Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 British Exploitation and Resistance

Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 British Exploitation and Resistance

Answer the following. Score 1 each.

A. Choose the correct option.

Question 1.
The British Governor General who introduced the Permanent Settlement for tax collection.
Lord Cornwallis
Lord William Bentick
Lord Dalhousie
Answer:
Lord Cornwallis

Question 2.
The land revenue system introduced by the British in North West regions.
Ryotwari System
Permanent Settlement
Mahalwari System
Answer:
Mahalwari System

Question 3.
The land revenue system introduced by the British in South Indian regions.
Permanent Settlement
Ryotwari System
Mahalwari System
Answer:
Ryotwari System

Question 4.
The land revenue system introduced by the British in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa regions.
Permanent Settlement
Mahalwari System
Ryotwari System
Answer:
Permanent Settlement

Question 5.
The tribe that inhabited the valleys of Rajmahal Hills.
Kurichiya
Santhal
Kurumbar
Answer:
Santhal

Question 6.
The year in which the Kurichiya Revolt took place
1812
1805
1821
Answer:
1812

Question 7.
The leaders of Santhal revolt.
Rama Nambi and Thalackal Chanthu
Sidu and Kanhu
Mangal Pandey and Thantia Thope
Answer:
Sidu and Kanhu

Question 8.
The Revolt of 1857 broke out first at.
Delhi
Meerut
Kanpur
Answer:
Meerut

Question 9.
The first martyr of the Revolt of 1857.
Rani Lakshmi Bai
Bahadur Shah II
Mangal Pandey
Answer:
Mangal Pandey

Question 10.
Who put forward the ‘Drain Theory’?
Bala Gangadhar Tilak
Ramesh Chandra Dutt
Dadabhai Naoroji
Answer:
Dadabhai Naoroji

Question 11.
The year in which Bengal was partitioned.
1905
1912
1910
Answer:
1905

Question 12.
The national leader who declared ‘Freedom is my birthright. I shall have it ’.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Gopal Krishna Gokhale
Bipin Chandra Pal
Answer:
Bal Gangadhar Tilak

B. Answer in a sentence each.

Question 1.
What was the Ryotwari System?
Answer:
The land revenue system that the British introduced in South Indian regions was known as Ryotwari System. In this system, the land revenue was collected directly from farmers.

Question 2.
In which part of India were the Permanent Settlement introduced?
Answer:
Bengal, Bihar, Orissa

Question 3.
What is meant by commercialization of agriculture?
Answer:
During the British rule, the farmers were forced to cultivate crops according to market needs. Commercial crops were cultivated largely instead of food crops. This transformation is termed as commercialization of agriculture.

Question 4.
Who are the Santhals?
Answer:
A tribe inhabiting the valleys of Rajmahal Hills, stretching across Bengal, Jharkhand and Bihar.

Question 5.
What were the means of livelihood of the tribes?
Answer:

  • Gathering forest produce
  • Cattle rearing
  • Shifting cultivation
  • Hunting

Question 6.
Besides Santhal and Kurichiya revolts, several other tribal insurgencies broke out in different parts of India. Which were they?
Answer:

  • Kol Rebellion
  • Pahariya Rebellion
  • Bhil Rebellion
  • Munda Rebellion
  • Khasi Rebellion

Question 7.
Whom did the rioters of the Revolt of 1857 declare as the Emperor of India after capturing Delhi?
Answer:
Bahadur Shah II

Question 8.
What is meant by Nationalism?
Answer:
Nationalism is the sense of unity among the people of a country irrespective of caste, creed, religion and region.

Question 9.
When was the Indian National Congress formed? Where was its first meeting held?
Answer:

  • Formed in December 1885
  • The first meeting of the ING was held in Bombay.

Question 10.
Who put forward ‘Drain Theory’? In which book is it included?
Answer:

  • DadabhaiNaoroji
  • Poverty and Un-British Rule in India written by Dadabhai Naoroji.

Question 11.
When was Bengal partitioned? Name the Viceroy who partitioned Bengal.
Answer:

  • 1905
  • Lord Curzon

Question 12.
Name the leaders together known as Lal-Pal- Bal.
Answer:

  • Lala Lajpat Rai
  • Bipin Chandra Pal
  • Bal GangadharTilak

Question 13.
Why is Bengal called the ‘Nursery of Indian, National Movement’?
Answer:
Majority of earlier leaders of Indian National Movement were Bengalis.

Question 14.
When did the Kurichiya Revolt occur? Who was its leader?
Answer:

  • 1812
  • Rama Nambi, the Kurichiya leader.

Answer the following. Score 2 each.

Question 1.
What was Mahalwari System? Write its features.
Answer:

  • The land revenue system introduced by the British in North West regions was known as Mahalwari System.
  • The village headmen was assigned the responsibility to collect tax.
  • The tax rate was excessive.
  • The entire village was considered as a single unit for tax collection.

Question 2.
Write the problems faced by farmers as a result of commercialization of agriculture.
Answer:

  • The farmers were forced to cultivate for Europe.
  • Forced to cultivate commercial crops instead of food crops.
  • Food shortage and famine occurred.
  • Farmers had to pay high rate of tax.

Question 3.
The expansion of railway was one reason for the decline of Indian textile industry. Why?
Answer:

  • The statement is correct.
  • Railway helped the British to carry the imported fabrics from port towns to interior villages and the cotton collected from villages to the ports for exporting to Britain. Thus Indian weavers lost their business in village market.

Question 4.
Which were the modern industries that the British industrialists started in India?
Answer:

  • Plantation industry
  • Textile industry
  • Jute industry
  • Steel industry

Question 5.
Why did the Indian sepoys refuse to use the enfield rifles and cartridges?
Answer:
The rumour that the cartridge in the newly supplied Enfield rifles were greased with the fat of cows and pigs provoked the sepoys. It wounded the religious sentiments of the Hindu and Muslim soldiers. So the sepoys refused to use the enfield rifles and cartridges.

Question 6.
Who were the early leaders that played a main role in making the common people aware of the economic policy of the British that impoverished India?
Answer:

  • DadabhaiNaoroji
  • Gopal Krishna Gokhale
  • Ramesh Chandra Dutt

Question 7.
What were the peculiarities of the agitation during the Swadeshi Movement?
Answer:

  • Boycott of foreign goods and consumption of indigenous products.
  • Foreign goods were collected and burnt publicly.

Question 8.
Why is VO.Chidambaram Pillai called the ‘Helmsman of Tamil Nadu ’?
Answer:

  • V.O.Chidambaram Pillai led the Swadeshi Movement in Tamil Nadu.
  • He established Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company in Tuticorin in 1906. So he is called the ‘Helmsman of Tamil Nadu’.

Question 9.
Which were the main institutions that started in India during the Swadeshi Movement?
Answer:

  • Bengal Chemical Store in Bengal.
  • Tata Steel Plant in Maharashtra.
  • Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company in Tamil Nadu.

Question 10.
Complete the sun diagram related to the centres of the Revolt of 1857.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 British Exploitation and Resistance Important Questions 1
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 British Exploitation and Resistance Important Questions 2

Question 11.
What was the main difference of Ryotwari System from Permanent Land Revenue Settlement?
Answer:

  • Zamindars were the owners of the entire land in Permanent land revenue system. They collected tax from the farmers.
  • In Ryotwari system, the land revenue was collected directly from the farmers. Ownership of land was vested in the farmers.

Answer the following. Score 3 each.

Question 1.
What was the land revenue system introduced by Lord Cornwallis in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa? How was it beneficial to the British and the Zamindars?
Or
Revenue systems implemented by the British broke the backbone of Indian farmers. Evaluate this statement based on Permanent land revenue settlement.
Answer:

  • The Permanent Settlement was the land revenue system introduced by Lord Cornwallis in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
  • In this system, the tax was collected by the ‘zamindars. Zamindar was the owner of the entire land where he had the jurisdiction to collect tax. The actual farmers became tenants. Farmers were to pay 60% of the yield j as tax in cash. The Zamindars became rich by collecting excess tax from the farmers. The English East India Company got the tax regularly.
  • Tax was to be paid even at the time of poor yield. Tax was to be paid in cash before the cut off date. For this, the farmers took loans I ‘ from money-lenders at a high rate of interest by mortgaging agricultural land. The land of farmers who could not pay back the loan was seized by money-lenders.

Question 2.
Arrange the given table suitably.

Land Revenue System

Regions where implemented

Ryotwari system North west regions
Mahalwari system Bengal, Bihar, Orissa
Permanent settlement South Indian regions

Answer:

Land Revenue System

Regions where implemented

Ryotwari system South Indian regions
Mahalwari system North west regions
Permanent settlement Bengal, Bihar, Orissa

Question 3.
What is meant by commercialization of agriculture?
Or
The British rule commercialized Indian agriculture. What were the factors that helped for this?
Answer:

  • During the British rule, the farmers were compelled to cultivate crops according to the market needs. Commercial crops were largely cultivated instead of food crops. This was termed as commercialization of agriculture.
  • The Indian farmers were forced to cultivate cotton, indigo, etc. the raw materials for British industries during British rule.
  • Commercial crops were largely cultivated instead of food crops according to the market needs.
  • The farmers had to pay high rate of tax in cash before the deadline. To meet this, they cultivated crops that had higher market price.
  • The products that had high demand in the European markets were cultivated. Thus the Indian lands became the cultivating fields of Europe.

Question 4.
There were some common reasons for the tribal revolts of India against the British. What where they?
Or
The tribal people also became the victims of British rule. Substantiate.
Answer:

  • The Forest Acts imposed by the British made the life of the Santhal tribes miserable. They were prohibited to enter forest when the British declared forests as protected.
  • The British widely felled trees from forests to lay railway lines and build ships.
  • The British levied tax at higher rates on the forest produce collected by the Santhal tribes.
  • Zamindars and moneylenders captured their land.
  • The British made the tribals work as slaves.

Question 5.
Arrange the following events chronologically.
i) Partition of Bengal
ii) Kurichiya Revolt
iii) First War of Indian Independence
Answer:
i) Kurichiya Revolt (1812)
ii) First War of Indian Independence (1857)
iii) Partition of Bengal (1905)

Question 6.
Which were the centres of Revolt of 1857? Name the leaders who led the revolt in these centres.
Answer:

Centres of Revolt of 1857

Leaders

Jhansi Rani Lakshmi Bai
Kanpur Nana Saheb, Thantia Thope
Delhi Bahadur Shah II
Faizabad Maulvi Ahmadullah
Lucknow Begum Hazrat Mahal
Bihar Kan war Singh

Question 7.
Write a note on the formation of the Indian National Congress.
Answer:
Indian National Congress was formed in December 1885 in Bombay. Seventy two delegates from different parts of India attended its first session. W.C.Banerjee was the first President of INC. The INC led the anti-British struggle from 1885 till India attained independence in 1947.

Question 8.
Different groups of people turned against the British due to their; policies. Examine how the British policies affected Indian farmers and workers.
Answer:
Farmers were the immediate victims of the British rule. It was the land revenue system implemented by the British that destroyed the backbone of the farmers. The aim of the British tax policy was to maximize the income.

Different types of land revenue systems were introduced in various regions under the British rule. When the farmers were unable to pay the high tax in cash before the deadline, they had to take loan from moneylenders at a high rate of interest. The loans were obtained by mortgaging agricultural lands. The agricultural land of the farmers, who could not pay back the loan and interest, was seized by moneylenders.

Weavers gave up their work massively due to the exploitation and torture of the British officials. They forced the weavers to work at meagre wages and to exchange the products to them at cheaper rate. The decline of village industries like pottery, tanning and carpentry led to famine and death due to starvation.

Question 9.
What were the main reasons for the Kurichiya Revolt?
Answer:

  • Compulsion for paying the tax in cash.
  • Imposition of excessive tax by the British.
  • Seizing of agricultural land for non-payment of tax.

Question 10.
Write the reasons for Mappila Rebellions.
Answer:

  • The exploitation and suppression of the landlords and the British.
  • The British treated the Janmis as owners of land.
  • Atrocities of the landlords including eviction of tenants.

Question 11.
What were the major problems faced by the workers in the modern industries during the British rule?
Answer:

  • Prolonged working hours
  • Meagre wage
  • Unhealthy accommodation

Question 12.
Write the features of Permanent land revenue settlement.
Answer:

  • In the Permanent land revenue settlement, the tax was collected by zamindars.
  • Zamindar was the owner of the entire land where he had the jurisdiction to collect tax.
  • While the Zamindars became the owners of the land, the actual farmers became tenants.
  • Farmers were to pay up to 60% of the yield as tax.
  • Tax was to be paid even at the time of poor yield.
  • The tax was to be paid in cash strictly before the cut off date.

Question 13.
Different land revenue systems were implemented in various regions under the British rule. Arrange them in proper order.

Land Revenue System

Regions

i. Permanent land revenue settlement a. Village headman collected the tax.
ii. Ryotwari system b. Zamindar collected the tax.
iii. Mahalwari System c. Tax was collected directly.

Answer:
i. – b,
ii. – c,
iii. – a

Question 14.
Examine the background of indigo revolt.
Answer:
It was necessary for the British industrialists to get indigo plantation spread to more regions in India. They gave farmers a good amount as advance for the cultivation of indigo. The farmers succumbed to this and widely planted indigo as they were in trouble with no other means to pay the heavy land tax. Each farmer who accepted the advance amount from the British was liable to plant indigo in a fixed portion of the land, especially in the most fertile part.

The land used for the cultivation of food grains was reserved for indigo plantation. Due to the interference of the British agents in the harvesting season, the farmers received only a lower price for indigo. Later when artificial colours were invented, indigo became obsolete. This made the plight of indigo farmers more miserable.

Question 15.
How did the Drain Theory of Dadabhai Naoroji reinforce the anti – British attitude in India?
Answer:
Through his studies, Dadabhai Naoroji publicized the facts on the deterioration of Indian economy under the British rule. His studies were based on empirical data. He established the fact that a huge amount of money was flowing to Britain every year. He proved that the drain of wealth was the root cause of poverty and starvation in India. This was known as ‘Drain Theory’.

Indian wealth flew to Britain by the export of Indian raw materials, salary and pension to the British officers in India, profit gained through the sale of the British products in India and tax from India. Dadabhai Naoroji could make the people aware that the economic policy of the British impoverished India. The common people realized that the poverty and exploitation they faced had been the creation of the British. It reinforced their anti- British attitude which finally led to the growth of nationalistic feeling among the people.

Question 16.
How did the decline of Indian industries cause the ruin of the agricultural sector in India during the period of the British?
Answer:
With the decline of industries? people who had been working with them migrated to villages and engaged in agriculture related works. As a result, the number of people who engaged in agriculture to earn a living, increased. It fragmented the agricultural fields and the production fell to be stagnant.

Question 17.
What were the revenue systems implemented by the British in various parts of India?
Answer:

  • Permanent land revenue settlement in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa regions.
  • Ryotwari system in South Indian regions.
  • Mahalwari system in North west regions.

Question 18.
Why is the peasant revolts in the British Malabar region considered as Mappila revolt? What was the reason found out by the William Logan Commission for the revolt?
Answer:

  • Most of the tenants of Malabar were Mappilas who cultivated the land obtained on lease from landlords. So the peasant revolts in Malabar were known as Mappila revolt.
  • The reason for the revolts found by William Logan Commission was unfair revenue system of the British.

Question 19.
Evaluate how the revenue system implemented by the British adversely affected the agricultural sector.
Answer:

  • Tax was to be paid in cash before the cut – off date.
  • So often peasants had to take loans from money lenders at a high rate of interest.
  • They got the money from money lenders by mortgaging agricultural land.
  • Money lenders seized the mortgaged agricultural land of farmers who could not repay the loan.

Question 20.
Evaluate the circumstances that forced Indian farmers to cultivate cash crops.
Answer:

  • High rate of tax
  • Tax had to be paid in cash before the cut – off date.
  • To meet this situation, they cultivated products having higher market price.

Question 21.
Evaluate the circumstances that led to the deterioration of village industries like pottery, tannery and carpentry.
Answer:

  • Pottery – Import of aluminium vessels.
  • Tannery – Export of raw leather to Europe.
  • Carpentry- Use of machines made of metals.

Question 22.
The use of Swadeshi goods and boycott of foreign goods rejuvenated Indian industry. Substantiate.
Answer:

  • A number of textile mills, soap factories, match box companies, national banks and insurance companies were started.
  • The Bengal Chemical Store in Bengal, the Tata Iron and Steel Plant in Maharashtra, and the Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company in Tamil Nadu were started during the Swadeshi movement.
  • Import of British goods to India steadily went down during this period.

Question 23.
State the features of Swadeshi movement started against the partition of Bengal.
Answer:
Swadeshi Movement:
Swadeshi movement began in 1906. The boycott of foreign goods and consumption of indigenous products were the main features of Swadeshi movement. As’part of the agitation, foreign goods were collected and burnt publicly.

The extensive use of indigenous products by discarding foreign items rejuvenated Indian industry. As a result, a number of textile mills, soap factories, matchbox companies, national banks and insurance companies were established. Import of British goods to India steadily went down during this period. Massive participation of women, labourers and students was another remarkable feature of this agitation.

Indian nationalism attained further strength from Swadeshi Movement. The freedom movement that was limited to only the high class in the society became a mass movement with the launching of Swadeshi movement. It contributed new strategies of agitation to national movement.

Question 24.
Explain how Indian lands became the cultivating field of Europe during the British rule.
Answer:
How Indian lands became cultivating fields for Europe:

  • During the British rule, the farmers were compelled to cultivate crops according to the market needs. Commercial crops were largely cultivated instead of food crops. This was termed as commercialization of agriculture.
  • The Indian farmers were forced to cultivate cotton, indigo, etc. the raw materials for British industries during British rule.
  • Commercial crops were largely cultivated instead of food crops according to the market needs.
  • The farmers had to pay high rate of tax in cash before the deadline. To meet this, they cultivated crops that had higher market price.
  • The products that had high demand in the European markets were cultivated. Thus the Indian lands became the cultivating fields of Europe.

Answer the following. Score 4 each.

Question 1.
Why did the Santhal tribe of Rajmahal Hills turn against the British? Who gave leadership to the Santhal Rebellion? How did the British face, the rebellion?
Answer:
The Santhal tribe inhabited the valleys of Rajmahal Hills. The Forest Acts imposed by the British made their life miserable. They were prohibited to enter forest when the British declared forests as protected. The British levied tax at higher rates on the forest produce collected by the tribes. The British officers made them work as slaves in laying railway lines. When their life became unbearable, they decided to take up arms against the British.

The Santhal rebellion was led by Sido and Kanhu. Thousands of Santhals were killed in the struggle. The British suppressed the rebellion.

Question 2.
Match the items related to Column A from Columns B and C.

A

B

C

Kurichiya Revolt Rajmahal Hills Lord Cornwallis
Permanent Settlement Poverty and Unbritish Rule in India Rama Nambi
Santhal Rebellion Wayanad Dadabhai Naoroii
Drain Theory Bengal, Bihar, Orissa Sido and Kanhu

Answer:

A

B

C

Kurichiya Revolt Wayanad Rama Nambi
Permanent Settlement Bengal, Bihar, Orissa Lord Cornwallis
Santhal Rebellion Rajmahal Hills Sido and Kanhu
Drain Theory Poverty and Unbritish Rule in India Dadabhai Naoroji

Question 3.
Discuss the role of Swadeshi Movement in the freedom struggle.
Or
Analyse the features of Swadeshi Movement.
Answer:
The boycott of foreign goods and consumption of indigenous products were the main features of Swadeshi movement. As part of the agitation, foreign goods were collected and burnt publicly. The extensive use of indigenous products by discarding foreign items rejuvenated Indian industry.

As a result, a number of textile mills, soap factories, matchbox companies, national banks and insurance companies were established. Import of British goods to India steadily went down during this period. Massive participation of women, labourers and students was another remarkable feature of this agitation.

Indian nationalism attained further strength from Swadeshi Movement. The freedom movement that was limited to only the high class in the society became a mass movement with the launching of Swadeshi movement. It contributed new strategies of agitation to national movement.

Question 4.
‘The Revolt of 1857 was not merely a Sepoy revolt, but a War of Independence Do you agree with this opinion of Suresh? Explain.
Answer:
Yes, the Revolt of 1857 was the First War of Indian Independence.

People belonging to different groups of society including Sepoys, kings, farmers, workers and handicrafts men participated in this revolt. The Sepoys were the most discontented under the British rule.

Poor salary and abuse by the British officers were the major reasons for their discontent. The British rule had adversely affected the kings also. Many of them lost their power due to the policies of the company. The massive participation of farmers, workers and handicraft workers was another feature of the revolt. The real strength of the rebellion was the Hindu-Muslim unity.

Historians termed the Revolt of 1857 as India’s First War of Independence. This incident was evaluated first as a national revolt by the British historian Benjamin Disraeli. The Revolt of 1857 was the first great attempt by
the Indians to liberate themselves from the British rule.

Question 5.
Complete the flow chart below.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 British Exploitation and Resistance Important Questions 3
Answer:

  • Textile industry : Machine made textiles imported from Britain sold at low price
  • Pottery : Import of aluminium vessels
  • Tanning : Export of raw leather to Europe
  • Carpentry : Use of machine made of metals

Question 6.
Analyse the circumstances that led the British Indian soldiers to the Revolt of 1857.
Answer:

  • Poor salary of the sepoys
  • Abuse by the British officers
  • Rumours connected with newly introduced rifle and cartridges.
  • The religious sentiments of the Hindu and Muslim soldiers were wounded.
  • Severe punishment given to sepoys who were unwilling to use the cartridges.
  • Mangal Pandey, an Indian sepoy was hanged, as he shot a British official.

Answer the following. Score 5/6 each.

Question 1.
The Indigo Revolt of the farmers of Bengal and the peasant revolts in Kerala were due to the exploitation of the farmers by the British and zamindars. Explain.
Answer:
Farmers were the immediate victims of the British rule. The land revenue system implemented by the British destroyed the backbone of the farmers. The aim of the British tax policy was to maximize income. The peasants were led to a revolt due to the land revenue policy of the British and the torture by the landlords.

The Indigo Revolt:
With the Industrial Revolution in the 18thcentury in England, textile industry gathered much momentum and the demand for indigo increased. It was necessary for the British industrialists to get indigo plantation spread to more regions in India. They gave farmers a good amount as advance for the cultivation of indigo.

Each farmer who accepted the advance from the British had to plant indigo in a fixed portion of his land. The farmers were also compelled to cultivate it in the most fertile part of their land. Due to the interference of the British agents during the harvesting season, the farmers received only a low price for indigo.

The indigo farmers resorted to revolt owing to severe exploitation and endless miseries. In 1859, the farmers of Bengal organized themselves and declared that they were giving up indigo cultivation. They attacked indigo factories with bows, arrows, swords and spears.

The farmers refused to take advance and cultivate indigo. They also opposed the threats of eviction and increase in lease amount. The government appointed a commission to study the problems of indigo farmers. The commission proposed to stop indigo cultivation as it was uneconomic.

Peasant Revolts in Kerala:
British Malabar witnessed many peasant struggles. The exploitation and suppression of the landlords and the British led to the revolts in Malabar. The British treated the Janmis as owners of land.

The revolt was against the eviction of tenants carried out by the Janmis with the support of the British. Farmers of South Malabar were tenants who cultivated the land obtained on lease from landlords. Most of these tenants were Mappilas. So these struggles were known as Mappita Rebellions.

Around 22 peasant revolts took place in Malabar. To suppress the revolts, the British raised a special armed police battalion named Malabar Special Police. The British government appointed the William Logan Commission to enquire about the revolts. The Commission pointed out that the cause of the struggle was the unfair land revenue system of the British.

Question 2.
Examine the role of tribal revolts in anti- British struggle based on Santhal Rebellion and Kurichiya Revolt.
Answer:
Like the peasants, the tribals were also in misery with the coming of the British. The tribals who led a free life were subjected to exploitation and torture. They were prohibited to enter forest which was their source of livelihood.

Santhal Rebellion:
Santhal Rebellion was the biggest tribal revolt that the British had to encounter in India. The Santhal tribe inhabited the valleys of Rajmahal Hills. Gathering forest produce, cattle rearing, shifting cultivation and hunting were their major means of livelihood. The Forest Acts imposed by the British made their life miserable. They were prohibited to enter forest because the British declared the forests as protected.

The British widely felled trees from forests to lay railway lines and build ships and for plantation. The British levied high tax on the forest produce collected by the tribes. Zamindars and moneylenders captured their land. The British made them work as slaves. These situations made the Santhals to fight against the British. The agitation was led by Sido and Kanhu.

Kurichiya Revolt:
Kurichiya Revolt was also a tribal insurgency against the British. It was ‘organised by the Kurichiya and the Kurumba tribes of Wayanad in 1812. The main reasons of the revolt were:

  • Imposition of excessive tax by the British.
  • Compulsion for paying tax in cash.
  • Seizing of agricultural land for non-payment of tax.

The revolt was led by the Kurichiya leader RamaNambi. The British suppressed the struggle and killed RamaNambi.

Question 3.
Evaluate the causes and results of the Revolt of 1857.
Answer:
The Revolt of 1857 was the first organized mass movement against the misrule of the British in India. The revolt was generated out of the discontent that prevailed among all sections of Indians due to the policies of the British. The rebellion was started by the Sepoys of Meerut. The following were the main causes for the revolt.

Miseries of the Sepoys :
Poor salary and abuse by the British officers were the major reasons for the Sepoy’s resentment. The rumour that the cartridge in the newly supplied Enfield rifles were greased with the fat of cows and pigs provoked them. It wounded the religious sentiments of Hindus and Muslim soldiers. The soldiers who were unwilling to use the new cartridges were punished by the officers.

Dissatisfaction of Kings :
The British rule had adversely affected the kings also. In addition to the Doctrine of Lapse, the princely states were convicted of inefficient rule and were annexed by the British. Lord Dalhousie, the British Governor General annexed the princely states of Satara, Jhansi, Nagpur and Sambalpur using the policy of Doctrine of Lapse. This made them to lead the revolt.

Miseries of farmers :
The land revenue policies of the British in India namely the Permanent settlement, Ryotwari system and Mahalwari system impoverished the peasants. When the farmers were unable to pay tax in cash before the deadline, they had to take loan from moneylenders at a high rate of interest by mortgaging their land.

The moneylenders seized the agricultural land of farmers who could not pay back loan and interest. The farmers who cultivated commercial crops as a result of the commercialization of agriculture also had to suffer losses.

Poverty of the craftsmen :
The British policies completely ruined not only the agricultural sector, but also the handicrafts in India. Large scale import of machine-made British textiles was the major reason for the ruin of Indian textile industry. Weavers gave up their work massively due to the exploitation and torture of the British officers. They searched for other jobs. The village industries like pottery, tanning and carpentry also declined.

The ruins of agricultural sector and handicrafts industry led India to famine and deaths due to starvation.

Immediate cause :
In Barrackpore in Bengal, Mangal Pandey, an Indian soldier shot a British officer who forced him to use the cartridge. He was arrested an hanged to death. The revolt began at Meerut. The rioters moved to Delhi, captured it and declared Bahadur Shah II as the emperor of India. The rioters could not compete with the superior military power of the British and the rebellion was completely suppressed.

Results of the revolt :

  • The first and the foremost massive resistance of the Indians against the British.
  • Brought about several changes in the policies and administration of the British.
  • The British Parliament took over the administration of India from the English East India Company.
  • Paved the way for the emergence national movement.

Question 4.
Write the features of the land revenue systems that the British introduced in India. How did they differ? What were their similiarities?
Answer:
The important land revenue systems that the British implemented in India were Permanent settlement, Ryotwari system and Mahalwari system.

Permanent Settlement :
The Permanent settlement was introduced by Lord Cornwallis, the Governor General of British India to collect taxes in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. This system is also known as the Zamindari system.
The following were its features:

  • The tax was collected by zamindars.
  • Zamindar was the owner of the entire land where he had the jurisdiction to collect tax.
  • Farmers were to pay up to 60% of the yield as tax.
  • Tax to be paid even at the time of poor yield.
  • Tax was to be paid in cash strictly before the cut off date.
  • The actual farmers became tenants.

Ryotwari system :
This was the land revenue system that the British introduced in South Indian regions. Its features were:

  • Land revenue was collected directly from the farmers.
  • Ownership of the land was vested with the peasant.
  • Excessive tax was imposed.
  • Tax rates were frequently increased.

Mahalwari system :
This was introduced by the British to collect tax from North West regions. Its features were:

  • The village headman was assigned the responsibility to collect tax.
  • Tax rate was excessive.
  • The entire village was considered as a single unit for tax collection.

Common similiarities

  • Tax had to be paid in cash
  • Tax was very high

Question 5.
Arranged the columns suitably.

A

B

C

Mangal Pandey Tuticorin Mughal ruler
Kurichiya Revolt Delhi Sidu, Kanhu
Santhal Rebellion Barrackpore Tamil Helmsman
Bahadur Shah 11 Wayanad Revolt of 1857
V.O.Chidambaram Pillai Rajmahal Hills Rama Nambi

Answer:

A

B

C

Mangal Pandey Barrackpore Revolt of 1857
Kurichiya Revolt Wayanad Rama Nambi
Santhal Rebellion Rajmahal Hills Sidu, Kanhu
Bahadur Shah II Delhi Mughal ruler
V.O.Chidambaram Pillai Tuticorin Tamil Helmsman

Question 6.
Match the suitably.

A

B

Bal Gangadhar Tilak Lucknow
Dadabhai Naoroji Permanent Settlement
Begum Hazrath Mahal Lok Manya
Lord Cornwallis Faizabad
Maulvi Ahmadullah Poverty and Un British Rule in India

Answer:

A

B

Bal Gangadhar Tilak Lok Manya
Dadabhai Naoroji Poverty and Un British Rule in India
Begum Hazrath Mahal Lucknow
Lord Cornwallis Permanent Settlement
Maulvi Ahmadullah Faizabad

Question 7.
Prepare a Timeline using the years and events given.
1905 – Kurichiya Revolt
1857 – Battle of Plassey
1757 – Formation of Indian National Congress
1812 – Partition of Bengal
1885 – First War of Independence
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 British Exploitation and Resistance Important Questions 4

Question 8.
Arrange the following events chronologically.
i) Swadeshi Movement
ii) Partition of Bengal
iii) Kurichiya Revolt
iv) First War of Independence
v) Santhal Rebellion
Answer:
i) Kurichiya Revolt (1812)
ii) Santhal Rebellion (1855-56)
iii) First War of Independence (1857)
iv) Partition of Bengal (1905)
v) Swadeshi Movement (1906)
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 British Exploitation and Resistance Important Questions 5
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 British Exploitation and Resistance Important Questions 6

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions