, Yamuna, etc.
iii. Comprises the peaks like Kanjanjunga, Nandadevi, etc.
2. Himachal — i. Average height 3000 m
ii. Comprises major hill stations – Shimla, Darjeeling, etc.
3. Siwaliks — i. Average height 1220 m
ii. The continuity breaks at many places as the rivers cut across
iii. Broad flat valleys called Dunes

Question 115. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Observe the map and answer the questions.
a) Identify the physiographic divisions marked as a, b, c and d.
b) Write any one characteristic feature of each of them.

a) Northern Mountains
b) Peninsular plateau
c) East coastal plain
d) Northern plains

Question 116. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Observe the map and answer the questions.
a) Identify the physiographic divisions marked as A.
b) Write any 2 features of this physiographic division.

Question 117. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Explain how the Himalayan mountain ranges influence the culture and life of people of India.

• Protects us to a certain extent from the foreign invasion from the north since ancient times.
• Causes rainfall throughout north India by blocking the monsoon winds.
• Prevents the cold winds blowing from the north from entering India and protects north India from severe cold.
• Place of diverse flora and fauna
• The source region of major north Indian rivers.

Question 118. (Qn. Pool- 2017)
Identify the major rivers marked as A, B, C and D in the given map and classify them as Himalayan rivers and Peninsular rivers.

A. Ganga, B. Kaveri, C. Brahmaputra, D. Tapti

1. Ganga, Brahmaputra – Himalayan rivers
2. Kaveri, Tapti – Peninsular rivers

Question 119. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Identify the physiographic divisions situated between the Arabian Sea and the ‘Western Ghats as well as between the Bay of Bengal and the Eastern Ghats.

• West coastal plain and the East coastal plain respectively.
• East coast stretches from Sundarbans to Kanyakumari.
• West coast stretches from Rann of Kutch to Kanyakumari.

Question 120. (Qn. Pool-2017)
In the given flow chart showing the divisions of the northern mountains identify what a, b, c, d, e and f represents.

b) Siwalik
e) Khasi
f) Jaintia/Patkaibum

Question 121. (Qn. Pool-2017)
While the western parts of the Western Ghats receive heavy rainfall during the south-west monsoon, the eastern slopes receive little rainfall. Why?

• As the Western Ghats block is the monsoon winds coming from the southwest direction, the western slopes receive heavy rain.
• As the winds reaching the eastern side become dry, gives little rain.

Question 122. (Qn. Pool-2017)
What are the factors causing variations in the climate experienced in India?
Any two factors

Question 123. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Write a note on the features distinguishing the west coastal plain from the east coastal plain.
Features of west coastal plain

• Comparatively narrow
• Lakes and backwaters can be found
• Divided into Gujarat coast, Konkan coast and Malabar coast
• Between the Arabian sea and the Western ghats
• Extends from Rann of Kutch to Kanyakumari (any 4)

Question 124. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Write any four factors responsible for diverse climatic conditions experienced in different parts of India with one example each.
Latitude, Himalayan mountain range, nearness to sea, winds, distance from the sea, physiography, altitude (any .4 with one example each)

Question 125. (Qn. Pool-2017)
What are the reasons for uneven distribution of rainfall in India?
Nearness to sea, distance from the sea, location of mountains, direction of winds, extent of the land (any 3)

Question 126. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Describe the characteristics of the different seasons in India.

• Winter seasons – characteristics
• Summer season – characteristics
• Southwest monsoon season – description
• Northeast monsoon – description

Question 127. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Alluvial soil is dominant in most parts of the Northern Plains. Why?
The alluvium brought down by the rivers Ganga, Brahmaputra, Indus and their tributaries from the Himalayas are deposited here.

Question 128. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Write notes by mentioning the major soil types and the major crops cultivated in the northern plains as well as in the peninsular plateau.

• Northern plains – Major soil types and crops
• Peninsular plateau – Major soil types and crops

Question 129. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Name the branches of southwest monsoon bifurcated by the Indian peninsula. How do these branches influence the climate of India?

• Arabian sea branch and Bay of Bengal branch.
• Mention the advancement of Bay of Bengal branch and its influence.
• Mention the advancement of Arabian Sea branch and its influence.

Question 130. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Write the names of any two peninsular rivers and anyone tributary for each.

• Anyone tributary for the rivers mentioned.

Question 131. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Prepare a seminar paper on the topic ‘the role of geographical factors in the life of Indians.’

• Life of people in different physiographic divisions.* Influence of the climatic types in the life of Indians
• The role of rivers in the life of Indians.

Question 132. (Qn. Pool-2017)
Compare the southwest monsoon and northeast monsoon experienced in India based on the given hints.
1. Formation
2. Places receiving rainfall
The sudden heating of th,e land compared to the sea results in the formation of a low-pressure region. This difference in pressure causes the winds to blow from the Indian Ocean to the land. The southeast winds in the southern hemisphere become southwest winds on reaching the northern hemisphere due to Coriolis effect -Southwest monsoon As a result of the cooling of land areas in the northern hemisphere compared to the surrounding oceans the pressure increases. This difference in pressure causes the winds to blow from the northeast in the northern hemisphere. The northeast monsoon causes rainfall in Tamilnadu, Karnataka and Kerala.

Question 133. (Qn. Pool-2017)
The role of physiography is decisive in the life of people in India.

• Based on the topographic characteristics India can be divided into Northern mountain regions, Northern Great Plains, Peninsular Plateau, Coastal plains, and Islands.
• Mention the influence of Northern plains in the life of Indians. (Food crops, sugarcane, cities, and towns, industrial centers, densely populated regions)
• Mention the role of Northern mountains in the life of Indians
• Mention the life of people in the Peninsular plateau, (mineral deposits, industrial centers)
• Mention the influence of coastal plains and islands in life of people (fertile soil, nuclear power production, and fishing).

Question 134. (Orukkam – 2017)
Complete the flowchart.

a) Himalayas,
b) Eastern Highlands
c. Karakoram
I. Shiwalik
J. Patkaibum
H. Himachal
K. Naga hills
L. Garo, Khasi, Jaintia hills

Question 135. (Orukkam-2017)
Find out the main features of the Himalayan ranges and complete the following chart.

Question 136. (Orukkam-2017)
The northern mountains play a very important role in molding the climax and human life of India, justify
1. Have been protecting as from foreign invasions
2. ………………………
1. Block the monsoon winds and cause rainfall.
2. Prevent the cold dry wind from entering the north Indian plains.
3. Caused the emergence of diverse flora and fauna.
4. Source region of rivers.

Question 137. (Orukkam – 2017)
Compare the Himalayan rivers with peninsular rivers and complete the following table.

Question 138. (Orukkam – 2017)
Find out the major Himalayan rivers, the states through which they flow and their tributaries with the help of an atlas.
Refer atlas

Question 139. (Orukkam-2017)
List out the major characteristic features of the Northern great plains.

• it is one of the intensive alluvial plains in the world
• One of the most densely populated regions in the world
• Known as the granary of India.

Question 140. (Orukkam – 2017)
Complete the following table

 Punjab-Hariyana plain River Indus and its tributaries Mamsthalo – Bagar plains of Rajasthan Luni and Saraswathi Rivers Ganga plain River Ganga and its tributaries Brahmaputra plains of Assam Brahmaputra and its tributaries

Question 141. (Orukkam-2017)
List out the soil types in India.

1. Alluvial Soil
2. Desert Soil
3. Black soil
4. Mountain Soil
5. Red Soil
6. Laterite Soil

Question 142. (Orukkam- 2017)
List out the factors controlling the climate of India.

1. Altitude
2. Latitude
3. Physiography
4. Nearness to sea

Question 143. (Orukkam – 2017)
List out the four seasons in India.

1. Winter Season
2. southwest monsoon
3. Summer Season
4. North-East monsoon

Question 144. (Orukkam-2017)
Prepare a brief note on western disturbances

1. The Cyclones originates from Mediterranean sea during winter season.
2. Gradually they shift towards east and reach India.
3. Causes rainfall in the northern plains especially in the Punjab region.

Question 145. (Orukkam-2017)
Compare the southwest monsoon season with the northeast monsoon season and complete the following table.

 Southwest monsoon Northeast monsoon Starts from June October – November Arabian sea branch, Bay of Bengal branch brings rain to coromandel coast Brings rain to western coast, northeast plain

Question 146. (Orukkam-2017)
The distribution of rainfall is not uniform everywhere. Find out the reason.

1. Physiography
2. Location
3. Nearness to the sea

Question 147. (Orukkam- 2017)
Find out the major Himalayan rivers, the states through which the flow and their tributary with the help of an atlas.

 Rivers The state through which they flow Tributes Sindhu Jammu and Kashmir Sutlej, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas Ganga Uttarakhand, Yamuna, Kosi, Son, Ghaghra, Uttarpradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand Gomati Brahmaputra Arunachal Pradesh, Assam Tista, Li hit, Subansiri

Question 148. (Orukkam – 2017)
List out the major characteristic features of the peninsular plateau.
1. The most extensive physical division of India
2.

1. Made of hard crystalline rock forms
2. The oldest division in India.
3. It has varied topography
4. Known as the storehouse of minerals.
5. Fertile black soil forced from the disintegrations of leave rocks.

Question 149. (Orukkam-2017)
Locate the peninsular river with the help of a map. List out the characteristic features of peninsular rivers to complete the following table.