Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 2 World in the Twentieth Century

Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 2 World in the Twentieth Century

Answer the following. Score 1 each.

A. Choose the correct answer.

Question 1.
The members of Triple Alliance
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
Italy, Germany, Holland
Britain, France, Russia
Answer:
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy

Question 2.
Which of the following was not a member of Triple Entente?
Britain
Russia
Germany
Answer:
Germany

Question 3.
The movement not related to aggressive nationalism
Pan Slav movement
Pan German movement
Glasnost
Answer:
Glasnost

Question 4.
The country not involved in Moroccan crisis
France
Germany
Italy
Answer:
Italy

Question 5.
The most important treaty signed after the First World War
Non-Aggression Pact
Treaty of Versailles
Munich Pact
Answer:
Treaty of Versailles

Question 6.
The statement not related to Fascism
Support to democracy
Opposition to socialism
Military dictatorship
Answer:
Support to democracy

Question 7.
The military force of Hitler
Black Shirts
Red Shirts
Brown Shirts
Answer:
Brown Shirts

Question 8.
The members of Axis Powers
Germany, Italy, Japan
Germany, France, Britain
Britain, Japan, Russia
Answer:
Germany, Italy, Japan

Question 9.
The UN Day is observed on
October 24
December 10
August 6
Answer:
October 24

B. Answer in a sentence each.

Question 1.
What is known as imperialism?
Answer:
The distinctive phase of flow of finance capital to colonies is known as imperialism. Imposing a nation’s political, economic and cultural dominance on another nation is a fundamental feature of imperialism.

Question 2.
Who were the members of Triple Entente?
Answer:
Britain, France, Russia
The ruling dynasties that lost power after the First World War.

  • Romanov in Russia
  • The Hohenzoliem in Germany
  • The Habsburg in Austria-Hungary

Question 3.
What was known as ‘Holocaust’?
Answer:
Hitler held the view that the Jews were responsible for Germany’s ruin and humiliation. So Jews were massacred by Hitler and the Nazis enmasse in specially built concentration camps. This was known as Holocaust.

Question 4.
What were the objectives of Zionist Movement and PLO?
Answer:

  • Zionist movement – to form a nation for the Jews.
  • PLO – to establish a nation for the people of Palestine.

Question 5.
Name the members of Allied Powers.
Answer:
England, France, China

Question 6.
What is known as the policy of appeasement?
Answer:
When Germany, Italy and Japan attacked other nations, capitalist countries like Britain and France did not prevent the attacks. This policy which encouraged Fascist attack is known as the policy of appeasement.

Question 7.
What is known as Balfour Declaration?
Answer:
Britain took over the territory including Palestine after the First World War. Since the Jews helped Britain in the war, the then British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour declared the establishment of a Jewish nation in West Asia. This is known as Balfour Declaration.

Question 8.
Why was the Palestine Liberation Organisation formed?
Answer:
Palestinians became refugees following the formation of Israel. Palestine Liberation Organization was formed with the objective of establishing a nation for the Palestinians.

Question 9.
Which was the agreement recognised by Israel with the mediation of America in 1993 to recognize Palestine as a free nation?
Answer:
Oslo Pact.

Question 10.
‘War is to man what maternity is to woman’. Whose words are these?
Answer:
The words of Benito Mussolini who was the leader of Fascism in Italy.

Question 11.
Who led the Fascist reign in Italy? Which was the military force that he formed?
Answer:

  • Benito Mussolini
  • Black Shirts to suppress the opponents.

Question 12.
What was Nazism? Who started it?
Answer:
Nazism was a political ideology rooted in aggressive nationalism and anti-democratic principles.
Adolf Hitler started it in Germany.

Question 13.
Who were ‘Hibakusha’?
Answer:
The surviving victims of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Answer the following. Score 2 each.

Question 1.
Write the feature of capitalist economic system.
Answer:

  • The economic system in which production and distribution are controlled by the capitalists with the aim to increase profit is known as capitalism.
  • This economic system developed following the Industrial Revolution.

Question 2.
The mutual rivalry deliberately developed by imperialist powers led the world to a war.
a. Which were the crises that led to the First World War?
b. Which were the imperialist countries responsible for these crises?
Answer:
a. Moroccan crisis, Balkan crisis.
b. France and Germany were responsible for Moroccan crisis.
Turkey, Serbia, Austria and Russia were responsible for Balkan crisis.

Question 3.
One of the objectives of UNO is to save the succeeding generations from the scourge of war. Write the other objectives of UNO.
Answer:

  • To protect international treaties and laws.
  • To foster social and economic development of countries.
  • Ensure human rights and protect the rights of nations.
  • To co-operate for world peace and security.

Question 4.
What is called decolonization? Analyse its causes.
Answer:
The colonies of Asia and Africa started to secure freedom from the imperialist control after the Second World War. This is called decolonization.
Causes:

  • Supremacy of imperialist countries was questioned.
  • Freedom movement strengthened in colonies.
  • Super powers like USA and USSR supported freedom movement in the colonies.

Question 5.
Name the military pacts formed during cold war.
Answer:

  • North Atlantic Treaty Organisation – NATO
  • South East Asia Treaty Organisation – SEATO
  • Central Treaty Organisation – CENTO
  • Warsaw Pact

Question 6.
What led to the emergence of a unipolar world under the leadership of USA?
Answer:

  • Disintegration of Soviet Union
  • End of cold war

Question 7.
What is meant by neo imperialism?
Answer:
Multinational companies which are registered in a country and functioning in many countries, began to interfere in the economic, social and cultural sectors of developing countries for serving the interests of capitalist countries. This is known as neo imperialism.

Question 8.
Write the features of globalisation.
Answer:

  • Economic system of the country linked to global economy.
  • The interests and motives of multinational companies are protected.
  • Competition driven market came into existence.
  • Trans-border flow of products, services, raw materials, capital, latest technology and human resources facilitated.

Question 9.
What is meant by aggressive nationalism? Write an example.
Answer:

  • The policy of considering one’s own nation as the supreme and justifying whatever be the actions of the nation is called aggressive nationalism. European nations used this policy to invade other countries.
  • Pan German movement is an example.

Question 10.
What is meant by bipolar politics?
Answer:
USA and USSR who were in the same ally during the Second World War gave leadership to capitalist bloc and socialist bloc respectively after the war. This ideological division is called bipolar politics.

Question 11.
What is the difference between liberalisation ‘ and privatisation?
Answer:

  • Liberalisation:
    Adoption of liberal regulations and taxation systems to facilitate the import of multinational products to domestic markets.
  • Privatisation :
    Privatisation of public sector undertakings in an attempt to promote private sector.

Question 12.
What do you mean by Cold War? What was its base?
Answer:

  • Enmity based on ideological conflict and diplomatic confrontation between the two power blocs was called Cold War.
  • Ideological conflict and political distrust were its base.

Answer the following Score 3 each.

Question 1.
What is meant by colonization?
Answer:

  • The European countries had established trade relationship with Asian, African and Latin American countries.
  • Using political power and military forces, European countries economically exploited these nations.
  • Later they became the colonies of European countries. This process is called colonization.

Question 2.
‘How did imperialism affect the colonial countries?
Answer:

  • Traditional economic system of the colonies was destroyed.
  • Administrative and judicial systems were replaced.
  • Poverty and unemployment increased.
  • Natural resources were widely exploited.
  • People were forced to cultivate cash crops in lieu of traditional food crops.
  • Indigenous arts, literature, language, culture and education system were destroyed.

Question 3.
Explain the background of Balkan crisis.
Answer:
The Balkan region is situated in Europe, close to the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. It was a part of the Ottoman Empire. In 1912, the Balkan League (Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro) defeated Turkey. However, the conflict among the allied nations in sharing the benefits of the war led to the break up of the League and resulted in wars among them.

Question 4.
How far was aggressive nationalism a cause for the First World War?
Answer:

  • The European nations resorted to various strategies to succeed in their imperialistic competitions. Aggressive nationalism was one among them.
  • The European nations used aggressive nationalism to invade other countries.
  • Aggressive nationalism considers one’s own nation as the supreme and justifies whatever be the actions of the nation.
  • Movements based on aggressive nationalism were Pan Slav Movement, Pan German Movement and Revenge Movement. This led to the First World War.

Question 5.
Analyse the results of the First World War.
Or
‘Any war will led to the destruction of mankind’. Explain this statement based on the results of the First World War.
Answer:

  • Over 10 million people lost their lives or were injured in war.
  • Liberation movements in Asia and Africa strengthened.
  • Economic dominance of Europe diminished.
  • Agriculture, industry and communication system were destroyed.
  • Poverty, unemployment and inflation increased.
  • In a bid to bring peace in the world, the League of Nations was formed.
  • Emergence of Fascism and Nazism.

Question 6.
The Treaty of Versailles was the most important treaty signed at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. With whom was it signed! What were its provisions?
Or
How did the Treaty of Versailles affect Germany? Explain.
Answer:
The victorious powers in the First World War, Britain and France signed the Treaty of Versailles with Germany, the defeated nation. Its main provisions were:

  • German colonies were divided among victorious powers.
  • Forced to pay a huge amount as war indemnity.
  • The allies occupied the rich mines of Germany.
  • All war guilt was imposed on Germany and she was disarmed.

Question 7.
Write the results of the World Economic Depression of 1929.
Answer:

  • People who became pauper because of the war, couldn’t afford the commodities.
  • European nations failed to repay their debts to the USA.
  • Inflation became uncontrollable.
  • Goods were kept unsold in factories.
  • Banks collapsed.
  • Acute unemployment and poverty.

Question 8.
Discuss the circumstances under which the Fascist Party came to power in Italy.
Answer:

  • Italy got nothing, though she was with the victors in the First World War.
  • Industrialists, in fear of Italy moving to socialism, were prompted to support fascism.
  • Post-war destruction of industries, unemployment, increase in tax, inflation, etc. kept the people away from the government.

Question 9.
Write a note on Munich Pact.
Answer:

  • Hitler put forth his claims over the prosperous Sudetanland, a region of Czechoslovakia.
  • To discuss the issue, the representatives of Britain, France, Italy and Germany met in the . German city of Munich. They approved Germany’s claim over Sudetanland without consulting Czechoslovakia. This was the Munich Pact.
  • Munich Pact is the best example of the policy of appeasement.

Question 10.
Prepare a table showing the leaders of non-aligned movement with their countries.
Answer:

Architects of NAM

Country

Jawaharlal Nehru

Gamal Abdul Nasar

Marshal Tito

Ahamed Sukarno

India

Egypt

Yugoslavia

Indonesia

Question 11.
Several strategies were adopted by America to establish her dominance over the world. Which are they?
Answer:

  • Utilizing international agencies, America provided financial and military aids to countries of the world.
  • Extended military alliances.
  • Media were used to promote America’s vested interests.

Question 12.
Write a note on the reforms of Mikhail Gorbachev in Russia. ,
Answer:

  • Glasnost and Perestroika were Gorbachev’s two administrative reforms in Soviet Union.
  • Glasnost was to implement openness in political processes.
  • Perestroika was implemented to restructure the economic system of Soviet Union.

Question 13.
What forced the capitalist countries to begin production in their colonies in Asia and Africa?
Answer:

  • Availability of raw materials.
  • Cheap labour.
  • Low cost involved in manufacturing and selling goods in colonies.

Question 14.
How did imperialist forces implement exploitative policies in the colonies?
Answer:

  • By using legal system
  • By using military force
  • By using administrative measures

Question 15.
What were the conducive factors for the growth of Fascism and Nazism?
Answer:

  • Economic destruction
  • Aimlessness
  • Rivalry against the victors

Question 16.
What were the factors that enabled Hitler to assume power in Germany?
Answer:

  • The imposition of the humiliating Treaty of Versailles on Germany.
  • Economic destruction and inflation
  • Failure of German government and the resultant political uncertainty.

Question 17.
“Today I came bearing on olive branch in one hand and the freedom fighter s gun in the other. Don’t let the olive leaves fall from my hand. ” Whose speech is this? What made him make such a speech?
Answer:
The speech of Yaser Arafat, the leader of PLO in the UN Assembly in 1974.

Israel was formed in 1948. Following this, Israel seized Palestine, expelling the Palestinians from their homeland. The Palestinian refugees migrated to various Arab countries. It was in this context that the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was formed with Yaser Arafat as President to establish a nation for the Palestinians. Yaser Arafat made such a speech in order to create a state for Palestinians through peaceful means.

Question 18.
Which are the international organizations devising and executing various policies in favour of globalization?
Answer:

  • World Bank
  • International Monetary Fund
  • World Trade Organization

Question 19.
Moroccan crisis was one of the crises created by imperialist countries. What was the Moroccan crisis?
Answer:
A secret treaty was signed between Britain and France in 1904. According to this, Britain recognised the claim of France over Morocco. The French claim over Morocco was opposed by Germany and she sent battleships to Moroccan port Agadir. This was the Moroccan crisis. France agreed to transfer a part of French Congo to Germany and Germany agreed to concede Morocco to France in return.

Question 20.
Liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation are the concepts of neo imperialism. Substantiate.
Answer:

  • Liberalisation:
    Adoption of liberal regulations and taxation systems to facilitate the import of multinational products to domestic market.
  • Privatisation:
    The policy of promoting private sector instead of public sector.
  • Globalisation:
    Trans-border flow of products, services, raw materials, capital, latest technology and human resources facilitated.

Question 21.
Non – Alignment was the product of the then world situation. Analyse the world situation at the time of the adoption of non alignment and write the reasons that led to its formation.
Answer:
Following the Second World War, many Asian, African and Latin American countries became independent. These countries which suffered under long years of colonial oppression came to be known as Third World Countries. The world of that time was divided into capitalist bloc and socialist bloc.

They realized that cold war was yet another face of imperialism and that it would threaten world peace. The liberated nations decided not to join any of the blocs and formed the Non Aligned Movement. They understood that the race of super powers for weapons and a strong military force would pose harm to them. They realized that only a world sans wars and conflicts accelerates economic and social development.

Question 22.
Write a contribution each of the following leaders.
i) Mikhail Gorbachev
ii) Gamal Abdul Nasar
iii) Yasser Arafat
Answer:
i) Mikhail Gorbachev :
Glasnost for reform in political field and Perestroika for reform in economic field of Soviet Union.

ii) Gamal Abdul Nasar:
One of the leaders who introduced Non – alignment in lieu of the capitalist bloc and socialist bloc.

iii) Yasser Arafat:
Founded Palestine Liberation organization to establish a nation for the Palestinians.

Question 23.
Write note on the following.
i) Black Shirts
ii) Cold war
iii) Disintegration of Soviet Union
Answer:
i) Black Shirts :
The military force used by Mussolini to suppress opponents and to implement fascist policies.

ii) Cold War :
The enmity based on the ideological conflict and diplomatic confrontations between the capitalist bloc and socialist bloc was called Cold War.

iii) Disintegration of Soviet Union :
Due to the administrative measures of Mikhail Gorbachev and other reasons like deviation from the basic principles of socialism and corruption, Soviet Union disintegrated in 1991.

Question 24.
Analyse the problems faced by the Palestine people against the background of West Asian issues.
Answer:
Palestine was inhabited by Jews and Arabs. It became a British mandate after the First World War. Balfour declaration decided to establish a Jewish state in West Asia. In 1948, the Jewish state Israel was formed. Israel seized Palestine, expelling the Palestinians from their homeland. The Palestinian refugees migrated to various Arabs countries.

Question 25.
Which were the movements formed in connection with aggressive nationalism?
Answer:

  • Pan Salv Movement:
    To unite the Slavic people of Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece in Eastern Europe under the leadership of Russia was the objective. Russia gave leadership to it.
  • Pan German Movement:
    To unite Teutonic people in Central Europe and Balkan Provinces was the objective. It was led by Germany.
  • Revenge Movement:
    To conquer Alsace- Lorraine under the control of Germany was the aim. The movement started in France.

The consequences of the First World War in Europe:

  • As Europe was the focal point war, it had to bear the major burnt.
  • European nations suffered serious set backs ‘ economically and politically.
  • Ruling dynasties in Europe lost power. Eg: Hohenzollern in Germany, Habsburg in Austria-Hungary.

Question 26.
America gained much in the First World War. Substantiate.
Answer:

  • War did not take place in USA. So she was not affected by the war.
  • European nations which were destroyed in war took large scale loans from America.
  • American dollar overtook British pound as the basis of foreign exchange holding.
  • As a result, USA emerged as a new economic power.

Answer the following. Score 4 each.

Question 1.
Arrange the following events related to the Second World War in chronological order.
i) Dropping of atom bomb in Japan by USA
ii) Pearl Harbour attack of Japan.
iii) Munich Pact
iv) Nazi – Soviet Non- Aggression Pact
Answer:
i) Munich Pact (1938)
ii) Nazi – Soviet Non- Aggression Pact (1939)
iii) Pearl Harbour attack of Japan (1941)
iv) Dropping of atom bomb in Japan by USA (1945)

Question 2.
Complete the sun diagram given below.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 2 World in the Twentieth Century Important Questions 1
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 2 World in the Twentieth Century Important Questions 2

Question 3.
The humiliating provisions of the Treaty of Versailles led to the rise of Hitler in Germany. Substantiate.
Answer:

  • The victorious powers signed the Treaty of Versailles with Germany in 1919.
  • The Treaty imposed all war guilt on Germany and she was disarmed.
  • Germany was forced to pay a huge amount as war indemnity to victorious powers.
  • German colonies were divided among the victors.
  • The allies occupied the rich mines of Germany.
  • Germans felt humiliated when the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles were imposed on them. They were agitated and yearned for a leader who could avenge this unfair treatment and lead the country to economic progress.
  • It was under these circumstances that the Nazi party leader Adolf Hitler gained popular support and came to power.

Question 4.
Evaluate the results of the Second World War.
Answer:

  • Over 10 million people died.
  • Freedom movements in Asia and Africa intensified.
  • In a bid to preserve and maintain world peace, the United Nations Organization was formed.
  • Economic system of European countries was destroyed.
  • European dominance in world diminished.
  • USA and Soviet Union emerged as global powers.
  • Beginning of cold war and arms race.

Question 5.
Examine the circumstances that paved the way for the formation of Non-Aligned Movement.
Answer:

  • The newly independent countries of Asia and Africa realized that cold war was yet another face of imperialism and that it would threaten world peace. They wanted to stay remain free.
  • Arms race between super powers and the formation of military pacts.
  • Cold war and arms race.
  • The realization that the race of super powers for weapons and a stronger military force would pose harm to them.
  • The formation of capitalist bloc under US A and socialist bloc under Soviet Union.

Question 6.
Examine the reasons for the disintegration of Soviet Union? How did this lead to a unipolar world?
Answer:

  • Deviation from the basic principles of socialism.
  • The administrative measures of Mikhail Gorbachev – Glasnost and Perestroika.
  • Corruption and inefficiency of the bureaucracy.
  • Failure in bringing about changes in economic sector.

In the absence of a socialist bloc, policies and programmes of the capitalist countries remained unquestioned. This had a wide impact on international relations. A unipolar world emerged under the leadership of USA instead of a bipolar world.

Question 7.
Globalisation posed some challenges to developing countries. What are they?
Or
How did globalisation affect the developing countries adversely?
Answer:

  • The intervention of multinational companies challenged the concept of nation state.
  • Led to the destruction of indigenous culture.
  • Natural resources were looted.
  • Public sector undertakings were destroyed.
  • Price of agricultural products plunged.
  • Government withdrew from social service sectors.

Question 8.
What are, the steps taken by Hitler to consolidate his power in Germany?
Answer:

  • Socialists, communists, Jews and democrats were executed.
  • Used newspaper, radio, cinema and education systems widely to propagate the ideologies of Nazism.
  • Adopted an aggressive foreign policy and attacked neighbouring countries.
  • All other political parties except the Nazi party were banned.
  • Trade unions were banned.

Question 9.
Explain the terms Glasnost and Perestroika.
Answer:

  • Glasnost and Perestroika were the two administrative reforms of Mikhail Gorbachev in Soviet Union.
  • Glasnost was to implement openness in political processes. Accordingly, regulation on media and civil rights was taken off.
  • Perestroika was implemented to restructure the economic system of the Soviet Union.
  • It called for ending the price controls on production sector established by government and abating centralisation.

Question 10.
What were the factors that prompted the European countries to set up colonies in Afro- Asian nations?
Answer:

  • Overproduction
  • Availability of raw materials.
  • Availability of markets to sell their industrial products.
  • The disunity in the Afro-Asian nations.

Question 11.
Imperialism is the developedform of capitalism. Evaluate the statement.
Answer:
Factory system emerged as a result of Industrial Revolution. Capitalists invested in factories and production was increased. This increased their profit. The economic system in which production and distribution are controlled by the capitalist with the aim to increase profit is known as capitalism.

European countries produced more than they could accommodate in their domestic markets. This over-production forced them to search for markets. So they turned their attention to Afro- Asian nations for markets. Using political power and military forces, the European countries economically exploited these nations and later they became the colonies of European countries.

This is called colonization. Conflicts in capitalism,forced the capitalists to shift production from Europe to colonies. The phase of flow of finance capital to colonies is known as imperialism.

Question 12.
Do you think the Treaty of Versailles led to another war? Why?
Or
The Treaty of Versailles was a one sides Treaty. Substantiate the statement by analysing the provisions of the Treaty.
Answer:

  • The Treaty of Versailles led to another war.
  • The Treaty of Versailles signed with Germany disarmed her.
  • War guilt was imposed on her.
  • Germany was forced to pay a huge amount as war indemnity.
  • German colonies were divided among allies.
  • The allies occupied the rich mines of Germany.
  • The Treaty humiliated the Germans.

They were agitated and yearned for a leader who could avenge this unfair treatment. The Germans sought someone who could restore the economic progress of Germany. It was in this circumstance that Hitler promised to save Germany from all humiliations. The measures taken by Hitler in Germany after assuming power led to the Second World War.

Question 13.
How did the World Economic Depression that began in USA affect the other countries?
Answer:
The economic depression began with the stock market crash in New York Stock Exchange on 24 October 1929. The investors rushed to sell their stocks which led to a massive volume of stock and trade. This led to abrupt and dramatic price decline. The depression affected not only America, but also the European nations. The production rate plunged. Unemployment became grave. Many lost their wealth. World trade completely collapsed. The European countries imposed heavy taxes on their colonies.

Question 14.
List the similarities of Fascism and Nazism.
Answer:

  • Antagonism to democracy
  • Opposition to socialism
  • Glorifying the nation
  • Adoring the purity of race
  • Justifying war
  • Diffusion to aggressive nationalism
  • Deifying the past
  • Indoctrination of ideologies through arts, literature and education.
  • Military dictatorship
  • Destruction of political rivals

Question 15.
Evaluate the present day relevance of Non- Aligned Movement.
Answer:
Non-Aligned Movement is the second largest international organisation in the world. NAM is the unity of countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America which were colonies of imperialist powers. NAM succeeded to some extent in reducing the intensity of cold war and arms race. It has great relevance in the unipolar world of today. NAM can expose the evils of globalisation and prevent the intervention of new imperialists on the social, economic and environmental sectors of third world countries.

Question 16.
The reforms of Gorbachev led to the disintegration of Soviet Union. Evaluate the statement.
Answer:
The reasons for the disintegration of Soviet Union are:

  • Deviation from the basic principles of socialism.
  • Failure in bringing about changes in economic sector.
  • Corruption and inefficiency of bureaucracy.
  • Administrative reforms of Gorbachev – Glasnost and Perestroika.

Glasnost was to implement openness in political processes. It removed regulation on media and civil rights. Perestroika was implemented to restructure the economic system of Soviet Union. It aimed at ending price controls on production sector and abating centralisation.

These two reforms were deviation from the communist ideologies. In this context, it can be said that Gorbachev’s reforms led to the disintegration of Soviet Union.

Question 17.
How did the imperialist crises cause the First World War? Explain.
Or
What was Moroccan Crisis? How was it solved?
Answer:
Moroccan crisis:
A secret treaty was signed between Britain and France in 1904. According to this, Britain recognised the claim of France over Morocco. The French claim over Morocco was opposed by Germany and she sent battleships to Moroccan port Agadir. This was the Moroccan crisis. France agreed to transfer a part of French Congo to Germany and Germany agreed to concede Morocco to France in return.

Balkan crisis :
The Balkan region is situated in Europe, close to the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. It was a part of the Ottoman Empire. In 1912, the Balkan League (Greece,Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro) defeated Turkey. However, the conflict among the allied nations in sharing the benefits of the war led to the break up of the League and resulted in wars among them.

Question 18.
What were the changes brought about by the disintegration of the Soviet Union in the international level?
Answer:

  • Marked the end of the Cold War.
  • Bipolar world ended.
  • Unipolar world emerged.
  • America emerged as an unquestionable power.

Question 19.
What were the consequences of the Industrial Revolution which began in England in the 18th century?
Or
What were the circumstances that led to the supremacy of Europeans in Asian and African countries?
Answer:

  • Capitalists invested in factories and increased production.
  • Increase in profit of capitalists.
  • Production and distribution were controlled by private individuals with the aim to increase profit.
  • The advent of large scale industries enhanced capital investment.
  • Over production forced them to search for foreign markets.
  • Industrial nations of Europe competed for foreign markets.
  • Using political power and military forces, Asian and African nations were exploited.

Answer the following. Score 5/6 each.

Question 1.
Examine critically the causes and results of the First World War.
Or
Why is the First World War called the imperialistic war? Examine based on the
following hints.
Hints:
i) Imperialistic conflicts
ii) Military alliances
iii) Aggressive nationalism
iv) International crises
Answer:
The First World War was fought from 1914 to 1918. Its causes are discussed below.

i) Imperialistic Conflicts:
When the imperialist powers entered into mutual competition to conquer the world, conflicts among them became widespread. The international problems surfaced during this period caused mutual mistrust and enmity. The conflicts among imperialist powers led to the war.

ii) Military Alliances:
The competition among the imperialist powers drove them to sign military alliances. The Tripple Alliance was formed by Germany, Italy and Austria-Hungary. To counter this, Britain, France and Russia formed the Triple Entente. The formation of such alliances created an atmosphere of war in Europe.

iii) Aggressive Nationalism:
Aggressive nationalism was one of the strategies adopted by the imperialist countries to succeed in their competitions. The European nations used aggressive nationalism to invade other countries. Aggressive nationalists considered their own nations as the supreme and justified whatever be the actions of their nations. The Pan Slav Movement under Russia, the Pan German Movement under Germany and the Revenge Movement in France were examples for aggressive nationalism.

iv) International crises:
Imperialist rivalries drove the European countries into several crises. Some of them were Moroccan crisis and Balkan crisis.

Moroccan crisis:
A secret treaty was signed between Britain and France in 1904. According to this, Britain recognised the claim of France over Morocco. The French claim over Morocco was opposed by Germany and she sent battleships to Moroccan port Agadir. This was the Moroccan crisis. France agreed to transfer a part of French Congo to Germany and Germany agreed to concede Morocco to France in return.

Balkan crisis:
The Balkan region is situated in Europe, close to the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. It was a part of the Ottoman Empire. In 1912, the Balkan League (Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro) defeated Turkey. However, the conflict among the allied nations in sharing the benefits of the war led to the break up of the League and resulted in wars among them.

Immediate cause:
The assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of Austria by Princep, a Serbian youth at the Bosnian capital Sarajevo in June 1914 was the immediate cause. Austria held Serbia responsible for it and declared war pESerbia on 28 July 1914. Almost all the nations of the world directly or indirectly were involved in it.

Results

  • Over 10 million people lost their lives or were injured in war.
  • Liberation movements in Asia and Africa strengthened.
  • Economic dominance of Europe diminished.
  • Agriculture, industry and communication systems were destroyed.
  • Poverty, unemployment and inflation increased.
  • In a bid to bring peace in the world, the League of Nations was formed.
  • Emergence of Fascism and Nazism.

Question 2.
Germany and Italy were crushed by the First World War. But Fascism and Nazism played a key role in making them the important powers in the Second World War. Examine this.
Or
How did the growth of Fascism and Nazism become a cause for the Second World War and a threat to world peace?
Answer:
The First World War ruined Germany and Italy economically. Unemployment and poverty threw up people’s protests. The government of both the countries had to face popular unrest. The conditions of the victorious and the defeated nations in the First World War were miserable. Many European governments lost their power. Unemployment and poverty occurred. Fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany rose to power, capitalizing on the political and economic chaos prevailing then.

Economic destruction, rivalry against the victors and aimlessness facilitated these forces to grab power.

Mussolini and Fascism:
Mussolini led Fascist reign in Italy. He resorted to despotic measures in the political and economic fields of Italy after coming to power. Violence and ferocity were the strategies of Fascism. Socialists, leaders of peasants and workers were considered as enemies of the state and executed them.

The aim of Mussolini was to restore ancient Roman Empire. Using the military force ‘Black Shirts’, Mussolini suppressed the opponents. His aggressive foreign policies led him to conquer Ethiopia and Albania. Italy’s run for dictatorship led to the Second World War.

Hitler and Nazism:
Nazism is the German version of Fascism. The Germans felt humiliated when the Treaty of Versailles was imposed on them after the First World War. It was at this time that Hitler and his Nazi party gained popular support. Hitler promised to save Germany from all humiliations. He adopted many measures to consolidate his power.

Socialists, communists, Jews and democrats were executed. Hitler held the Jews responsible for Germany’s ruin and humiliation. The Jews were massacred enmasse in specially designed concentration camps. A military force known as ‘Brown Shirts’ and a secret police troop ‘Gestapo’ were in charge of assaulting and massacring Jews.

Banned all political parties except the Nazi party. Trade unions were also banned. Military service was made compulsory. Taking advantage of the feeling of revenge among the Germans, Hitler adopted an aggressive foreign policy. He attacked Austria, Czechoslovakia and Poland. Germany formed the military alliance with Italy and Japan. This led to the outbreak of the Second World War.

Question 3.
Explain Neo Imperialism and its features.
Answer:
In the post war period, a new kind of imperialism emerged. Multinational companies which are registered in a country and functioning in many countries, began to interfere in the economic, social and cultural sectors of developing countries for serving the interests of capitalist countries. This is known as Neo imperialism.

Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation are the concepts of neo imperialism.

  • Liberalisation:
    Adoption of liberal regulations and taxation systems to facilitate the import of multinational products to domestic markets.
  • Privatisation:
    Privatisation of public sector undertakings in an attempt to promote private sector:
  • Globalisation:
    Economic system of the country linked to global economy. The interests and motives of MNCs are protected. Competition driven market came into existence. Trans-border flow of products, services, raw materials, capital, latest technology and human resources facilitated.

Question 4.
Explain the features of globalization and its impact on the world.
Answer:
Globalization
Africa the Second World War, a new kind of imperialism emerged. Multinational companies which are registered in a country and functioning in many countries began to interfere in the economic, social and cultural sectors of the developing countries for services the interests of capitalist countries. This is termed as neo imperialism.

The multinational companies competed with one another to control the resources and assets of third world countries. They promoted consumerism in third world countries to sell their products. Developing nations were considered as the markets for the multinational companies. Liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation were the concepts of neo imperialism.

Globalisation is the policy of transfer of products, services, raw materials, capital, latest technology and human resources across the borders of countries without any restriction.

Features of globalisation

  • Economic system of the country linked to global economy.
  • The interest and motives of multinational companies protected.
  • Competition driven market came into existence.
  • Trans-border flow of products, services, raw materials, capital, latest technology and human resources facilitated.

Impact of globalisation
Positive impacts of globalisation are:

  • Globalisation opened up many opportunities and possibilities around the world.
  • The transfer of goods, products and services beyond boundaries and the dissemination of information technology shaped the concept of global village.

Globalisation posed challenges to developing countries:

  • Due to pressure from multinational products and marketing strategies, the economy of developing countries started to collapse.
  • The intervention of multinational companies challenged the concept of nation state.
  • Led to the destruction of indigenous culture.
  • Price of agricultural products plunged.
  • Public sector undertakings were destroyed.
  • Government withdrew from social service sectors.
  • Natural resources were looted.

Question 5.
Critically analyse the causes and results of the Second World War.
Answer:
The Second World War lasted from 1939 to 1945. Its causes are discussed below.

Formation of Military Alliances:
Following the Peace Treaty of 1919, the victorious nations shared the colonies of defeated nations. Germany and Italy had no colonies and no markets. Therefore they planned to conquer colonies and attack weak nations. In an effort to extend this policy of aggression, Italy, Germany and Jap&n formed an alliance called Axis Powers. Countering this alliance, Britain, France and China formed the Allied Powers.

Growth of Fascism and Nazism:
The First World War devastated both the allies. Many European governments lost their power. People were in misery. Unemployment and poverty followed. Capitalizing on the political and economic chaos, Fascists and Nazis came to power in Italy and Germany.

The Fascists and the Nazis opposed democracy and socialism, justified war, glorified the nation, adored purity of race, destroyed political rivals and believed in military dictatorship. The aggressive policies and their attacks on neighbouring countries led to the Second World War.

Failure of the League of Nations:
The League failed to stall the attacks of the Axis Powers. This led to the war.

Policy of Appeasement:
When Germany, Italy and Japan attacked other nations, capitalist countries like Britain and France did not prevent the attacks. They considered the Soviet Union as their chief enemy because they were opposed to socialism. This policy which encouraged Fascist attacks is known as the policy of appeasement.

Germany’s attack on Poland/Immediate cause:
Hitler claimed the Polish Corridor from Poland. Poland refused. So Germany attacked Poland on 1 September 1939. This was the beginning of the Second World War.

Results:

  • Over 10 million people died.
  • Freedom movements in Asia and Africa intensified.
  • In a bid to preserve and maintain world peace, the United Nations Organization was formed.
  • European dominance in world diminished.
  • USA and Soviet Union emerged as global powers.
  • Beginning of cold war and arms race.

Question 6.
Match the items related to Column A from Columns B and C.

A

B

C

Fascism Gamal Abdul Nasar Sudentanland
Munich Pact Adolf Hitler Egypt
Pearl Harbour attack Benito Mussolini Germany
Nazism 1938 Japan
Non-Aligned Movement 1941 Italy

Answer:

A

B

C

Fascism Benito Mussolini Italy
Munich Pact 1938 Sudetanland
Pearl Harbour attack 1941 Japan
Nazism Adolf Hitler Germany
Non-Aligned Movement Gamal Abdul Nasar Egypt

Question 7.
Match the items related to Column A from that of Columns B and C.

A

B

C

Mikhail

Gorbachev

Balfour

Declaration

Germany
Yaser Arafat Brown Shirts Soviet Union
Arthur Balfour Glasnost Italy
AdolfHitler Black Shirts Palestine
Benito Mussolini Palestine

Liberation

Organisation

Britain

Answer:

A

B

C

Mikhail Gorbachev Glasnost Soviet Union
Yaser Arafat PLO Palestine
Arthur Balfour Balfour Britain
Declaration
Adolf Hitler Brown Shirts Germany
Benito Mussolini Black Shirts Italy

Question 8.
Arrange the following events in chronological order.
i) Hitler’s attack on Poland
ii) Moroccan crisis
iii) Balkan crisis
iv) Munich Pact
v) Oslo Pact
Answer:
i) Moroccan crisis – 1904
ii) Balkan crisis – 1912
iii) Munich Pact – 1938
iv) Hitler’s attack on Poland – 1939
v) Oslo Pact – 1993

Question 9.
Arrange the following events in chronological order.
i) World Economic Depression
ii) Treaty of Versailles
iii) Formation of UNO
iv) Disintegration of Soviet Union
v) Formation of Israeli
Answer:
i)Treaty of Versailles – 1919
ii) World Economic Depression – 1929
iii) Formation of UNO – 1945
iv) Formation of Israel – 1948
v) Disintegration of Sbviet Union – 1991

Additional Information / Extra Reading

Mandatory Territories:
After the First World War, the German colonies were placed under the administration of one or more of the victorious nations, based on the Treaty of Versailles. Togoland, Cameroon, Pacific colonies like Islands of Carolina, Marshall Islands, German South West Africa, German East Africa, etc. were the colonies of Germany. The League of Nations handed over the administration of these colonies to the allies. The colonies thus governed by the allies were known as Mandatory Territories.

Gaurilo – Princip:
‘Black Hand Secret Society’ was a revolutionary group led by the Slavic community to free their country from the rule of Austria. Gaurilo Princip was a member of this terrorist group, which was assisted by the Serbian Government.

American Prosperity:
During the 1919-29 span, the American economy grew and reached its zenith. They put into effect many policy declarations and actions for the mounting growth of their economy. The industrial sectors had been freely conceded to the control of private owners. Most of the government owned institutions were handed over to the capitalists.

The tax levied on the imported goods were raised enormously. Active steps were taken to merge multinational corporations to form even larger corporations. As a result of all these, the economy showed drastic growth. During this period, the percapita average production was increased to 53%. With this America emerged as a major economic power.

Holocaust:
Hitler and Nazi party who upheld die principles of Aryans, considered Jews, communists and socialists as the reasons for the economic decline faced by Germany. Nazis stated that the caste revolts, demilitarization, penalty of war etc. are the instruments deployed by Jews to effect the downfall of Aryans. As a solution, Hitler decided to wipe out the entire Jews, communists, religious leaders, physically disadvantaged, mentally disadvantaged, etc.

The method devised to fulfil this notorious idea was the Holocaust. New laws were formulated to curtail the right of the Jews to work. Hitler employed additional tax on the Jews. He sought the help of the scientists, doctors and other technical experts for the mass killing. He massacred millions at the concentration camps, gas chambers and labour camps. The para military department of Nazi party, ‘Schutzstaffel’, headed the genocide.

Women prisoners were also tortured brutally. They were inhumanly tortured under the supervision of doctors. They were subjected to sterilization experiments using X-rays. Chemicals were injected to their wombs and were exposed to surgeries without anaesthesia. Joseph Mengele, known as the Angel of Death, was interested in conducting horrifying experiments on twins.

His experiments included cutting off body partly leaving his victims to suffer, injecting chemicals into childrens’ eyes, etc. So many were subjected to unimaginable tortures. Nazis massacred Jews of Poland, Rumania, Luxembourg, Latvia, Hungary, Greece, Yugoslavia, Netherlands, etc. Nazis killed 2.9 crores of Jews in 6 years.

Gas Chambers:
Hitler had opened up concentration camps at Treblinka, Befseck, Bergen-Belsen, Sachsenhausen, Hossenburg etc. Gas chambers,- hells on earth, were the prominent feature of these camps. Brutal tortures and mass killings were staged in gas chambers.

The prisoners-were led to the gas chambers, disguised as shower rooms and gassed them to death using poisonous gases like Zyklon B and Carbonmonoxide. The Nazis enjoyed the suffocation and sufferings of the victims in the gas chamber, through the specially made glass windows.

Swasthik
Hitler and Nazi party used swasthik as a symbol of their racial superiority. Swasthik, which had a heritage of 3000 years, had been used all over the world by different cultures and different religions like Hindus, Jains, Buddhists, etc. The word Swasthik means ‘good fortune’ or ‘well being’. Black swasthik in a white coloured circle on a red backdrop was the flag of Nazis.

Gestapo:
Gestapo was the secret police formed under the supervision of Adolf Hitter. In 1933, when Nazis came to power, the German Home Minister formed a special wing for spy work. It was the Gestapo. Gestapo enjoyed judicial independence and the power to arrest and imprison without trial. In certain concentration camps, it was the Gestapo who supervised the proceedings.

Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl
The diary was written by Anne frank, when gone to hiding, fearing Hitler’s Gestapo. The notes on the diary were the revelations of the tortures of cruelties of Nazis on the Jews. The diary, considered as a classic work in war literature, was begun writing on June 4, 1942.

The last note on the diaiy was scribbled by Anne on August 1,1944. Anne lovingly addressed the diary as Kitti. In August 1944, Nazis arrested Anne and her family. Anne died in the Bergun-Belgun concentration camp due to Typhus, in the March of 1945. In 1947, the notes of Anne Frank were published in the name ‘The Diaryofa Young Girl’.

Eventually it was translated into various other languages too. The inhuman tortures of the Nazi concentration camps were revealed to the outer world through the diary notes of this young girl.

Hitler in Films:
Hitler, his party and its activities were discussed not only in literature but also in cinema as well. The film on Hitler, ‘The Great Dictator’ by the world famous comedian, Charlie Chaplin, featured Hitler and Nazi party in a ridiculous manner. In the film, ‘Schindler’s List’, directed by the renoimed director Stephen Spielberg, the Jews in the concentration camps were protected by a German Catholic merchant named Oscar Schindler.

Recession in American Economy:
During 1920 s, one of the major traders of America was the stock market trade. Americans found another way to make money other than the profit shares they amassed from the shares of the American companies. This was succeeded by buying the shares of mutual trade companies.

This being a trend, the price of the shares in the share market rocketed sky high. Instead of the income made through the dividends, everyone tried to make money by selling the shares. Without even considering the status of the trades, many people began to sell the shares. By 1929, the rate of the shares reached its zenith. Many people tried to buy shares with borrowed money.

Industrialists who amassed large amounts of money, produced large quantities of goods in their factories. Goods piled up as the industrialists and workers lost their purchasing ability. Moreover, the economic profit America earned before, were restricted itself to the hands of a limited number of industrialists.

Share markets crashed, This was the root cause of the American recession. The America of 1929 was nothing but a land of closed mills, factories, markets, mines, banks and poverty stricken people who were thrown to the streets from the lap of luxury and prosperity.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 2 World in the Twentieth Century Important Questions 3

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions