Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 2 World in the Twentieth Century

Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 2 World in the Twentieth Century

Question 1.
What is meant by imperialism?
Answer:
The distinctive phase of flow of finance capital to colonies is known as imperialism. It is the developed form of capitalism. Imposing a nation’s political, economic and cultural dominance on another nation is a fundamental feature of imperialism.

Question 2.
How does colonization differ from imperialism?
Answer:
Industrial Revolution led to factory system which in turn led to the emergence of capitalist economic system. The over-production forced the industrialised European countries to search for markets in Asia, Africa and Latin American countries.

This search for markets led to competition among them. Using political power and military forces, the European countries economically exploited die nations of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Later, they became the colonies of European countries. This process is called colonization.

Formation of trade unions, their constant agitations and the resultant increase in the wages of workers diminished the profit of the capitalists. So the colonial masters started to invest capital in the colonies. The distinctive phase of flow of finance capital to colonies is known as imperialism.

The factors that led to aggressive nationalism

  • Competition among European countries in the search for markets.
  • European nations used language,religion and culture to induce a feeling of love towards one’s mother country among the people.
  • The merits and traditions of nations were highlighted.
  • The desire to invade other countries and to conquer their regions.
  • Considering one’s own nation as the supreme and justifying its actions – whether good or bad.
  • Movements started in other countries rooted in aggressive nationalism.
  • Formation of secret organizations.
  • The growth of Pan-Slav Movement started by Russia, Pan-German Movement started by Germany and Revenge Movement started by France.

Question 3.
“Paris Peace Conference led to the outbreak of the Second World war”. Do you agree with this statement? Why?
Answer:

  • The statement is correct.
  • In the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the winning allies under the leadership of Britain and France signed different treaties with defeated nations.
  • Among these, the most important one was the Treaty of Versailles of 1919, signed with Germany.
  • As per the treaty,
    • German colonies were divided among victorious powers.
    • Germany was forced to pay a huge amount as war indemnity.
    • The allies occupied the rich mines of Germany.
    • The war guilt was imposed on Germany,
    • Germany was disarmed.
  • The treaty incited a spirit of revenge and aggressive nationalism among the Germans. The Germans under Hitler resented the unilateral and unjust provisions of the treaty and this led to the Second World War.

Question 4.
What are the factors that led America into economic crisis?
Answer:

  • People who became pauper because of the war, couldn’t afford the commodities.
  • Goods were kept unsold in factories.
  • European nations failed to repay their debt to USA.
  • Banks collapsed.
  • Acute unemployment and poverty.
  • The crash of share market.
  • Increase in inflation.
  • Fall in the price of agricultural products.

Question 5.
List the features of Fascism.
Answer:

Features of Fascism

Antagonism to democracy Diffusion of aggressive nationalism
Military dictatorship Justifying war
Glorifying the nation Deifying the past
Adoring the purity of race Opposition to socialism
Destruction of political rivals Indoctrination of ideologies through arts, literature and education.

Question 6.
Match Column A with Column B.

A B
1. Adolf Hitler 2. World War I
2. Treaty of Versailles 2. Gestapo
3. Disintegration of the Soviet Union 3. Italy
4. Benito Mussolini 4. Mikhail Gorbachev

Answer:

A

B

1. Adolf Hitler 2. Gestapo
2. Treaty of Versailles 1. World War I
3. Disintegration of the Soviet Union 4. Mikhail Gorbachev
4. Benito Mussolini 3. Italy

Question 7.
Elucidate the political circumstances that resulted in Palestine-Israel conflict.
Answer:
Palestine was occupied by both Jews and Arabs. The Jews claim it to be their home land. Following the Babylonian attack, many Jews from Palestine migrated to different parts of the world.

  • Until the First World War, the territory including Palestine was part of the Turkish Empire.
  • As Turkey was defeated in the war, Britain took over the Palestine region.
  • Since the Jews helped Britain in the war, the British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour declared the establishment of a Jewish nation in West Asia as a reward. It is known as Balfour Declaration.
  • Zionism is an international movement with an objective of the establishment of a homeland for the Jews.
  • In 1948, the nation Israel was formed for the Jews. This was followed by many wars between Israel and Arab nations.
  • Israel seized Palestine expelling the Palestinians from their homeland.
  • The Palestine Liberation Organization was founded with Yasser Arafat as President with the objective of establishing a nation for the Palestinians.
  • After a series of bloodsheds and massacres, Israel agreed in principle to recognize Palestine as a free nation, as per the Oslo Pact.

Question 8.
Examine the relevance of non-alignment.
Answer:
Non-alignment is a movement of the unity of the newly independent countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America that did not join the capitalist bloc or the socialist bloc and remained independent. Non-alignment is a policy of neither neutrality or non-intervention. It demands the active intervention in the international events.

Non-alignment Movement (NAM) is the second largest international organisation after UNO, working for world peace. NAM permits member states to adopt an independent stand in international relations and to follow a foreign policy based on peace and co-operation.

It denounces all kinds of violence based on colour and race. It opposed the arms race and military alliances of power blocs. NAM believes that a world devoid of wars and conflicts alone can progress economically and socially.

The problems faced by the present day world are religious intolerance, racist conflicts, global terrorism, ecological problems and the evils of globalisation suffered by developing countries of the world. NAM can play an effective role in solving these problems and thus to build a new world order.

Question 9.
What are the changes that the disintegration of the Soviet Union brought to the world?
Answer:

  • USA became the global power due to the disintegration of Soviet Union.
  • A unipolar world emerged under the leadership of USA instead of a bipolar world.
  • USA became the centre of world politics.
  • Cold war ended.
  • The policies and programmes of the capitalist countries remained unquestioned.

Question 10.
Examine the map of Africa (page number 29) and answer the following questions.
a. Find out the speciality of the boundaries of African countries.
b. Why do the African countries share straight borderlines?
c. Why did the European nations partition Africa?
Answer:
a. Most of the borderlines of African countries are straight.

b. The Europeans who reached Africa in search of natural resources partitioned the continent at the beginning of the 20th century. On the basis of some agreements among the European countries, they divided the African nations amongst themselves by just drawing straight lines on maps.

c. European nations partitioned Africa for exploitation of resources, markets and colonies.

Question 11.
How did Industrial Revolution cause colonization? Prepare a flowchart.
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 2 World in the Twentieth Century 1

Question 12.
How does imperialism differ from colonization?
Answer:
The European countries had established trade relationships with Asian, African and Latin American countries. They searched for markets and raw materials in these countries. Using political power and military forces, the European countries economically exploited the nations. Later they became the colonies of European countries. This process is called colonization.

The distinctive phase of flow of finance capital to colonies is known as imperialism. Colonialists imposed their dominance using legal system, administrative measures, military force, etc.

Question 13.
How did the Industrial Revolution cause conflict among nations?
Answer:
Following the Industrial Revolution, many nations produced more than they needed and more than they could accommodate in their domestic markets. The over-production forced them to search for markets. The search for markets by the industrialised countries of Europe led to competition among them.

The Europeans had established trade relationship with Asian, African and Latin American countries. They also competed for colonies. Competition led to conflicts among colonial powers. Thus competition and conflict among imperialist nations for colonies and markets led to the outbreak of wars.

Question 14.
How did the competition among the imperialist nations lead the world to a war?
Answer:
Colonization became complete during the period of imperialism. The European nations vied with each other in establishing colonies. They had considered the colonies as the source of raw materials and the market for their industrial products.

The competition among European nations led to conflicts among them and caused mutual mistrust and enmity. This further drove them to the signing of military alliances. These conflicts among the imperial powers ultimately led the entire world to a war. Moroccan crisis and Balkan crisis are examples for imperialist crises.

Question 15.
The Treaty of Versailles was an example of the vengeance against the defeated nations. Discuss.
Or
The Treaty of Versailles signed with Germany was humilating. Explain.
Answer:

  • The Treaty of Versailles was signed with the defeated nation Germany by the victorious nations Britain and France after the First World War.
  • The Treaty imposed the war guilt on Germany.
  • Germany was disarmed.
  • Germany was forced to pay a huge war idemntity of 6.6 million dollars to the victors.
  • German colonies were divided among victorious powers.
  • Germany had to give Alsace-Lorraine and Saar Coal fields to France.
  • Thus the victorious powers revengefully imposed the humiliating treaty on Germany.

Question 16.
Find out how the economic depression in the
United States of America affected the economy
of other nations and prepare a short note.
Answer:
The World Economic Depression of 1929 originated in USA. It began with the Stock Market crash in New York Stock Exchange.
The Treaty of Versailles 1919
War indemnity

  • Germany was forced to pay 6.6 million dollars as war indemnity. It amounted to about 2% of the national product of Germany.
  • Germany should compensate for the loss incurred by France, Belgium and Britain till 1921.

War guilt
The war guilt was imposed ón Germany.

Disarmament

  • The number of soldiers was restricted to 1 lakh.
  • No more conscription.
  • No production of tanks, submarines and war planes.
  • Surrender her battleships to allies.

Return of the territories conquered by Germany

  • All German colonies were divided among Britain and France. The colony of South West Africa (modern Namibia) was given to Britain.
  • Germany had to give Alsace – Lorraine and Saar basin (coal field) to France.
  • The connection between Austria and Germany was severed.
  • Poland was given Upper Silesia and Western Prussia.
  • Danzig became a free city.
  • Though production was increased by the use of science and technology, the people couldn’t afford to buy them.
  • About ten thousand banks crashed between 1929 and 1932.
  • The cultivators could not sell their products. They lost their land also.
  • Fall in the price of agricultural products. As a result, debt and interest increased.
  • Unemployment became grave.
  • Increase in poverty.
  • Labourers lost their jobs. Rapid decline in the wages of labourers.
  • Inflation became uncontrollable.
  • Many died around the world due to famine and poverty.
  • European nations imposed heavy taxes on the colonies.
  • Though production was increased by the use of science and technology, the people couldn’t afford to buy them.
  • About ten thousand banks crashed between 1929 and 1932.
  • The cultivators could not sell their products. They lost their land also.
  • Fall in the price of agricultural products. As a result, debt and interest increased.
  • Unemployment became grave.
  • Increase in poverty.
  • Labourers lost their jobs. Rapid decline in the wages of labourers.
  • Inflation became uncontrollable.
  • Many died around the world due to famine and poverty.
  • European nations imposed heavy taxes on the colonies.

Question 17.
The ideologies put forth by both Fascists and Nazis had several similarities. Find some examples from the textbook.
Answer:
Syllabus

Question 18.
Fascism was a product of the First World War. Discuss.
Answer:

  • The conditions of both the victorious and the defeated nations in the First World War were miserable.
  • Many European governments lost their power.
  • People were in misery.
  • Unemployment, poverty and inflation gnawed the entire system.
  • Economic destruction, rivalry against the victors and aimlessness.
  • Though Italy was on the winning side after the war, she did not gain much when the spoils were shared.
  • Political instability and opposition to republican ideas.
  • The fascists rose to power capitalizing the political and economic chaos prevailing then.

Treaties Signed after the First World War
The victorious powers Britain and France signed treaties with the defeated nations Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria.

  • Treaty of Versailles 1919 : With Germany
  • Treaty ofStGermain 1919: Signed with Austria- Hungary. Hungary was severed from Austria.
  • Treaty of Sevres 1920 : With Turkey-Turkey lost all her claims over Africa and West Asia.
  • Treaty of Neuilly 1919 : With Bulgaria

Question 19.
How did Fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany defy world peace? Conduct a seminar on this topic.
Answer:

Seminar

Topic: Fascism and Nazism, a threat to World Peace .

Introduction:
Fascism was a political ideology which exerted decisive influence on the political and social life of Europe after the First World War. The economic disaster and political instability caused by die First World War compelled the people to distrust republican governments. It was in this context that Fascism was presented as an alternate ideology rooted in aggressive nationalism and antidemocratic principles. Fascism originated in Italy. Nazism which originated in Germany was the German version of fascism.

Fascism and Mussolini:
The growing fascist movement in Italy was led by Benito Mussolini. In 1921 he founded the Fascist Party.
The reasons for the growth of Fascism in Italy were the following.

  • Italy got nothing, though she was with the victors in the First World War. Her imperialistic ambitions were not fulfilled.
  • Post-war destruction of industries, unemployment, increase in tax, inflation, etc. kept the people away from the government.
  • Industrialists, in fear of Italy moving towards socialism, were prompted to support Fascism.

The Fascist party grew up in Italy by resorting to terror and violence. They branded communists, socialists and the leaders of peasants and workers as enemies of the state. To create terror among people/Mussolini deputed armed gangs known as ‘Fasces’.

The government did not take any steps to control the Fascists. In the elections held in Italy in 1921, the Fascists did not get the majority. In 1922, Mussolini led a March to Rome, threatening to capture power. Victor Emmanuel D, the king of Italy invited Mussolini to form a government. Thus the Fascists came to power in Italy.

Once Mussolini came to power, he turned Italy into a despotic state. He resorted to despotic measures in the political and economic fields of Italy. Violence and ferocity were the strategies of Fascists. The steps taken by Mussolini to consolidate power were:

  • Socialists and leaders of peasants and workers were proclaimed as enemies and executed them.
  • Opponents of Fascism were executed.
  • Using the military force ‘Black Shirts’, Mussolini suppressed the opponents.
  • Imposed censorship on the press and cinema.
  • Created a feeling that war was inevitable for progress.
  • Communist Party and Labour Unions were prohibited.
  • Thousands were imprisoned.
  • Mussolini’s aggressive foreign policy led to conquer nations like Ethiopia and Albania. Italy’s run for dictatorial power led to the outbreak of the Second World War.

Nazism and Hitler:
Nazism was the German version of Fascism. The monstrous form of Fascist dictatorship in Germany was known as Nazism. Adolf Hitler was the leader of Nazism. The reasons that led to the growth of Nazism in Germany were:

The humiliation by the Treaty of Versailles. Germany felt humiliated when the Treaty of Versailles was imposed on them by the victorious powers after the First World War. They were agitated and yearned for a leader who could avenge this unfair treatment. The Germans sought someone who could restore the lost grandeur of Germany. It was under these circumstances that Nazi Party under Adolf Hitler gained support.

Economic destruction and inflation.

Failure of German government and the resultant political uncertainty.
Hitler joined the National German Workers Party which in short form was known as ‘Nazi’ Party in 1919. In 1923, Hitler was arrested and imprisoned for trying to usurp power. While in prison, Hitler wrote the book ‘Mein Kampf’ (My Struggle) which became the Bible of Nazism. Later in the elections, the Nazi Party came out as the single largest party and Hitler was appointed as the Chancellor.

Nazism opposed civic rights and freedom. It declared communism as its enemy and proclaimed the destruction of communism its avowed aim. Racism was its essence. Nazis claimed that the Aryans were the noblest of races and that the Germans were the best of Aryans. Hitler held the view that Aryans should rule Germany and Germany should rule the world. Nazis accused the Jews for the defeat of Germany in the First World War.

Hitler took many steps to consolidate his power in Germany.

  • Socialists, communists, Jews and democrats were executed.
  • Jews were massacred in masses in specially built concentration camps. This was known as the Holocaust. .
  • A military force ‘Brown Shirts’ and a secret police troop ‘Gestapo’ were in charge of assaulting and massacring Jews.
  • Hitler projected the purity of the Aryan race and argued that Aryans should rule the world.
  • All other political parties, except the Nazi party were banned.
  • Trade unions were banned.
  • Military service was made compulsory.
  • He incited a spirit of revenge among the Germans against the Treaty of Versailles.
  • He used newspapers, radio, cinema and education systems widely to propagate Nazi ideologies.
  • His aggressive foreign policy made him attack Austria, Czechoslovakia and Poland.
  • Formed Rome-Berlin-Tokyo military alliance against other countries. This led to the Second World War.

Fascist and Nazi ideologies were similar.

  • Opposition to democracy ad socialism
  • Glorifying the nation
  • Justifying war
  • Deifying the past
  • Military dictatorship
  • Adoring the purity of race
  • Diffusion of aggressive nationalism
  • Destruction of political rivals
  • Indoctrination of ideologies through arts, literature and education.
  • Hero worship
  • Craze for war
    Thus we can infer that the ideologies of Fascism and Nazism were a threat to world peace.

Question 20.
The reasons behind the outbreak of the First World War and the Second World War had x several similarities. Analyse the statement.
Answer:
The reasons for the outbreak of the First and Second World Wars had many similarities. They are discussed below.

Aggressive – nationalism:
Various movements rooted in aggressive nationalism emerged in Europe before the First World War. Russia started the Pan Slav Movement to unite the Slavic people of Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece in Eastern Europe under her leadership. Germany started the Pan German Movement to establish her dominance in Central Europe and Balkan provinces and to unite the Teutonic people.

France started the Revenge Movement against Germany to regain her territories of Alsace and Lorraine captured by Germany in the Franco-Prussian war of 1871. The aggressive nationalist movements that led to the Second World War were Fascism and Nazism.

Fascism began in Italy under Mussolini and Nazism began in Germany under Hitler. Violence and ferocity were the strategies of Fascists and Nazis. Fascists aimed at the restoration of ancient Roman empire. Nazis upheld the purity of Aryan race.

Formation of military alliances:
Military alliances led to both the wars. Mutual suspicion and enmity among nations led to the formation of military alliances. The two military alliances formed before the First World War were Triple Alliance and Triple Entente. Italy, Germany and Austria-Hungary formed the Triple Alliance. Triple Entente by Britain, France and Russia was formed to oppose this.

The military alliances that led to the Second World War were Axis Powers and Allied Powers. To conquer colonies and attack weaker nations, Italy, Germany and Japan formed the Axis Powers. Countering this alliance, Britain, France and China formed the Allied Powers.

Imperialist conflicts:
Imperialist rivalries led to many crises before both the wars. The imperialist rivalries that led to the First World War were Moroccan Crisis, Balkan Crisis and the Bosnian Crisis.

The competition among imperialist countries became acute after the First World War. Most of the colonies of Asia and Africa were controlled by Britain, France, Holland, etc. Countries like Italy, Germany and Japan had neither colonies nor markets. So they tried to capture the colonies of other countries and to invade weak nations. The conquest of Manchuria by Japan, Ethiopia by Italy and Rhineland and Austria by Germany were part of this project.

Immediate cause:
The immediate cause for the First World War was the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of Austria by a Serbian youth. Germany’s attack on Poland was the immediate cause for the Second World War.

Question 21.
Given below are some of the outcomes of the First World War. Discuss how they resulted in the Second World War
i) The Treaty of Versailles
ii) Formation of the League of Nations
iii) The emergence of Fascism and Nazism
Answer:
The First World War termed as ‘the war to end all wars’ could bring neither peace nor democracy in the world as it was promised. In the post war period, enmity and friction increased among the nations. This dragged the world into a terrible . Second World War.

i) The Treaty of Versailles:
The victorious Allied Powers revengefully imposed the Treaty of Versailles after the First World War on Germany. German colonies were divided among victorious powers. Germany was forced to pay a huge war indemnity. All war guilt was imposed on her and she was disarmed. These unilateral and unjust provisions of the treaty were highly resented by the Germans. Hitler incited a spirit of revenge among the Germans against the tertns of the Treaty of Versailles.

ii) Formation of the League of Nations:
The League of Nations was the international organization formed after the First World War. The League was formed on February 10, 1920. It’s aims were to ensure world peace and security, to promote international co-operation, to prevent wars, etc. But the League failed to prevent the attacks made by big powers. It could not implement disarmament. It failed to prevent Italy’s attack on Ethiopia and Japan’s attack on Manchuria. Thus the failure of the League of Nations led to the Second World War.

iii) The emergence of Fascism and Nazism:
The First World War devastated both the Allies. Many European governments lost their power. People were in misery. Unemployment, poverty and inflation gnawed their entire system. Fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany rose to power, capitalizing on the political and economic chaos prevailing then.
Economic destruction, rivalry against the victors, aimlessness etc.

facilitated the Fascists and Nazis to grab power. The strategies adopted by them were violence and ferocity They opposed democracy and socialism, justified war, believed in military dictatorship, destroyed political rivals and followed a policy of aggressive nationalism. All these led to the Second World War.

Question 22.
Elucidate how far the activities of the UNO have succeeded in maintaining peace around the world.
Answer:
The United Nations Organisation came into existence on October 24, 1945. Some of its objectives are to save the succeeding generations from the scourge of war, to protect international treaties and laws and to foster social and economic development of countries.

For the purpose of encouraging friendship between states and for maintaining international peace and security, UNO intervenes in disputes between nations of the world. Interventions by UNO are by way of Peace Missions, Diplomatic Methods and Peace Keeping Force. The following are some of the problems settled by UNO.

  • Solved the Israel-Palestine issue amicably.
  • Ended Iran-Iraq war
  • Solved Iraq-Kuwait issue
  • Ended the civil war in Congo
  • In the Gulf war between Iraq and Kuwait in 1991, freed Kuwait from Iraq.
  • Ended the fights between different groups in Cambodia and Mozambique.
  • Liberated South Africa from apartheid and made it an independent nation.
  • In 2006, the UN created the Counter Terrorism Implementation Task Force for anti-terrorist activities.
  • Conducted Cultural Fest at Oslo against global warming.

Thus the UNO is a world public forum that works for the security of human kind by stressing on social and economic progress and sustainable development.

Question 23.
Prepare a table on the liberated nations and their leaders in Asia and Africa.
Answer:

Nations

Leaders

India Gandhiji
Ghana Kwame Nkrumah
Vietnam HoChiMinh
South Africa Nelson Mandela
Kenya JomoKenyatta
China Mao Zedong
Namibia SamNujoma
Tanzania Julius Neyerere
Bangladesh Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
Indonesia Sukarno
Myanmar (Burma) Aung San

Question 24.
Was the cold war a threat to world peace? Evaluate.
Or
It was the conflicting ideologies that led to cold war. Evaluate.
Answer:
USA and the Soviet Union became super powers after the Second World War. The USA floated an alliance of capitalist countries while the USSR led socialist nations. These two blocs – capitalist bloc and socialist bloc continued their political and diplomatic wars. This enmity based on ideological conflict and diplomatic confrontations was called the cold war. Cold war was neither a state of war nor of peace. It was a diplomatic war. Ideological-hatred and political distrust were the bases of cold war.

Cold war was a threat to world peace. Cold war became intense when two blocs formed new military alliances and regional coalitions. The military pacts formed by USA against Soviet Union were North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) and Central Treaty Organization (CENTO). To counter this, Soviet Union formed the Warsaw Pact. Often the disputes between the blocs almost led the world to the brink of war.

Question 25.
How did decolonization and cold war pave the way for the formation of non-aligned movement?
Answer:
As a result of decolonization, many countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America became independent. The super powers namely USA and USSR supported the freedom of the colonies. These countries did not join the capitalist bloc of USA or socialist bloc of USSR. They realized that the Cold war was yet another face of imperialism and that it would threaten world peace. The unity . among these countries led to the origin of Non-alignment. Decolonization and cold war paved the way for it.

Question 26.
Conduct a Seminar on the Topic ‘The Impacts of the Second World War on World History ’. Areas to be considered.
i) Liberation of Asian and African Countries
ii) Non-Aligned Movement
iii) Cold War
Answer:

Seminar

Topic: The Impacts of Second World War on World History

Introduction
The world faced a disastrous war during the period from 1939 to 1945. This war known as the Second World War which even threatened the very existence of mankind. The war led to the end of European dominance in world affairs. America and Soviet Union emerged as global powers. Over 10 million people died in the war.

i) Liberation of Asian and African Countries:
Anti-imperial struggles intensified in Asia and Africa when the war ended. The imperialist nations of Europe could not suppress these movements. The USA and the USSR which emerged as super powers after the war supported the freedom movements in the various colonies.

Gradually, colonies started to secure freedom from the imperialist control. India became independent in 1947. Burma (Myanmar) and Ceylon (Sri Lanka) became independent from England in 1948. Ghana became independent in 1957 under Kwame Nkrumah. In 1980 Southern Rhodesia became independent as Zimbabwe.

With the liberation of Namibia in 1990, European colonial rule came to an end in Africa. Countries like Spain, Portugal, Italy, Belgium and Holland were compelled to give independence to their colonies as a result of intensive struggles.

iii) Cold War:
The world was divided into two blocs on the basis of ideological differences after the war. They were the capitalist bloc under USA and the socialist bloc under USSR. The enmity based on ideological conflict and diplomatic confrontations was known as cold war.

Cold war was neither a state of war nor of peace. It was a diplomatic war. Cold war led to the formation of military alliances and arms race. Often the world was threatened by another war.

ii) Non-Aligned Movement:
The newly independent countries of Asia and Africa realized that cold war was yet another face of imperialism and that it would threaten world peace. Non-alignment was the unity forged by the newly independent countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America, without joining any of the power blocs.

These nations understood that the race of super powers for weapons and a stronger military force would pose harm to them. The idea ofNon-Aligned Movement was mooted at a meeting held in Bandung in Indonesia in 1955.

Question 27.
Examine how the imperialist interests caused the unrest in West Asia.
Answer:
Until the First World War, the territory including Palestine was part of the Turkish Empire. As Turkey was defeated in the war, Britain took over the region. Since the Jews helped Britain in the war, the then British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour declared the establishment of a Jewish nation in West Asia as a reward. Israel, a nation for the Jews was formed in 1948. This was followed by Arab-Israel conflicts. By the Oslo Pact of 1993. Israel recognized Palestine. The imperialist conflicts of European nations led to West Asian crisis. West Asia holds half of the world’s total oil reserves. Arab nations used oil export as a strategy to resolve Palestine issue. They executed this strategy by reducing oil production and hiking the price.

Question 28.
How does neo imperialism affect the economy of third world countries?
Answer:

  • The multi-national companies competed with one another to control the resources and assets of third world countries.
  • They promoted consumerism in third world countries to sell their products.
  • Developing nations became markets for multinational companies.
  • The products of multinational companies reached even the villages of developing nations.
  • Due to the pressure from multinational products and marketing strategies, the economy of many third world countries started to collapse.

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions