Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 8 Kerala towards Modernity

Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 8 Kerala towards Modernity

Answer the following. Score 1 each.

A. Choose the correct answer.

Question 1.
The ruler of Travancore who defeated the Dutch in the battle of Colachel in 1741.
Vein Thampi
Marthanda Varma
Dharma Raja
Answer:
Marthanda Varma

Question 2.
The representative of the English East India Company who reached Kerala in 1615.
Captain William Keeling
William Logan
Lord Wellesley
Answer:
Captain William Keeling

Question 3.
The first organized agitation in Kerala against the British.
Pazhassi Revolt
Attingal Revolt
Kurichiya Revolt
Answer:
Attingal Revolt

Question 4.
The year in which the Treaty of Sreerangapattanam was signed
1791
1792
1805
Answer:
1792

Question 5.
Who gave leadership to the strong resistance in Malabar against the British?
Paliath Achan
Velu Thampi
Pazhassi Raja
Answer:
Pazhassi Raja

Question 6.
The first private bank formed in Kerala.
Nedungadi Bank
Imperial Bank
Chartered Bank
Answer:
Nedungadi Bank

Question 7.
Who prepared the first Malayalam grammar text?
Amos Pathiri
Benjamin Bailey
Dr. Angelos Francis
Answer:
Dr.Angelos Francis

Question 8.
The first book to be entirely published in Malayalam language.
Samkshepa Vedartham
Rajyasamacharam
Paschimodqyam
Answer:
Samkshepa Vedartham

Question 9.
The social reformer who founded the organization Samathwa Samajam.
Sree Narayana Guru
Sahodaran Ayyappah
Vaikunda Swamikal
Answer:
Vaikunda Swamikal

Question 10.
The social reformer who performed the Aruvippuram consecration in 1888
Chattampi Swamikal
Sree Narayana Guru
Vaikunda Swamikal
Answer:
Sree Narayana Guru

Question 11.
The important agitation in Kerala for the right to travel.
Vaikom Satyagraha
Guruvayoor Satyagraha
Paliyam Satyagraha
Answer:
Vaikom Satyagraha

Question 12.
The leader of Payyanur Salt Satyagraha
T.KMadhavan
P. Krishna Pillai
K.Kelappan
Answer:
K.Kelappan

Question 13.
The lone Malayali to become the President of the Indian National Congress
K.Kelappan
Chettur Sankaran Nair
Mannath Padmanabhan
Answer:
Chettur Sankaran Nair

Question 14.
Who gave leadership to Malayali Memorial?
GP.Pillai
Dr.Palpu
Pattom Thanu Pillai
Answer:
GP.Pillai

Question 15.
Who gave leadership to Ezhava Memorial?
C.Kesavan
Dr.Palpu
Sahodaran Ayyappan
Answer:
Dr.Palpu

Question 16.
The first President of Travancore State Congress
C.Kesavan
N.V. Joseph
Pattom Thanu Pillai
Answer:
Pattom Thanu Pillai

Question 17.
Who wrote the book ‘Onnekalkodi Malayalikal’
E.M.S.Namboodiripad
K.Kelappan
P.Krishna Pillai
Answer:
E.M.S.Namboodiripad

Question 18.
The President of the first Kerala Political Conference held at Ottappalam in 1921.
Chettur Sankaran Nair
T. Prakasam
Pattom Thanu Pillai
Answer:
T. Prakasam

B. Answer in a sentence each.

Question 1.
By which treaty did the British get Malabar?
Answer:
By the Treaty of Sreerangapattanam signed in 1792, the British got Malabar from Mysore rulers.

Question 2.
Who is known as ‘Lion of Kerala’?
Answer:
Pazhassi Raja

Question 3.
Name the Dewan who issued the Kundara Proclamation.
Answer:
Velu Thampi, the Dewan of Travancore issued the Kundara Proclamation on 11 January 1809.

Question 4.
Who built the first railway line in Kerala? Which places are connected by this line?
Answer:
The first railway line in Kerala was built by the British in 1861. It connected Bepore with Tirur.

Question 5.
Which were the banks set up in Kerala in the earlier period?
Answer:
Nedungadi Bank, Imperial Bank, Indian National , Bank, Chartered Bank

Question 6.
Which were the first newspapers in Kerala? Who published it?
Answer:
Rajyasamacharam and Paschimodayam were the first newspapers in Kerala published by Dr.Hermann Gundert.

Question 7.
Name the Travancore ruler who made primary education free in Travancore in 1817.
Answer:
Gowri Parvati Bhai

Question 8.
Name the missionary organizations that inau-gurated the spread of modern education in Kerala.
Answer:

  • London Mission Society
  • Church Mission Society ,
  • Basel Evangelical Mission

Question 9.
What was the significance of the Savarna Jatha organized by Mannath Padmanabhan?
Answer:

  • Mannath Padmanabhan organized the Savarna Jatha from Vaikom to Trivandrum to support the Vaikom Satyagraha organized under the leadership of T.KJMadhavan.
  • The importance of the Savarna Jatha is that the upper caste Hindus supported the right of passage of lower caste Hindus.

Question 10.
What were the topics of discussion at the last Malabar Political Conference held at Mancheri in 1920?
Answer:

  • Political reforms
  • Tenants’problem
  • Khilafat

Question 11.
What was the beginning of the agitation for responsible government in Kochi?
Answer:
In Kochi, a popular movement began as an agitation against the decision of Dewan Shanmugam Shetty to give the distribution of electricity in Thrissur to a private company. This movement was known as electricity agitation.

Question 12.
What was Ezhava Memorial?
Answer:

  • Ezhava Memorial was a representation submitted to the Maharaja of Travancore under the leadership of Dr.Palpu in 1896, signed by the members of the Ezhava community.
  • The memorial stressed on the problems faced by the Ezhava community.

Question 13.
Name the Kerala women who gave leadership to the National Movement in Kerala.
Answer:

  • A.V.Kuttimalu Amma in Malabar
  • Akkamma Cherian and Annie Mascarene from Travancore

Question 14.
Who gave leadership to the activities of Kochi Rajya Prajamandal?
Answer:

  • E.Ikkanda Warrier
  • Panampilly Govinda Menon
  • K.Ayyappan

Question 15.
Elucidate the circumstances that made Veluthampi and Paliyath Achan enemies of the British.
Answer:
The uncontrolled intervention of the British in the internal affairs of Travancore and Kochi made the Dewan of Travancore Veluthampi and of Kochi Paliyath Achan the enemies of the British.

Question 16.
In what name is Veluthampi’s call for armed fight against the British known?
Answer:
Kundara Proclamation (1809)

Question 17.
Which Act gave a limited right over the land of the tenants in Malabar?
Answer:
The Malabar Tenant’s Act of 1929

Question 18.
Which was the proclamation of Travancore in 1865 granting the tenants ownership of the land they cultivated!
Answer:
Pandarapattam Vilambaram

Question 19.
Which book of E.M.S. Namboodiripad put forward the idea of the formation of Kerala including Malayalam speeking regions?
Answer:
Onnekalkodi Malayalikal

Answer the following. Score 2 each.

Question 1.
What was the reason for the strained relation between the Portuguese and the Zamorin?
Answer:
The Arabs and the Chinese were the prominent foreigners who had trade relations with Kerala before the coming of the Europeans. The Portuguese aim was to end the monopoly of the trade of the Arabs and the Chinese and to get the monopoly of trade in Kerala.

So they demanded Zamorin, the ruler of Calicut to expel the Arab merchants from Kozhikode. The Zamorin rejected their demand and this enraged the Portuguese. This strained the relation between the Portuguese and the Zamorin.

Question 2.
Write a note on Kunjali Marakkars.
Answer:
Kunjali Marakkars were the captains of the naval fleet of Zamorin. Their headquarters was the Marakkar Fort at Puthuppanam near Vadakara in Kozhikode district. There were four of them from Kunjali I to Kunjali IV. Kunjali III helped the Zamorin to regain the Chaliyam fort from the Portuguese. The Portuguese captured Kunjali IV, took him to Goa and executed him.

Question 3.
When was the battle of Colachel fought? What was its significance?
Or
What is the significance of the battle of Colachal in Kerala history?
Answer:

  • The battle of Colachel was fought in 1741 between Marthanda Varma, the ruler of Travancore and the Dutch. The Dutch were defeated in the battle.
  • The Dutch hope of capturing the whole of Kerala ended with this battle. They had to leave Kerala after the battle.

Question 4.
What was the significance of the JenmiKudiyan Act of 1896?
Answer:

  • The JenmiKudiyan Act was passed in 1896 in Travancore.
  • As per this Act, the tenants in Travancore got the ownership right on land.
  • Majority of the tenants became owners of land at least in name.
  • In return, they had to pay high tax to the government.

Question 5.
Analyse the features of the judicial system introduced in Kerala by the British.
Answer:

  • The British reformed the system of law and justice in Kerala which tried and punished people on the basis of caste.
  • They introduced unified punishments after hearing the accused, depending on the nature of the guilt.
  • Principle of equality before law irrespective of caste was established.
  • Trial courts were set up in different places of Kerala.

Question 6.
Arrange the table on social reform movements and social reformers suitably.

Social reform Movements

Social reformers

Sadhujana Paripalana Sqngham Vaikunda Swamikal
Atmqvidya Sangham V.T.Bhattathiripad
Samathwa Samajam Ayyankali
Yogakshema Sabha Vagbhatananda

Answer:

Social reform Movements

Social reformers

Sadhujana Paripalana Sangham Ayyankali
Atmavidya Sangham Vagbhatananda
Samathwa Samajam Vaikunda Swamikal
Yogakshema Sabha V.T.Bhattathiripad

Question 7.
Explain Channar Revolt. What was its result?
Answer:

  • Channar Revolt was a struggle staged by the Channar women of South Travancore from 1822 onwards for the right to cover their upper body.
  • Following the prolonged struggle, Uthram Thirunal, the Maharaja of Travancore had to issue an order in 1859 allowing Channar women to wear jackets.

Question 8.
What led to the Temple Entry Proclamation of 1936? Write its significance.
Answer:

  • Popular struggles like Vaikom Satyagraha and Guruvayur Satyagraha were instrumental for the Temple Entry Proclamation. Following these struggles for achieving the freedom of worship, the Maharaja of Travancore Sri Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma issued the famous Temple Entry Proclamation on November 12, 1936.
  • As per the proclamation, all the Hindus were allowed to enter the temples in Travancore.

Question 9.
Which were the methods of struggles conducted as part of Civil Disobedience Movement in Malabar?
Answer:

  • Break the Salt Law
  • Picketing of liquor shops
  • Boycotting foreign goods
  • Popularising the use of Khadi

Question 10.
Why was Swadeshabhimani Ramakrishna Pillai deported?
Answer:

  • Swadeshabhimani Ramakrishna Pillai was a famous journalist in Travancore and the editor of the newspaper Swadeshabhimani. ,
  • He criticised the policies of Dewan P.Rajagopalachari of Travancore through his newspaper. The Dewan took notice of the article and was enraged. Finally Ramakrishna Pillai was deported to Madras by a Royal Proclamation in 1910.

Question 11.
What led to the Punnapra Vayalar revolt?
Answer:

  • The Punnapra Vayalar revolt of 1946 was the agitation by the workers of Alappuzha against the administrative reforms of Diwan C. P.Ramaswamy Iyer of Travancore.
  • The aims of the revolt were to protect the rights of workers and for a popular rule. On 27th October 1946, the military used machine guns at Punnapra and Vayalar which killed many people.

Question 12.
Who issued the famous Kundara proclamation? What was its significance?
Answer:
Veluthampi, the Dewan of Travancore issued the Kundara proclamation on January 11, 1809. It was issued against British. Veluthampi sought the support of the people against the British and appealed to them to take part in the struggle with patriotic feeling. The proclamation could infuse patriotism and loyalty among the people.

Question 13.
What led to the decline of the self sufficient village economy of Kerala? What were its results?
Answer:
The British took away the raw materials necessary for their industries of England and the other products from Kerala at cheap prices. The English products were imposed on the native people at high prices. This led to the decline of the self sufficient village economy of Kerala.

Results:

  • Foreign trade increased on a large scale.
  • Kerala became a part of world market.

Question 14.
Write the services of Dr.Hermann Gundert for the growth of Malayalam language.
Answer:

  • Published the first Malayalam-English dictio¬nary.
  • Published the first newspapers in Malayalam Rajyasamacharam and Paschimodayam.

Question 15.
Political agitations were not powerful in Kochi and Travancore as in Malabar. Why?
Answer:
The British ruled Malabar directly. So there was strong resentment in Malabar against their policies. They ruled Kochi and Travancore indirectly through the Resident.

Question 16.
What was Malabar rebellion?
Answer:
With the strengthening of Khilafat Movement in Malabar, there were many direct fights with the British at many places in Malabar. The Mappila peasants of Malabar fought against the British in Emad, Valluvanad and Ponnani Taluks. These struggles were known as Malabar rebellion.

Question 17.
What was Nivarthana Prakshobham? Who were its leaders?
Answer:
Nivarthana Prakshobham (Agitation) was an agitation launched by the Christian, Muslim and Ezhava communities in 1932 in Travancore, seek¬ing reservation in the legislature and government jobs in proportion to their population.
Its leaders were N.V.Joseph, P.K.Kunju and C.Kesavan

Question 18.
List the reasons for Pazhassi revolt.
Answer:

  • The British promised Pazhassi the right to collect tax from Kottayam region as a reward for helping them in the war against Mysore. But the British refused to keep their promise after the victory in the battle.
  • The British claimed their dominance over Wayanad also.

Question 19.
Some traditional industries started in Kerala

A

B

i.     Handloom industry.

ii.    Coir industry

iii.  Tile industry

iv.  Cashew industry

a.     Thrissur

b.     Kannur

c.    Kollam

d.     Alappuzha

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 8 Kerala towards Modernity 1
Answer:
A. i.
b, ii.
d, iii.
a, iv. e

Answer the following. Score 3 each.

Question 1.
Attingal Revolt of 1721 was a popular movement against the British domination. Substantiate.
Or
Among the early resistances to the British, Attingal Revolt is very distinct. Why?
Answer:
The English East India Company obtained permission from the Queen of Attingal to build a fort at Anchuthengu. Anchuthengu developed into an important military centre of the British on the west coast. The local people were furious when Anchuthengu became a British military base. In 1721, the natives killed about 150 Englishmen who were on the way to hand over gifts to the Queen of Attingal. This was known as Attingal revolt. This was the first organised revolt against the British authority in Kerala.

Question 2.
Mention the measures adopted by the British in Kerala to increase and control foreign trade?
Answer:

  • The British amended the existing trade laws of Travancore, Kochi and Malabar in their favour.
  • Introduced unified coinage and metrology systems.
  • To improve transport facilities for carrying goods, constructed roads, bridges and railways. Developed the ports at Kochi, Kozhikode and Alappuzha for better trade facilities.

Question 3.
What was Pandarapatta Proclamation?
Answer:
In Travancore, the land owned by the feudal lords were converted into Pandaravaka land or government land. The government of Travancore issued a famous proclamation in 1865, granting the tenants ownership of the lands they cultivated. This was known as Pandarapatta Proclamation.

Question 4.
Write a note on the commercialization of agriculture introduced by the British in the agricultural sector of Kerala.
Or
Discuss the changes in Kerala due to the commercialization of agriculture by the British.
Answer:

  • The British encouraged market-driven cultivation in the agricultural sector.
  • Coconut products had great demand in the foreign markets. So large scale cultivation of coconut started instead of paddy.
  • Paddy production declined. It resulted in food shortage. To overcome this situation, tapioca cultivation extended to large areas.
  • Coffee, tea, cardamom and rubber began to be cultivated as plantation crops in the high ranges.

Question 5.
Which were the modern industries started in Kerala in the 20th century?
Or
List the modern industries started in India during the British rule.
Answer:

  • Punalur Paper Mills
  • Ceramics Limited Kundara
  • Trivandrum Rubber Works
  • Tata Oil Mills
  • FACT Kalamassery
  • Alagappa Textile Mills Kochi

Question 6.
Prepare a table on the Christian missionary organizations in Kerala and their area of activity.
Answer:

Missionary Organisation

Centre of Activity

Church Mission Society (CMS) Kochi, Travancore
London Mission Society (LMS) Travancore
Basel Evangelical Mission (BEM) Malabar

Question 7.
Examine the relevance of the principles of Sree Narayana Guru in the contemporary Kerala society.
Answer:

  • Sree Narayana Guru gave great importance to put an end to social evils and social inequalities.
  • As a result of Aruvippuram Consecration by Guru in 1888, the lower caste people gained the right to perform temple rituals and poojas.
  • He exhorted people to strengthen by union and enlighten through education.
  • He gave great importance to education and knowledge and so set up schools and libraries along with temples.
  • The Guru’s messages and works were based on noble human love and fraternity among religions.
  • He contributed the great message to Kerala, ‘One caste, One religion and One God for man’.

Question 8.
The eradication of social inequality was a part of National Movement. Write a note on the Guruvayoor Satyagraha which took place as part of this.
Answer:

  • The Guruvayoor Satyagraha was started in 1931 with the demand that all castes of Hindus should be allowed to enter the temple and worship.
  • K.Kelappan was the leader of the Satyagraha and A.K.Gopalan was the Volunteer Captain.
  • The orthodox sections cruelly manhandled P.Krishna Pillai. The Satyagraha was stopped following the intervention of Gandhiji.
  • The Guruvayoor Satyagraha gave inspiration to the Temple Entry Proclamation.

Question 9.
Write a note on the Salt Satyagraha in Malabar.
Answer:

  • In 193 Os Civil Disobedience gained momentum in Malabar.
  • The protestors broke salt law and made salt at Payyannur under the leadership of K.Kelappan and at Kozhikode under the leadership of Mohammed Abdul Rahiman.
  • The British army brutally attacked the Satyagrahis and arrested the leaders.
  • Boycott of foreign goods, picketing liquour shops and propagation of Khadi were also undertaken as part of this.

Question 10.
Write a note on Malabar Rebellion.
Answer:
Gandhiji and Shoukat Ali visited Kozhikode in 1920 and declared their support to Khilafat movement. A Khilafat Committee, was constituted with Kattilassary Mohammed Moulavi as President and Mohammed Abdurahman Sahib as Secretary. The Khilafat movement became strong in Malabar. Following this, there were direct fights with the British in many places in Malabar. The Mappila peasants of Malabar fought against the British in Ernad, Velluvanad and Ponnani Taluks. This struggle is known as Malabar Rebellion.

Question 11.
What were the reasons for Pazhassi Revolt?
Answer:
Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja of Kottayam (Malabar) royal family led the strong resistance against the British in Malabar. The British had promised Pazhassi Raja the right to collect tax from Kottayam region as a reward for helping them in the war against Mysore. The British refused to keep their promise after the success against Mysore.

Not only that, the British claimed their dominance over Wayanad and tried to take possession of it from the Raja. Pazhassi organized his people against this injustice and fought against the British. He unleashed guerilla war against the British with the help of the leaders of Kurichias. Pazhassi was killed in the fight against British.

Question 12.
What was the circumstance that led to the decline of joint family and tharavad systems in Kerala?
Answer:
The system of inheritance that existed in certain communities in Kerala was matrilineal system, succession through mother The English educated youths revolted against this and initiated laws suits. Thus acts against matrilineal system of succession were introduced in Travancore, Kochi and Malabar. These laws stressed patrilineal inheritance by which all the members in the family could enj oy rights over properly. The new system led to the decline of joint families and the Tharavadu system.

Question 13.
How did Kerala come under thy British rule around the 18th century?
Answer:

  • By the Treaty of Sreerangapattanam signed in 1792 between the British and the Mysore rulers, the British got Malabar.
  • The Raja of Kochi accepted British supremacy in 1792 and was forced to pay tribute.
  • By the treaty of 1795, Travancore accepted British supremacy. In return, the British promised them protection from their enemies.
  • The British ruled Malabar directly.
  • Kochi and Travancore were ruled indirectly by the British. They controlled these rulers through their Residents.

Question 14.
Discuss the reasons that led to the growth of modem industries in Kerala.
Answer:

  • The rulers of Travancore adopted a policy of promoting modem industries.
  • The British provided the financial and technical assistance for industries.
  • The establishment of Pallivasal hydroelectric project propelled the development of modem industries.

Question 15.
Arrange the following in chronological order.
i. Marthandavarma defeated the Dutch in the battle of Colachel.
ii. The British defeated the French in Carnatic Wars.
iii. The Dutch defeated the Portuguese.
Answer:
iii, i, ii

Answer the following. Score 4 each.

Question 1.
Discuss the efforts made by Velu Thampi and Paliath Achan to organise the revolt against the British.
Answer:

  • Velu Thampi, the Dewan of Travancore and Paliath Achan, the Dewan of Kochi reacted against the uncontrolled intervention of British Resident in their internal affairs.
  • Velu Thampi sought the support of the people and called for armed fight against the British through the Kundara Proclamation issued on 11 January 1809.
  • The combined army of Travancore and Kochi attacked the official residence of the British Resident Macaulay.
  • The British army suppressed the revolt raised by Veluthampi and Paliath Achan.
  • Veluthampi committed suicide at Mannadi Temple. The British deported Paliyath Achan to Madras.

Question 2.
Arrange the following table suitably.

A

B

E.M.Sankaran Namboodiripad Kundara Proclamation
Dr. Herman Gundert K.Kelappan
Velu Thampi Rajyasamacharam
Payyanur Salt – Satyagraha Onnekalkodi Malayalikal

Answer:

A

B
E.M.Sankaran Nambpodiripad Onnekalkodi Malayalikal
Dr.Herman Gundert Rajyasamacharam
Velu Thampi Kundara Proclamation
Payyanur Salt Satyagraha , K.Kelappan

Question 3.
Sree Narayana Guru was the major architect of Kerala Renaissance. Substantiate.
Or
Discuss the role of Sree Narayana Guru in the social reform movement in Kerala.
Answer:

Sree Narayana Guru who gave importance to knowledge started schools and libraries along with temples.

He exhorted the people to strengthen by union and enlighten through education.

The consecration of the idol of Lord Shiva at Aruvippuram by Sree Narayana Guru in 1888 created the rise of new insights in social sphere. The lower castes could gain the right to perform temple rituals and poojas through this.

He tried to release man from the prison of complex caste system and patterns of worship based on superstitions. He was a great believer of human love, exposed the hollowness of caste system and Brahmanic priesthood and spread the message of universal love. Guru advised people not to argue and win but to know and inform. The working and messages of Guru were based on noble human love and fraternity among all religions.

Question 4.
Vaikom Satyagraha and Guruvayoor Satyagraha acted as catalysts for the Temple Entry Proclamation in Travancore. Substantiate.
Answer:
The Vaikom Satyagraha of 1924 was for the right of freedom of travel. Its aim was to get the approach roads to Vaikom temple opened for the – lower caste Hindus. Guruvayoor Satyagraha of 1931 was for the right of freedom of worship. Its demand was the entiy into the Guruvayoor temple for all castes Hindus. Gandhiji intervened in both the Satyagrahas, a fight against untouchability. Vaikom Satyagraha ended in success whereas the Guruvayoor Satyagraha was a failure. But it helped to create an atmosphere in favour of eradicating untouchability.

These popular protests and the demand by the public forced the Maharaja of Travancore to issue the Temple Entry Proclamation of 1936, allowing all the Hindus to enter the temples owned by the government of Travancore.

Question 5.
Among the struggles in Kerala for the right of travel, Vaikom Satyagraha was the most important. Explain.
Answer:

  • The Vaikom Satyagraha of 1924 was a major struggle in Kerala for the right to travel. ,
  • The Satyagraha was organised under the leadership of T.K.Madhavan for the right of lower caste Hindus to travel through the roads around the Vaikom temple.
  • Expressing solidarity with the Satyagraha, a procession (Savama Jatha) was organised from Vaikom to Trivandrum under the leadership of Mannath Padmanabhan and submitted a memorandom to the Maharaja of Travancore.
  • Following the Satyagraha, the lower caste . Hindus secured permission to travel through
    the roads around the Vaikom temple.

Question 6.
Arrange the following events in chronological order.

  • Guruvayur Satyagraha
  • Punnapra-Vayalar Revolt
  • Vaikom Satyagraha
  • Channar Revolt

Answer:

  • Channar Revolt
  • Vaikom Satyagraha
  • Guruvayur Satyagraha
  • Punnapra-Vayalar Revolt

Question 7.
What were the circumstances that strengthened the United Kerala Movement?
Answer:

  • The Nagpur Session of Congress in 1920 decided to set up state Congress Committees on linguistic basis. Kerala Pradesh Congress Committee came into existence uniting Malabar, Kochi and Travancore.
  • The first Kerala State Political Conference was held at Ottapalam in 1921 under the Chairmanship of T. Prakasam.
  • The Congress Session held at Payyanur in 1928 under the Chairmanship of Jawaharlal Nehru demanded the reorganization of Kerala as a distinctive state after independence.
  • The United Kerala Convention held at Thrissur in 1947 under the leadership of K.Kelappan and the United Kerala Conference held at Aluva after independence passed united kerala resolution.

Question 8.
Write a note on Abstention movement.
Answer:

  • The Abstention movement was started by Christian, Muslim and Ezhava Communities in 1932 demanding reservation of the communities in legislature and government jobs in proportion to their population.
  • This struggle for responsible government was ledby N.VJoseph, P.K.KunjuandC.Kesavan.
  • Subsequently they formed ‘Joint Political Congress’ and exhorted the people to abstain from voting.
  • Following the agitation, a Public Service Commission was appointed to ensure the representation of backward classes.

Question 9.
Evaluate the role of Christian Missionaries in the educational progress of Kerala.
Answer:

  • The policy of education for all, irrespective of caste and religion, was flagged off in Kerala with the educational programmes of the Christian missionaries.
  • The Christian missionary organizations like LMS, CMS and BEM inaugurated the spread of modem education in Kerala. The London Mission Society’s area of activity was largely Travancore. The Church Mission Society worked in Travancore and Kochi while the Basal Evangelical Mission was active in Malabar.
  • Missionaries like Dr.Bernadeen Bachinali, Rev.Mead, Rev.Dawson and Rev.Habeek played the leading role in the educational activities of Kerala. Under their leadership, educational institutions were set up in different parts of Kerala.
  • Following the example of missionaries, the rulers of Travancore and Kochi set up schools and colleges.

Question 10.
What paved the way for changes in land relations in Travancore, Kochi and Malabar?
Answer:

The anti-peasant policies pursued by the British created widespread dissatisfactions and revolts. It compelled the governments to make some legislations in favour of peasants.

In Travancore, from the time of Marthanda Varma itself changes in land relations started. Land of feudal lords were converted into pandaravaka or government property. The Government of Travancore made a proclamation in 1865 granting the tenants of these pandaravaka ownership of the lands they cultivated. This was the Pandarappatta proclamation. The Jenmi-Kudiyan Act passed in 1896 also granted land ownership to the peasants, at least in name.

Malabar Tenants Act was passed in 1929 based on the recommendations of the
Logan Commission. As per this, the peasants got limited right over the land they cultivated.

The Kochi Kudiyanma Act was passed in 1914 giving tenants the right over land.

Question 11.
What changes occurred in Malabar in land tenurial relations with the coming of the British?
Or
The changes made by the British in the pattern of land ownership in Malabar made the life of peasants miserable: Substantiate.
Answer:

  • The British rule made drastic changes the pattern of land ownership of different sections of people.
  • The local chieftains and landlords were treated as owners of land and the tax that they had to pay to the British was pre-determined.
  • The local rulers and landlords collected taxes from the tenants in excess and often evicted them from their land.
  • This made the life of the peasants of Malabar miserable. This led to peasant agitations called Mappila revolts in Malabar.

Question 12.
Why did Swami Vivekananda call Kerala ‘a lunatic asylum’?
Answer:

  • Caste system was strong in Kerala in the 19th century.
  • Certain section of people were treated as untouchables and unapproachables.
  • Caste decided the social status of a person.
  • Many social evils and superstitions existed in every caste.

Question 13.
Write the events that led to United Kerala in chronological order.
Answer:

  • Nagpur Congress Session 1920.
  • First Kerala State Political Conference, Ottapalam 1921.
  • Formation of Kerala Pradesh Congress Committee.
  • Payyanur Congress Session 1928.
  • United Kerala Convention at Thrissur 1947.
  • Merger of Travancore – Kochi 1949
  • Formation States Reorganization Commission 1953.
  • State Reorganization Act 1956.

Question 14.
Match the social reformers of Kerala with the organizations that they founded.

A

B

Vaikunda Swamikal Sadhu Jana Paripalana Sangham
Vaghbhadanandan Prathyaksha Raksha Daiva Sabha
Kumara Gurudevan Samathwa Samajam
Ayyankali Admavidhya Sangham

Answer:

A

B

Vaikunda Swamikal Samathwa Samajam
Vaghbhadanandan Admavidhya Sangham
Kumara Gurudevan Prathyaksha Raksha Daiva Sabha
Ayyankali Sadhu Jana Paripalana Sangham

Question 15.
Arrange the following events in chronological order.

  • Punnapra – Vayalar protest
  • Ezhava Memorial
  • Formation of Travancore State Congress
  • Malayali Memorial

Answer:

  • Malayali Memorial
  • Ezhava Memorial
  • Formation of Travancore State Congress
  • Punnapra – Vayalar protest

Question 16.
Match the items in column ‘A ’with appropriate items given in columns B and ‘C’.

A

B

C

The First Kerala State Political Conference N. V. Joseph 1941
United Kerala Convention Panampalli, Govinda Menon 1932
Cochin Rajya Prajamandalam Ottappalam 1947
Nivarthana Prakshobham

(Abstention movement)

Thrissur 1921

Answer:

A

B

C

The First Kerala State Political Conference Ottappalam 1921
United Kerala Convention Thrissur 1947
Cochin Rajya Prajamandalam Panampalli Govinda Menon 1941
Nivarthana Prakshobham N.V. Joseph 1932

Question 17.
Match the items in Column ‘A’ with appropriate items in Columns ‘B ’ and ‘C’.

A

B

C

Sreerangapattanam Treaty C.P Ramaswamy Iyer 1929
Malabar Tenants Act Gauri Parvathy Bhai 1792
Primary Education Mysore 1946
Punnapra Vayalar Logan Commission 1817

Answer:

A B

C

Sreerangapattanam Treaty Mysore 1792
Malabar Tenants Logan 1929
Act Commission
Primary Education Gauri Parvathy Bhai 1817
Punnapra Vayalar C.P. Ramaswamy Iyer 1946

Question 18.
Arrange the following in chronological order.

  • Kundara Proclamation
  • Pandarappatta Vilambaram
  • Attingal Revolt
  • Battle of Colachel

Answer:

  • Attingal Revolt – 1721
  • Battle of Colachel – 1741
  • Kundara Proclamation – 1809
  • Pandarappatta Vilambaram – 1865

Question 19.
Arrange the following in chronological order.

  • Malabar Rebellion
  • Consecration at Aruvippuram
  • Electricity Agitation in Kochi
  • Punnapra – Vayalar Revolt

Answer:

  • Consecration at Aruvippuram – 1888
  • Malabar Rebellion – 1921
  • Electricity Agitation in Kochi – 1936
  • Punnapra – Vayalar Revolt – 1946

Answer the following. Score ‘5’, ‘6’ each.

Question 1.
Describe the early resistance to British in Kerala. ‘
Or
Describe the resistance organized by Pazhassi Raja, Vein Thampi and Paliath Achan against the British in Kerala.
Answer:
After attaining political domination in Kerala, British began to interfere in the powers of kings and local rulers. The interference in the freedom and privileges that they enjoyed for centuries invited antagonism from the kings and local rulers. Resistance escalated against the British in Malabar, Travancore and Kochi.

Pazhassi Revolt:
Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja of Kottayam (Malabar) royal family led the strong resistance against the British in Malabar. The British had promised Pazhassi Raja the right to collect tax from Kottayam region as a reward for helping them in the war against Mysore. The British refused to keep their promise after the success against Mysore rulers.

Not only that, the British claimed their dominance over Wayanad and tried to take possession of it from the Raja. Pazhassi organized, his people against this injustice and fought against the British. He unleashed guerilla war against the British with the help of the leaders of Kurichias. Pazhassi was killed in the fight against British.

Velu Thampi and Paliyath Achan:

  • Velu Thampi, the Dewan of Travancore and Paliath Achan, the Dewan of Kochi reacted against the uncontrolled intervention of British Resident in their internal affairs.
  • Velu Thampi sought the support of the people and called for armed fight against the British through the Kundara Proclamation issued on 11 January 1809.
  • The combined army of Travancore and Kochi attacked the official residence of the British Resident Macaulay.
  • The British army suppressed the revolt raised by Veluthampi and Paliath Achan.
  • Veluthampi committed suicide at Mannadi Temple. The British deported Paliyath Achan to Madras.

Question 2.
Prepare an essay on the social reform move-ments and social changes in Kerala.
Answer:
Society in Kerala was based on caste system in the 19th century. The lower castes were treated as untouchables and unapproachables. Many social evils and superstitions existed in all castes. The Keralites realized the stupidity of caste system and superstitions with the spread of modem education and western ideas.

Many social reform movements sprang up to fight the inequalities and social evils in society. The major social reform movements of this period were Samathwa Samajam, Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam, Sadhujana
Paripalana Sangham, Nair Service Society and Yogakshema Sabha. Vaikunda Swami, Sree Narayana Guru, Ayyankali, Mannath Padmanabhan, V.T.Bhattathiripad and Sahodaran Ayyappan were the important social reformers of this time.

Social reform movements fuelled the agitations for social changes. The Channar women of South Travancore fought for the right to cover their upperbody. Following the prolonged struggle, the Maharaja Uthram Thirunal of Travancore was forced to issue an order allow¬ing Channar women to wear jackets in 1859.

Sree Narayana Guru was one of the chief architects of social renaissance in Kerala. The lower castes including Ezhavas were not permitted to enter temples and worship. Sree Narayana Guru challenged this and made history by consecrating a Shiva Temple at Aruvippuram in 1888. Consequently, the lower castes gained the right to perform poojas and temple rituals.

He exhorted the people to gain strength through union and enlighten through education. The working and messages of Sree Narayana Guru were based on noble human love and fraternity among all religions.

Vaikom Satyagraha of 1924 was a major struggle for the right of travel in Kerala. Following the Satyagraha under the leadership of T.K.Madhavan, the lower caste Hindus secured the permission to travel through the road around the Mahadeva Temple at Vaikom. The Guruvayur Satyagraha was started in 1931 with the demand that all castes of Hindus should be allowed to enter the temple. As a result of these popular protests, the Maharaja of Travancore Sri Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma issued the famous Temple Entry Proclamation in 1936, allowing all I * the Hindus to enter the temples in Travancore.

British imperialism. Protests were held at Kayyoor, Morazha, Karivellur, etc. Protests relating to Quit India Movement witnessed destruction of government buildings, bridges, etc.

Travancore:
Political agitations began in Travancore with the Malayali memorial. Malayali memorial was a memorandum signed by more than ten thousand people and submitted to the Maharaja under the leadership of Barrister G.P.Pillai in 1891, demanding that the Travancoreans should be given proportionate representation in government jobs.

The Ezhava memorial was submitted Under the leadership of Dr.Palpu, raising the problems faced by the Ezhava community. The deportation of Swadeshabhimani Ramakrishna Pillai for criticising the Dewari of Travancore caused significant political break throughs. Christians, Muslims and Ezhavas started the Nivarthana Prakshobham demanding the reservation of their communities in the legislature and government jobs in proportion to their population.

The Travancore State Congress was formed in 1938 with Pattom Thanu Pillai as President. With this, political activities gained momentum in Travancore. The working class entered into the political arena with the Punnapra-Vayalar protest of 1946, organized against the administrative reforms of Dewan C.P.Ramaswamy Iyer.

Kochi:
The struggle for responsible government began in Kochi with the Electricity Agitation of 1936. With the formation of Kochi Rajya Praja Mandalam in 1941, political agitations strengthened in Kochi also. E.Ikkanda Warrier and Panampilly Govinda Menon gave leadership to Kochi Prajamandalam.

Question 4.
Analyse the circumstances that led to the formation of Kerala state.
Answer:
The importance of the notion of a united Kerala reached the people along with the emergence of the national movement. The people of Kerala, in spite of speaking the same language, had earlier the experience of living under different political systems. The distinct existence of the regions of Travancore, Cochin and Malabar stood in the way of the Malayali’s sense of unity.

On the occasion of the meetings of different organizations, resolutions in favour of a united Kerala were adopted. The Congress Session held at Payyanur in 1928 demanded that Kerala should be reorganized as a separate state when a constitution for independent India would be given shape.

Going beyond resolutions, the demand for a united Kerala took shape as part of the freedom struggle. Indeed, in the Vaikom Satyagraha of 1924 and the Guruvayur Satyagraha of 1931-1932, people from all parts of Kerala were participants. A committee to discuss the formation of a united Kerala was constituted in 1945.

A United Kerala Convention was held at Thrissur in 1947 on this basis: Its President was K. Kelappan and it was inaugurated by the then Raja of Cochin. The Dhar Commission appointed by the Constituent Assembly came to Kerala and collected evidence.

With the merger of Travancore and Cochin on 1 st July 1949, the movement for a united Kerala gained strength. The legitimacy of a united Kerala was brought home by a book Onnekalkodi Malayalikal by E.M.S.Namboodirippad. The self sacrifice of Potti S.reeramulu in Andhra accelerated the process of state formation on linguistic basis.

When, finally, the state of Kerala came into existence by joining together the regions where Malayalam is spoken, the Thovala, Agastheesvaram, Kalkkulam and Vilavankodu taluks of Trivandrum district became part of Madras State. Similarly the Kasargode and Hosdurg taluks, which were parts of the district of South Canara, were added to the State of Kerala. Thus came into existence a new state of Kerala comprising Malabar, Cochin and Travancore.

Question 5.
Match suitably.

A

B

C

Nivarthana Agitation Amaravati Congress Session 1946
Marthanda Varma C.Kesavan 1897
Chettur Sankaran Nair Vaikom Satyagraha 1741
Punnapra- Vayalar Protest Battle of Colachel 1924
T.K.Madhavan Sir. C.P.Ramaswamy Iyer 1932

Answer:

A B C
Nivarthana Agitation C.Kesavan 1932
Marthanda Varma Battle of Colachel 1741.
Chettur Sankaran Nair Amaravati Congress Session 1897
Punnapra-Vayalar Protests Sir.C.P.Ramaswamy Iyer 1946
T.K.Madhavan Vaikom Satyagraha 1924

Question 6.
Choose the items related to Column A from Column B.

Pandit Karuppan GP.Pillai
Vakkom Abdul Khader Moulavi Daivadeshakam
Pattom Thanii Pillai Araya Samajam
Malayali Memorial Travancore State Congress
Sree Narayana Guru Travancore Muslim- Mahajana Sabha

Answer:

A

B

Pandit Karuppan Araya Samajam
Vakkom Abdul Khader Moulavi Travancore Muslim- Mahajana Sabha
Pattom Thanii Pillai Travancore State Congress
Malayali Memorial GP.Pillai
Sree Narayana Guru Daivadeshakam

Question 7.
Prepare a timeline using the events and years given.

  • 1931 – Kundara Proclamation
  • 1809 – Attingal Revolt
  • 1865 – Guruvayur Satyagraha
  • 1721 – Pandarapattam Proclamation
  • 1741 – Battle of Colachal

Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 8 Kerala towards Modernity 2

Question 8.
Arrange the following events in chronological order.

  • Aruvippuram Consecration
  • Malabar Rebellion
  • Keezhariyur Bomb Case
  • Ezhava Memorial
  • Channar Revolt

Answer:

  • Channar Revolt (1822-1859)
  • Aruvippuram Consecration (1888)
  • Ezhava Memorial (1896)
  • Malabar Rebellion (1921)
  • Keezhariyur Bomb Case (1942)

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions