Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis through Maps

Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis through Maps

Answer the following. Score ‘1’ each

Choose the correct answer.

Question 1.
Topographical maps are prepared in …………………. scale
large
small
medium
Answer:
large

Question 2.
Representation of elevation in maps with the help of broken lines.
Contour lines
Spot height
Form lines.
Answer:
Form lines

Question 3.
The colour used to depict grid lines in topographical maps
Brown
Red
Black
Answer:
Red

Question 4.
Inch sheets are prepared in …………………. scale.
1: 25000
1: 50000
1: 250000
Answer:
1:50000

Question 5.
Sheets with 1° latitudinal and longitudinal extent are called
Million sheets
Degree sheets
Inch sheets
Answer:
Degree sheets

Question 6.
To understand the relief of elevated landforms, contours with …………………. meter interval are used.
10
50
100
Answer:
100

Question 7.
Latitudinal and longitudinal location come under
Primary information
Cultural features
Physical features
Answer:
Primary information

Answer in a sentence each.

Question 1.
Which maps are known as toposheets?
Answer:
Topographical maps

Question 2.
Where is the headquarters of Survey of India?
Answer:
Dehradun

Question 3.
Which maps are known as Survey of India maps?
Answer:
Topographical maps prepared in India.

Question 4.
Who gave leadership to the preparation of India’s topographical maps?
Answer:
Col. William Lambton began in 1802 and completed over a period of 50 years.

Question 5.
Name the British surveyor who recorded the correct measurements of the Himalayan mountain ranges.
Answer:
Col. George Everest

Question 6.
What are contour lines?
Answer:
Contours are imaginary lines drawn connecting places having equal elevation from sea level.

Question 7.
What is grid reference?
Answer:
The grid formed by the eastings and the northings in topographical maps is called grid reference.

Question 8.
Identify the wrong statement.
a. Cultivable lands are represented by green colour in topographical maps.
b. Roads are represented by red colour in topographical maps.
c. Both natural and man-made features are – included in topographical maps.
d. Forests are represented by green colour in topographical maps.
Answer:
Statement
a. Cultivable lands are represented by yellow colour in topographical maps.

Question 9.
Which is the important northings value in the 6 figure grid reference 115766?
Answer:
76

Question 10.
What does the symbol Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis through Maps 1 topographical map?
Answer:
Stream

Question 11.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis through Maps 2  Identify the feature represented by this symbol in a topographical map.
Answer:
Graveyard

Question 12.
What is represented by the signs PO and IB in topographical maps?
Answer:
PO: Post office
IB : Inspection bungalow

Question 13.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis through Maps 3 These represent railway lines. What is the main difference between then?
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis through Maps 4

Question 14.
What is indicated by the numbers along with the contour lines in topographical maps?
Answer:
Altitude

Question 15.
The lines drawn in north- south direction in the toposheets are the Eastings. Why are these lines called so?
Answer:
The value of these lines increases eastwards.

16. In the toposheet numbered 45 \(\frac{f}{10}\), what does f indicate?
Answer:
F indicates degree sheet.

Answer the following. Score ‘2’ each

Question 1.
How is the word ‘topographic ’ derived?
Answer:
The English term ‘topographic’ is derived from the Greek terms ‘topo’ and ‘graphic’.
‘Topo’ means place and ‘graphic means to write or draw.

Question 2.
Which is the official agency in India responsible for the preparation of topographical maps? Why are restrictions imposed on the use of topographical maps?
Answer:
In India, the Survey of India is entrusted with the preparation of topographical maps.
Certain restrictions have been imposed on the use of topographical maps of strategic regions owing to the national security concerns.

Question 3.
Survey of India uses different scales for the preparation of topographical maps. Which are they?
Answer:
In India, topographical maps are prepared in scales 1:1000000, 1:250000, 1:50000 and 1:25000 for various purposes.

Question 4.
How did Mount Everest, the highest peak in the Himalayas get that name?
Answer:
The survey works in India began in 1802 under Col. William Lambton. Col. George Everest joined as an assistant to Lambton in 1818. This was the first survey that recorded the correct measurements of the Himalayan mountain ranges. As a tribute to George Everest who took charge of the survey after Lambton, the highest peak in the Himalayan mountain ranges was given the name Everest.

Question 5.
How are eastings and northings identified?
Answer:

  • The north-south lines in red in a topographic map are called eastings.
  • The east-west lines in red in a topographic map are called northings.

Question 6.
How much distance does each grid in the reference grid represent?
Answer:
The grid formed by the easting and the northing is called reference grid. Each grid with 2 cm width and 2 cm breadth covers an area of 1 km length and 1 km breadth on the earth’s surface.

Question 7.
What is the advantage of 6 – figure grid reference over 4-figure grid reference?
Answer:
Since geographic features differ in size, their location can be found out in two different ways using grids, namely 4-figure grid reference and 6-figure grid reference. Comparatively bigger geographic features are located through 4-figure grid reference. Eg: lake, fort, etc. Comparatively smaller geographic features are generally located through 6-figure grid reference method. Eg: Tube well, spring, well, etc.

  • Question 8.
    A lake is located in the given grid. Locate the lake through 4-figure grid reference method.
    Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis through Maps 5
    Answer:
    1576
    Explanation
  • Find out the value of the eastings to the immediate left of the lake and write it. Here it is 15.
  • Then find the value of the northing immediately to the south of the lake. Here the value is 76.
  • Write the values of northings along with eastings. Thus the grid reference of the lake is 1576.

Question 9.
A spring is located in the given grid. Find its location through 6-figure grid reference method.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis through Maps 6
Ans:
324656
Explanation
Write the value of the easting to the left of the spring (32). Then divide the area upto the next easting into 10 equal parts and find the exact location on which the spring is located (4) and write it next to the value of the easting already found. Thus the number is 324.

Write the value of the northing just below the spring (65). Then divide the area upto the next northing into 10 equal parts and find the exact location on which the spring is located (6) and write it next to the value of the northing already found. Thus the number is 656.

By combining the easting number 324 and northing number 656, we get the 6-figure grid reference 324656.

Question 10.
Write notes on
a. Contour values
b. Contour intervals
Answer:
a. Contour values
Contours are imaginary lines drawn connecting places having equal elevation from the sea level. The respective altitude will be marked with each contour line. These are called contour values.
b. Contour interval
The difference between the values of two adjacent contours is called contour interval.

Question 11.
What do the closely spaced and widely spaced contours indicate?
Answer:

  • The closely spaced contours represent steep slopes.
  • The widely spaced contours represent gentle slopes.

Question 12.
What do these symbols indicate in a topographical map?
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis through Maps 7
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis through Maps 8

Question 13.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis through Maps 9
symbols are largely used in a toposheet to represent transport. What is your inference regarding the transport facilities in this region?
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis through Maps 10
The transport facilities are limited in this region.

Question 14.
While preparing the topographical map of Kerala, the following symbols are marked more in Idukki district.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis through Maps 11
What do these symbols indicate? What inference can you draw from this about the total area of Idukki district?
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis through Maps 12
From this, it can be inferred that a considerable area of Idukki district constitutes forest.

Question 15.
Three fourth of the total area in a topographical map is shown in yellow colour. What is your inference regarding the main economic activity of the people in this region?
Answer:

  • Yellow colour indicates cultivable land in topographical maps.
  • So agriculture is the main economic activity in this region.

Question 16.
What are the methods of representing elevation in topographical maps other than contour lines?
Answer:

  • Form lines
  • Spotlight
  • Triangulated height.
  • Benchmark.

Question 17.
The contour lines are closely spaced at place P and are widely spaced at place Q in a toposheet. What is your inference regarding the slopes at places P and Q?
Answer:

  • At P steep slope. The closely spaced contours represent steep slopes.
  • At Q gentle slope. The widely spaced contours represent gentle slopes.

Answer the following. Score ‘3’ each.

Question 1.
What are topographical maps? Write examples for the surface features depicted in them.
Answer:
Topographical maps are large scale maps that depict in minute detail all natural and man made features on the earth’s surface.

There maps contain important surface features such as the undulations of the terrain, rivers, other water bodies, forests, agricultural land, barren land, villages, towns and transport and communication systems.

Question 2.
The number 45\(\frac{D}{10}\) is recorded on the top right 10 of a topographical map,
i. What do the factors ‘45 ’ and ‘D ’ indicate.
ii. What is the scale of this toposheet?
a. A 200
b. BM 220
c. 240
Answer:
i.

  • 45 indicates million sheet.
  • D indicates degree sheet.

ii. Scale = 1 : 50000

Question 3.
Which are the topographical maps prepared in the following scales?
1:1000000
1:250000
1:50000
Answer:
The million sheets covering 4° latitudinal and 4° longitudinal extent are prepared in the scale 1:1000000.
Degree sheets covering 1° latitudinal 1° longitudinal extent are prepared in the scale 1:250000.
Degree sheets are divided into 16 parts having 15 minutes latitudinal and 15 minutes longitudinal extent. These sheets are prepared in the scale 1:50000.

Question 4.
List the geographical information depicted using red colour.
Answer:

  • Settlements
  • Roads
  • Paths
  • Gridlines

Question 5.
Write notes on: a. Spot height a. Form lines a. Benchmark
Answer:
a. Spot height: Spot height represents the actual height of a place by recording the height in digits beside a black dot (•).
b. Form lines: When it is difficult to measure the elevation of places through land surveys due to rugged terrain, the elevation is represented with the help of broken lines. These are form lines.
c. Benchmark: The height of reservoirs and prominent buildings are recorded along with the letters BM.

Question 6.
How are the following symbols/hints known?
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis through Maps 27
b. BM 220
c. 240
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis through Maps 26
Δ represents triangulated height. Height of places estimated through trigonometric surveys are recorded in maps using’ Δ’ symbol.
b. BM 220
The height of a place is denoted by BM.
c. 240
Spot height. It represents the actual height of a place by recording the height in digits beside a black dot (•).

Question 7.
Record the signs and symbols for the following geographical features.
a. Footpath
b. Spring
c. Stream
d. Healthcare
e. Well,
f. International boundary
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis through Maps 13

Question 8.
What is the method adopted to locate geographical features correctly in topographical maps?
Answer:
Places are located on maps and globes with the help of latitudes and longitudes. But it is difficult to show the precise location of geographical features in toposheets which are large scale maps. To solve this difficulty, north-south and east-west lines in red are incorporated in the toposheets. The north-south lines are called eastings and the east-west lines are called northings.

Question 9.
Compare the features of Eastings and Northings.
Answer:
Eastings

  • These are north-south lines.
  • Their value increases towards the east.
  • The value of the eastings immediately left to the geographical feature is considered for identifying a location.

Northings

  • These are lines drawn in east-west direction.
  • Their value increases towards the north.
  • The value of the northing immediately to the south of the feature in the map is considered for identifying a location.

Question 10.
Explain the method of 4 figure grid reference based on the given grid.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis through Maps 14
Answer:
The value of the easting to the immediate left of the figure (here fort) is to be written first (54). Then the value of the northing just south of the fort is written next to the value of easting (21). The grid reference of the fort is 5421.

Question 11.
Which geographical features are depicted using the colours yellow, black and brown in topographical maps?
Answer:

  • Yellow colour: Cultivable land
  • Black colour : • Boundary lines
  • Non-perennial water bodies
  • Latitudes and longitudes
  • Railway and telephone lines
  • Brown colour: ‘Contour lines and their values
  • Sand dunes and sandhills

Question 12.
What things can be assessed from the contour lines in topographical maps?
Answer:

  • Altitude of the place
  • Nature of the slope
  • Shape of the landform

Question 13.
What are primary information in topographical maps? Write examples.
Answer:
The general information given outside the margins in topographical maps are known as primary or marginal information.
Eg:

  • Toposheet number
  • Name of the place represented
  • Scale of the map
  • Contour interval
  • Year of survey and agency

Question 14.
The contour lines of an area identified for erecting electric posts are given. Intervisibility of places has to be determined for this. What is intervisibility? Determine the ‘intervisibility between the places A, B and C by analysing the contours.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis through Maps 15
Answer:
Intervisibility: If any two places in a relief ‘ are mutually visible, it is known as intervisibility. If the places are not mutually visible, there is no intervisibility.
While analysing the contour lines and their spacing, the possibility of intervisibility is as follows.

Places Intervisibility
Between A and B
Between A and C
Between B and C
Not intervisible
Not intervisible
Intervisible

Question 15.
Column A represents the contour lines and column B represents the respective landforms. Observe the columns and identify the correct option from among the following.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis through Maps 16
A. 1 and 2 are correct
B. 1 and 3 are correct
C. 2 and 3 are correct
D. All are correct
Answer:
B. 1 and 3 are correct

Question 16.
55 \(\frac{D}{1}\). Is the number of a toposheet. What do the parts 55, D and 1 indicate?
Answer:

  • 55 indicates the Million sheet which includes this toposheet.
  • D indicates the Degree sheet which includes the toposheet.
  • I indicates the Inch sheet which includes the toposheet.

Question 17.
The boundaries in a topographical map are indicated as follows, Choose the correct pair from this.

A B
i. …………………….
ii. ……………………
iii. ……………………
iv. ……………………
a. Stale boundary
b. International boundary
c. District boundary
d. Taluk boundary

A. c, ii. d,iii. b, iv. a
B. i. a, ii. b, iii. c, iv. d
C. i. b,ii. a, iii. d, iv. c
D. i. d, ii. c, iii. a, iv. b
Ans:
D. i. d, ii. c, iii. a, iv. b

Answer the following. Score ‘4’ each.

Question 1.
List the uses of topographic maps.
Answer:

  • To analyze the physical and cultural features of the terrain
  • For military operations and the preparation of military maps
  • To identify and study the natural as well as the cultural resources of a region as part of economic planning.
  • For urban planning

Question 2.
How are toposheets for the whole world prepared?
Answer:

  • Toposheets for the whole world have been prepared in several sheets of same size and shape.
  • 1800 sheets for regions between equator and 60° latitude in both the hemispheres.
  • 420 sheets for regions between 60° and 88° latitudes is both the hemispheres.
  • 2 sheets for poles between 88° and 90°.
  • Thus the whole world is picturised in 2222 sheets.

Question 3.
Complete table by identifying the colours used to depict geographical features.

Geographical features Colours
Grasslands
Settlements
Tube wells
Railway lines
Barren land
Sandhills
Paths
Boundaries
a.…………………
b. …………………
c. …………………
d. …………………
e. …………………
f. …………………
g. …………………
h. …………………

Answer:
a. Green
b. Red
c. Blue
d. Black
e. White
f. Brown
g.Red
h. Black

Question 4.
How is elevation represented in topographical maps?
Answer:
By means of

  • Contour lines
  • Spot height
  • Triangulated height
  • Form lines
  • Benchmark
  • Question 5.
    Which are the geographical features depicted in topographical maps using the colours green, blue and red?
    Answer:

Green :

  • Forests
  • Grasslands
  • Trees and shrubs
  • Orchards

Blue:

  • Rivers, wells, pools, lakes, tube wells
  • Oceans (Perennial water bodies)

Red:

  • Settlements, roads, paths
  • Gridlines

Question 6.
Explain the method of 6 figure grid reference based on the given grid.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis through Maps 17
Answer:
While determining the location of the tube well, the value of the easting to the left of it (84) is to be written first. Then divide the area upto the next easting into 10 equal parts and find the exact division on which the tube well is located and write it next to the value of easting already found (847). Next write the value of northing just below the tube well along with the easting’s value (84735). Then divide the area upto the next northing into 10 equal parts and find the exact division on which the tube well is located and write it with the values already written (847354). Thus 847354 is the 6 figure grid reference of the tube well.

Question 7.
What is intervisibility? What is its advantage? How can we assess the intervisibility between two places?
Answer:
In topographical map interpretation, if any two places are mutually visible, it is called intervisibility.

Advantage
Intervisibility assessment is applied for erecting electric posts, mobile towers, wireless transmission towers, etc.
For assessing the intervisibility, the shape of the terrain must be inferred from the contour lines. From the shape of the terrain, if two places are mutually visible, we can establish that these places are intervisible.

Question 8.
Write four examples each for physical features and cultural features in topographical maps.
Answer:
Physical features
Water bodies such as rivers, streams, springs, etc.

Different landforms
Contour lines, forests, elevations in different ways (Spot height, Benchmark, triangulated height)

Cultural features
Man made’ features, settlements, different types of roads, boundaries, places of worship, agricultural lands, post office, police station, bridges, etc. are a few cultural features shown in toposheets.

Question 9.
Classify the following as primary information, physical features and cultural features.

  • Agricultural lands
  • Boundaries
  • Stream
  • Elevation of the place
  • Scale
  • Contour interval
  • Roads
  • Latitudinal location

Answer:
Primary information

  • Scale
  • Contour interval
  • Latitudinal location

Physical features

  • Stream
  • Elevation of the place

Cultural features

  • Agricultural lands
  • Roads
  • Boundaries

Question 10.
Analyse the model grid and write notes based on the hints. –
Hints:
Cultural features
Physical features
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis through Maps 18
Answer:
Physical features

  • Well
  • Tube well

Cultural features

  • Road
  • Bridge
  • Settlements
  • Fort
  • Temple
  • Church
  • Railway line
  • Graveyard

Question 11.
Analyse the model reference grid and answer the following questions.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis through Maps 18
i. Find the direction of the settlement with respect to the fort.
ii. Which is the geographical feature indicated by the letter A?
iii. Find the four-figure grid reference of fort.
iv. Identify the cultural feature in the grid 8436.
Answer :
i. East
ii. Water body
iii. 8134
iv. Church

Question 12.
Analyse the given reference grids and answer the following questions.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis through Maps 20
a. Locate the settlements in 4 figure grid reference method.
b. Locate the spring in 6 figure grid reference method.
c. Identity the features with the following grid references :
i. 473765 ‘
ii. 4676
Answer:
a.
The value of the easting to the immediate left of settlement = 47
The value of the northing just south of the feature = 78
The four-figure grid reference of settlement = 4778
b.
Value of easting =46
Location on subdividing = 5 (so 465)
Value of northing = 78. (so 46578)
Location on subdividing = 5 (so 465785)
The 6 figure grid reference of spring = 465785
c.
i. Tube well
ii. Fort

Question 13.
Analyse the given contour lines and answer the questions given.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis through Maps 21
a. How does the slope from P to Q differ from the slope from Q to R?
b. Which of the given landform is represented by these contour lines?
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis through Maps 22
c. How is the spacing of contour lines and the nature of slope related?
Answer:
a. Contour lines are closely spaced from P to Q. This represents steep slope. Contour lines are widely spaced from R to Q. This represents gentle slope.
b. Figure D
c. Closely spaced contours represent steep slopes and the widely spaced contours represent gentle slopes.

Question 14.
List out the marginal information given in topographical maps.
Answer:
Marginal information given in topographical maps: The general information given outside the margins in topographical maps are known as marginal or primary information. The toposheet number, name of the area, latitudes and longitudes, values of northings and eastings, scale of the map, contour interval, years of survey and publication and the agency in charge of the survey are the marginal information in the toposheets.

Answer the following. Score ‘5/6’ each

Question 1.
Which of the geographical features are depicted using the following symbols?
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis through Maps 2.3
Answer:
i. Tube well
ii. Spring
iii. International boundary
iv. Temporary house
V. Inspection Bungalow
vi. Reserve forest
vii. Resthouse
viii. Triangulated height
ix. Metalled road
x. District boundary

Question 2.
Determine the shape of land forms from the given contour lines. Check whether the places A, B, C and D have intervisibility.

Places Iniervisible/ Not intervisible
Between A and B
Between B and C
Between C and D
Between A and C
Between B and D
…………………………
…………………………
…………………………
…………………………
…………………………

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis through Maps 23

Answer:

Places Iniervisible/ Not intervisible
Between A and B
Between B and C
Between C and D
Between A and C
Between B and D
Not intervisible
Not intervisible
Not intervisible
Not intervisible
Not intervisible

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis through Maps 24

Question 3.
As part of preparing topographical maps, million sheets and degree sheets are prepared in different scales. Explain.
Answer:
Map series of India and the neighbouring countries are prepared in sheets numbering from 1 to 105. These are called million sheets. Each million sheet is divided into 16 parts. Degree sheets are also divided into 16 parts.

Million sheets
The million sheets covering 4° latitudinal and 4° longitudinal extent are prepared in the scale 1:1000000. Each of the sheets in this category is divided into 16 parts known as degree sheets.

Degree sheets
Each million sheet is divided into 16 parts in the order A, B, to P. Each of these sheets with 1 ° latitudinal and 10 longitudinal extent are known as degree sheets. They are prepared in the scale 1:250000.

Each degree sheet is divided into 16 parts with 15’ latitudinal and longitudinal extent. These sheets are prepared in 1:50000 scale.

Question 4.
Determine the shape of the landform using the given contour lines.
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis through Maps 25

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions