Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 7 India after Independence
Which were the major problems faced by India when she got independence?
- Refugee problem
- Communal riots
- Integration of princely states
- Formation of linguistic states
Write a short note on the integration of princely states.
Integration of the princely states into the Indian Union was a major challenge before free India. There were around six hundred princely states in pre-independent India, in addition to the territories directly ruled by the British. Britain gave these princely states the option to join either India or Pakistan or to be independent.
The integration was really a herculean task and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was the Union Minister entrusted with this mission. He appointed V.P. Menon as Secretary of the Department of States, created for the purpose of integrating the princely states. Patel and V.P Menon prepared an Instrument of Accession, which stipulated that the princely states had to transfer their control over defence, external affairs and information and communications to the Government of India.
Following the diplomacy of the government and popular protests, majority of the princely states signed the Instrument of Accession and joined the Indian Union. But some states such as Hyderabad, Kashmir and Junagadh resented. Finally they were also integrated into the Indian union through conciliation talks and militaiy interventions.
Analyse the circumstances that led to the linguistic reorganization of states.
- People speaking different languages lived in a native state. People speaking the same language happened to be in different states administratively. So demand for the formation of linguistic states gained momentum.
- The Nagpur Congress Session of 1920 decided to frame Pradesh Congress Committees on
- Popular agitations started in different parts of the country after independence for the formation of linguistic states.
- In 1948, the Constituent Assembly appointed a language commission under the leadership of Justice Dhar.
- Sriramulu, a veteran freedom fighter started satyagraha for the formation of Andhra Pradesh for Telugu speaking people. He died as martyr after 58 days. As a result of the agitation which followed this, the Government of India formed the state of Andhra Pradesh in 1953.
- In 1953, the States Reorganization Commission was formed.
- In 1956 the Parliament passed the States Reorganization Act.
Write a note on the formation of the Indian Constitution.
Indian Constitution is the foundation of out nation making. The constitution was framed by the Constituent Assembly. The Constituent Assembly was formed in 1946 with Dr.Rajendra Prasad as Chairman. A drafting committee was formed under the Chairmanship of B.R.Ambedkar to prepare the Constitution. The other members of the Committee were N.Gopalaswami Ayyangar, Alladi Krishnaswami Iyer, K.M.Munshi and Muhammad Saadulah.
The constitution was framed after detailed deliberations and debates. The Indian Constitution was unanimously adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26th November 1949. The constitution came into effect on 26th January 1950 and India was declared a Republic.
Free India made notable achievements in science and technology. Examine the validity of this statement.
Independent India made remarkable achievements in science and technology. Technology and technocrats have played a major role in the agricultural progress and industrialisation of India. India achieved considerable progress in science and technology under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru who was an ardent admirer of modem science. Several research institutions were set up for the development of science and technology. Some of them were:
- Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)
- Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)
- Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)
Two stalwarts of Indian science, Homi Jehangir Bhabha and S.N.Bhatnagar helmed the projects of Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. Homi.J.Bhabha was the head of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and Indian Atomic Energy Commission.
Many engineering institutes with world standard were set up. Between 1954 and 1964, five Indian Institute of Technology (1ITS) were set up. Nehru strongly believed that India should minimize her dependence on western countries in science and technology. Subsequently India made tremendous progress is medical science, biomedical engineering, genetics, biotechnology, health science, transportation, marine technology, information technology and atomic energy.
Explain the advancements in space research in independent India.
India’s achievements in space research and missile technology are comparable to those of the developed nations.
- In 1962, Nehru, with the technical advice of Vikram Sarabhai, formed the Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR).
- Following this, in 1969, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was established to lead space research.
- The first rocket launching station in India was set up at Thumba near Trivandmm in 1962.
- As a result of the collective efforts of India’s space research experts, first artificial satellite of India Aryabhatta was successfully launched in 1975.
- Besides artificial satellites, India has also developed space vehicles and rocket launchers. India is the only developing country that can develop and launch satellites. India could ( achieve this honour due to the farsightedness of Nehru.
- The main agencies that develop satellites in India are National Remote Sensing Agency and ‘ Physical Research Laboratory.
- In missile technology also, India made achievements. Agni, Prithvi and Akash are the main missiles developed by India.
- Dr.Raja Ramanna and Dr.A.RJ.Abdul Kalam led experiments in the atomic energy sector.
- India has entered a new era in space exploration with the new space mission Chandrayan and Mangalyaan.
- India’s first lunar mission Chandrayan was launched in October 2008. With this, India became a member in the coveted group to launch space shuttle to the lunar orbit after USA, Russia, European Space Agency, China and Japan.
- India’s Mars mission is called Mangalyaan. India became the first country to successfully get a spacecraft into Mar’s orbit on its maiden attempt by the launching of Mars Orbiter Mission in 2013. It is the Indian made space shuttle that covered the longest distance in space.
Explain the major features of the National Education Policy of 1986.
The New Education Policy of 1986 was formulated with an objective to prepare India to face the challenges of the new millenium. Its recommendations were:
- Focusing on primary education and continuing education.
- Launching Operation Black Board programme to universalise primary education and to improve the infrastructure facilities of schools.
- Setting up Navodaya Vidyalayas in each district.
- Encouraging girl’s education.
- Use media like radio and television for educational purpose.
- The State Council of Education Research and Training (SCERT) for promoting research and training in education at the state level and the District Institute of Education and Training (DIET) in each district were started as part of the National Education Policy of 1986.
Which are the important cultural institutions formed after independence?
- Sahitya Akademi
- National Book Trust of India
- Lalit Kala Akademi
- National School of Drama
List the fundamental principles of India’s foreign policy.
- Panchsheel principles
- Resistance to colonialism and imperialism
- Trust in the United Nations
- Emphasis on the necessity of foreign assistance.
- Peaceful co-existence
- Hostility’to racism
Discuss the context of the refugee problem in Independent India.
One of the important problems that independent India had to face was the refugee problem. The main reason for the refugee problem was the partition of India into India and Pakistan. Following the partition, there was an influx of Hindus and Sikhs to India from Pakistan and Muslims from India to Pakistan. Communal riots broke out in different parts of India.
Calcutta, Bihar, Noakhali, Delhi, Punjab and Kashmir witnessed bloody riots. Thousands were killed and women were attacked. As a result, different sections of people lost all their belongings and became refugees. Around 10 million people travelled as refugees on bare foot, trains and bullock carts.
Discuss the role of the Constitution of India fostering democracy.
- The laws for governing the country are derived from the constitution.
- In democratic countries, the constitution is framed on the basis of the interest and will of the people.
- Indian constitution is the foundation of our nation making.
- Indian constitution stands for a democratic government, and for the ideas of republic, federation and division of power.
- The powers of the central and state governments are clearly defined in the constitution.
- The constitution also assures rule of law, single citizenship and free and impartial election.
- Indian constitution also safeguards democracy through Parliamentary system of rule,
fundamental rights and fundamental duties.
Why did independent India choose language as a criterion for state reorganisation?
Detailed discussions were held for the criterion of state reorganisation. Several factors such as geographical extent, population, etc. were considered. When nationalism was defined on the basis of religion, linguistic identity was raised as a counter argument.
The people who follow a particular religion, might be speaking different languages. The people who speak the same language might be following different religions. Since language was a strong unifying force as an instrument of communication and cultural formation, language was chosen as a criterion for state reorganisation.
Prepare a note on the economic development of independent India.
Independent India adopted an economic system called mixed economy which was a synthesis of capitalism and socialism. It gave preference to the development of public sector. The government under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru which assumed power after independence adopted many projects aimed at the economic development of the nation.
Centralised economic planning was one such project. The Planning Commission was formed in 1950 for centralised planning. It devised many projects for economic progress. Five Year Plans are the schemes introduced by the Planning Commission aimed at the economic growth of the country.
It was in 1951 that Five Year Plan was started in India. Agriculture was given priority in the First Five Year Plan and in the Second Plan which began in 1956, industrial development was given priority. The five year plans helped India to go ahead with the process of development.
They also helped to alleviate poverty, flourish agricultural and industrial sectors, improve education and generate new energy sources. India also got assistance from foreign countries for economic development. With their support, iron and steel industries were set up in various parts of the country. Major dams had a significant role in moderating Indian economy.
What were the features of the initiatives taken by independent India in the economic sector?
- India adopted a mixed economic system which was a synthesis of capitalism and socialism. It gave preference to the development of the public sector. Heavy industries, mining of minerals and oil, railways and airways, manufacture of military equipments, etc. were brought under public sector. The private investors were also given encouragement by the government.
- Planning Commission was formed in 1950 for centralised planning. The Planning Commission implemented many projects for attaining economic progress.
- Five Year Plans were launched in 1951. The plans gave a boost to Indian agriculture, industry, power production, etc.
- Foreign aid was accepted for economic progress. Iron and steel industries were started at Bhilai and Bokaro with Soviet aid, Rourkela with German aid and Durgapur with British aid.
- Big dams were constructed across many rivers for irrigation and for the production of electricity. With irrigational facilities, agricultural production increased tremendously.
- As a result of the investment of capital in agricultural sector for irrigation, agricultural machines, fertilizers, pesticides, hybrid seeds, etc. agricultural production increased. This came to be known as Green Revolution.
How did the achievements in the field of science help the development of India?
- Several research institutions like Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Indian Council for Agricultural Research and Indian Council for Medical Research were set up for scientific progress. Under the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India attained great progress in atomic energy and missile technology.
- Under Space Research Organisation, India launched spacecrafts and satellites. The satellites launched by India help in communication, weather study, locating resources, etc.
- World class engineering institutes were also established in the country. Five Indian Institutes of Technology were started between 1954 and 1964.
- Nehru strongly believed that India should minimize her dependence on western countries in science and technology. Subsequently India made tremendous progress in medical science, biomedical engineering, genetics, biotechnology, health science, marine technology, information technology, atomic energy and transportation.
Analyse the educational achievements in
- The Government appointed various commissions to study Indian Education and to submit recommendations.
- National Policy of Education was formulated in 1986.
- Right to Education Act was passed in 2009 to give free and compulsory education to children of 6 to 14 years of age. It is included as part of Fundamental Rights.
- New policy on education paved the way for remarkable changes in education.
- Colleges, universities, engineering institutions
including IITS and IIMS for management studies of international standard were set up.
- With the help of internet and computer, smart classrooms were started in schools which helped to increase the quality of education.
- Gave a stress to female education and as a result, the female literacy rate increased.
- Open schools were set up for students who discontinued their education without completing their studies.
- In order to control the various sectors of education and formulate policies, several agencies like University Grants Commission (UGC), National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), All India Medical Council (AIMC), All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE), etc. were started.
- The Sarva Shikhsha Abhiyan (SSA) is the agency with a view to universalise primary education and Rashtriya Madyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) is the agency to universalise secondary and higher secondary education. SSA and RMSA are joined together and implemented as Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan.
The foreign policy of independent India reflects the values of Indian National Movement. Examine.
Independent India accepted the foreign policy which was formulated by the Indian National Congress during the freedom movement. It was Jawaharlal Nehru who shaped the basic principles of India’s foreign policy. He was one of the architects of the policy of non-alignment.
A good foreign policy is the extension of a mature domestic policy. Both are interrelated. The values upheld by Indian National Movement like non-violence, non-aggression, freedom and equality can be seen in the foreign policy of India. The Directive Principles of State Policy in the constitution explain the basis of Indian Foreign Policy. The policy of non-alignment and to strive for disarmament at the international level are also the aims of India.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions