# Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 2 Chapter 1 Seasons and Time

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## Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Part 2 Chapter 1 Seasons and Time

### Seasons and Time Text Book Questions and Answers

Sslc Geography Chapter 1 Question Answer Kerala Syllabus Question 1.
You have learnt that there is periodic variation in the amount of sunshine over different places in both the hemispheres of the earth. Why?
Variations in the amount of sunshine received are the basis for the occurrence of different seasons. The earth’s revolution and the tilt of the axis are the reasons for this variation.

Season And Time Class 10 Kerala Syllabus Question 2.
How much time does the earth take to complete one revolution ?
365 1/4 days

Seasons And Time Sslc Notes Kerala Syllabus Question 3.
What is a leap year ?
To complete one revolution, the earth takes 365 1/4 days. But a year normally has 365 days. The remaining 1/4 part of a day will be considered as a full day one in every fair year. Thus every fourth year has 366 days and is called a leap year. Thus in every fourth year February has 29 days.

Seasons And Time Notes Kerala Syllabus Question 4.
Seasons are not distinctly felt in Kerala. Why?
Kerala is a place located near the equator since Kerala receives high amount of sunlight in every year. In such regions seasons are not distinctly felt.

Seasons And Time Class 10 In English Notes Kerala Syllabus Question 5.
What is the peculiarity of the day and the night in the Southern Hemisphere on 21 June?
On June 21 the Southern hemisphere experiences its longest night and shortest day.

Seasons And Time Questions And Answers Kerala Syllabus Question 6.
What are the changes observed in nature during the summer season?

• The atmospheric temperature increases.
• Rivers, ponds, springs and other water sources get dried up.
• Availability of rain becomes reduced. As a result, land gets parched.
• Shortage of food materials.
• The grasslands dry up.

Sslc Geography Time Calculation Questions Kerala Syllabus Question 7.
What is the peculiarity of the day and the night in the Southern Hemisphere on 22 December?
Longest day and shortest night.

Season And Time Class 10 Notes Kerala Syllabus Question 8.
What is the season in the Southern Hemi-sphere, when it is autumn in the Northern Hemisphere?
Spring

Time Calculation Questions In Geography Class 10 Kerala Syllabus Question 9.
What are the peculiarities of winter season ?
We feel many variations in the winter season than other seasons such as long nights, short days, cold weather, cold wind, snow fall, winter storms, cold rains, thick fog, frost, very low temperature, etc.

Season And Time Class 10 Textbook Pdf Kerala Syllabus Question 10.
What is the change that occurs in the duration of day in the Southern Hemisphere during ‘Dakshinayanam’?
The duration of day in the southern hemi-sphere gradually increases during this period.

Sslc Geography Chapter 1 Notes Kerala Syllabus Question 11.
What is the duration of day and night in the south polar regions, when the Sun is respectively over the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere?
During the period from March to September, as the Sun is in the Northern Hemisphere, the south polar regions experience continuous night for six months.

During the remaining period, that is from September to March, as the Sun is in the Southern Hemisphere south polar regions experience continuous day light for six months.

Seasons And Time Class 10 In English Medium Kerala Syllabus Question 12.
Is the local time in all the Indian states the same ?
No, The time estimated at each place based on the apex position of the sun is termed as the local time.

Seasons And Time Class 10 Notes Kerala Syllabus Question 13.
What will be the hardships if there are several local times in a country?
Cannot prepare a railway time table applicable throughout the country.

• Peoples have to adjust their watches suitably.
• Cannot organize a All India Exams.

10th Geography Chapter 1 Seasons And Time Kerala Syllabus Question 14.
The people of which Indian states sees the sun first ?

Sslc Geography Notes Kerala Syllabus Question 15.
What would be the longitudinal extent of each time zone ?
15°

Hsslive 10th Social Science Kerala Syllabus Question 16.
Find the difference between the Indian Standard Time and the Greenwich Mean Time.
The 82 1/2 °E longitude which passes almost through the middle of these longitudes has been fixed as the standard meridian of India. The time difference between Indian Standard Time and Greenich Mean Time is 5 1/2 hours ahead.

Hss Live Guru 10th Geography Kerala Syllabus Question 17.
Calculate the time at each 15° longitude east and west of the Greenwich Line up to 180° longitude and complete the table.

Sslc History Chapter 1 Notes Pdf Kerala Syllabus Question 18.
Which day would it be for those residing at place ‘A’ in given Fig.

If 180° longitude passes through the country A, the places situated East and West of this line will be having two different days. Think about the practical difficulties caused by this. To avoid this, certain necessary adjustments have been effected in this line with the result that it doesn’t pass through the corresponding land areas. Note the longitude marked with broken lines.

The line is in such a way that it passes through Bering – strait in Pacific Ocean and avoid some of the inhabited islands. The travelers who cross this line from the West calculate the time by advancing it by one day and those who cross the line from the west deduct one day. This imaginary line is known as the International Date Line. A can cross this line from the West calculate the time by advancing it by one day, take it as Friday.

Sslc Geography Chapter 1 Kerala Syllabus Question 19.
Note the International Date Line marked on the globe. Identify the continents situated to the east and the west of this line. The travelers to which of these continents will gain one day on crossing the International Date Line?
The continents situated to the west of the international Date Line are Asia and Australia. North America and South America lie to, the east of the International Date Line. The travelers who cross International Date Line and go to North America and South America will gain one day.

### Seasons and Time Let Us Assess

Question 1.
Identify the factor responsible for the occurrence of seasons from among the following.
a. Rotation of the Earth
b. Tilt of the Earth’s axis
c. Parallelism of the Earth’s axis
d. All the above.
Tilt of the Earth’s axis.

Question 2.
The sun’s rays fall vertically between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn. Why?
Earth maintains its parallelism throughout the revolution, the position of the sun in relation to the earth varies. The sun shifts apparently between Tropic of Cancer (23 1/2 °N) and Tropic of Capricorn (23 1/2 °S).

Question 3.
Highlight the importance of March 21, June 21, September 23 and December 22.
On 21st March, the sun rays are overhead the equator, 0°. So the days and nights are of equal duration, namely 12 hours at all places on the earth. This is called equinoxes. On June 21st, sun appears overhead at the tropic of cancer. This is called summer solstice, and it makes the summer season in the Northern Hemi-sphere.

On September 23rd, the sun is overhead at the equator and experiences equinoxes that means equal days and nights. On 22nd December, the sun continues its apparent movement from the equator to the Southern Hemisphere and reaches vertically above the tropic of capricon. This is called winter solstice.

Question 4.
Why there is an eastward increase and west-ward decrease in time?
The earth rotates from west to east. So, the sun rise first in the Eastern longitude. We calculate time by considering the time when sun reaches the highest point in the sky as 12’0 clock. So when we consider Greenwich line as the base line for time, it becomes noon early in the Eastern longitudes.That is why eastern longitudes feel the time is getting increased. But in western longitudes noon will be after the noon in Greenwich.

### Seasons and Time Orukkam Questions and Answers

Question 1.

Observe the picture and complete the following table.

Question 2.
Complete the following table.

Question 3.
Answer the following Questions. World Time Calculation

1. The time required for the earth to complete one rotation
a. In Hours
b. In Minutes
24 hours, 1440 minutes

2. What is angular distance of the earth when it complete one rotation ?
360°

3. The time required for the earth to turn one degree is
4 minutes

4. What is the change in time when we move towards west or east from a degree of longitude?
More time is taken towards east and less time towards west.

5. a. Is there any particular longitude based on which the time is calculated world wide?
b. If yes, Name the longitude
c. By what name this longitude is known when it is used to calculate the time worldwide?
a. Yes,
b. Greenwich longitude
c. Prime Meridian

6. What is meant by the standard meridian?
Each country in the world considers the longitude that passes almost through its middle as the standard meridian.

7. Which is the standard meridian of India.
83°30 E

8. What is the time difference between Indian Standard Time and Greenwich Mean Time?
5 hours 30 minutes

9. The International Date Line is not a straight line Why.
Other lines of longitudes are straight lines. But International Date line is not a straight line. The international dateline passes through the Pacific ocean. It deviates from the 180° longitudes where it crosses land in order to keep all the lands under one administration on one side of the dateline. The Dateline deviates. Eastwards in the Bering straits between Australia and Siberia. The line deviates west-wards of 180° longitude. Further south, the date line deviates eastwards of 180° around Fiji, Toga islands.

Question 4.
Complete the following Table.

### Seasons and Time Evaluation Questions

Question 1.
Explain the reason for the occurrence of seasons.
Variations in the amount of sunshine received are the basis for the occurrence of different seasons. The earths revolution and the tilt of the axis are the
reasons for this variation.

Question 2.
What is meant by the parallelism of axis?
The axis of the earth is tilted at an angle of 66 1/2 from the orbital plane. If measured from the vertical plane this would be 23 1/2.The earth maintains this tilt throughout its revolution. This is known as parallelism of earth’s axis.

Question 3.
Define the term equinoxes.
The apparent position of the sun during the earth’s revolution will be over the equator on March 21 and September 23. Hence the length of the day and night will be equal during these days on both the hemispheres.These days are called equinoxes.

Question 4.
What is leap year?
To complete one revolution, the earth takes 365 1/4 days. But a year normally has 365 days. The remaining 1/4 part of a day will be considered as a full day one in every fair year. Thus every fourth year has 366 days and is called a leap year. Thus in every fourth year February has 29 days.

Question 5.
How is the duration of days and nights experienced at the places with in the Antarctic circle when the sun is in the southern hemisphere?
lt will be six months of days throughout in the places within the Antarctic circle.

Question 6.
The local time is not same everywhere in India. Substantiate.
In the ancient period, time was calculated based on the apex position of the sun and the length of the shadow cast by it. When the sun is vertically overhead, it is noon. The time estimated at each place, based on the position of the sun, is termed as the local time. In a vast country like India there are many longitudinal. Hence the standard time will be different. There is a difference of 2 hours in time between the states Arunachal Pradesh which is in the eastern part of India and Gujarat which is in the western part of India.

Question 7.
India has only one standard meridian but many other countries have more than one standard meridian. How do you interest this statement?
It is not practical to follow only one standard time for the countries with wide longitudinal extent. So more than one longitudes are considered as standard meridians.
Eg: Russia, China, USA

Question 8.
What will be the time a New Delhi when it is noon at Greenwich?
When it is 12 noon in Greenwich, it will be morning 6.30 in Delhi.

Question 9.
Distinguish between winter solstice and summer solstice.
The apparent position of the sun shifts from the equator to the northern hemisphere from March 21 to June 21 .The sun will be vertically above the Tropic of Cancer on June 21. This day is known as summer solstice. The sun continues its apparent movement from the equator to the southern hemisphere and reaches vertically above the Tropic of Capricon on December 22. This day is known as Winter solstice.

Question 10.
Variation in the amount sunshine received is the basis of the occurrence of different sea¬son. Elucidate
Variations in the amount of sunshine received are the basis for the occurrence of different seasons. The apparent position of the sun during the earth’s revolution will be over the equator on March 21 and September 23. Hence the length of day and night will be equal during these days on both the hemispheres. These days are called Equinoxes.

The apparent position of the sun shifts from the equator to the northern hemisphere from March 21 to June 21. The sun will be vertically above the tropic of cancer on June 21. This day is known as Summer solstice. lt has the longest day in northern hemisphere and the longest night in southern hemisphere. From June 21 onward, the sun shifts from the tropic of cancer towards the equator and reaches vertically over the equator on September 23.As the sun is in the northern hemisphere from March to September,it will be summer in the northern hemisphere.

The sun continues its apparent movement from the equator to the southern atmosphere and reaches vertically above the Tropic of Capricorn on December 22. This day is known as Winter solstice. During the period from September to March, it will be winter in the northern atmosphere and summer in the southern atmosphere.

### Seasons and Time SCERT Questions and Answer

Question 1.
The earth travels around the sun along an elliptical orbit.
a. By what name is this movement known?
b. Mention the time taken by the earth to complete one turn round the sun?
c. The amount of solar energy received is not uniform at any place on the earth during this journey. Why?
a. Revolution
b. 365 days and 6 hours
c. Change in the apparent position of the sun due to the inclination and parallelism of the earth’s axis.

Question 2.
A year generally comprises 365 days. But in certain occasions it consists of 366 days. Mention the name by which such years are known? Explain how 366 days are included in such years.
Leap year:
The earth takes 365 days and 6 hours to complete one revolution. 365 days are included in a normal year and by adding the rest 6 hours together one additional day is included in the fourth year which is in February (29 days).

Question 3.
Observe the answers given by 2 students based on the inclination of eart’s axis and evaluate.

The axis of the earth is inclined to 661/2° from the plane of the orbit and it is 23 1/2 ° from the vertical to the plane of orbit

Question 4.

the parallelism of earth’s axis. Identify the correct ones?
a. A and B
b. B only
c. C and D
d.A and D

b. B only

Question 5.
One among the following statements is wrong. Identify the wrong answer and make necessary correction.
a. The duration of day in the northern hemisphere increases from 21 March to 21 June.
b. The duration of night in the northern hemisphere increases from 21 March to 21 June.
c. The duration of day decreases in the northern hemisphere from 21 June to 23 September.
d. The duration of night in the southern hemisphere increases from 21 June to 23 September.

• b is the wrong answer
• The duration of night in the northern hemisphere decreases from 21 March to 21 June.

Question 6.
What is the peculiarity of the duration of day and night in both the hemispheres on 21 March, 21 June, 23 September and 22 December?
Hints:
‘Apparent position of the sun
(i) The duration of day and night in both the hemispheres
(ii) The names by which this days are known.

21 March – The sun comes vertically over head at the Equator – The duration of day and night are equal on both the hemisph-eres- Equinox

21 June – The sun is vertically overhead at the Tropic of cancer – The longest day in the northern hemisphere and longest ni ght in the southern hemisphere – Summer solstice

23 September – The sun comes vertically overhead at the equator – The duration of day and night are equal on both the hem-ispheres- Equinox
22 December -The sun is vertically over head at the tropic of Capricorn – The long-est day in the southern hemisphere and longest night in the northern hemisphere – Winter solstice

Question 7.
Analyse the diagrams and complete the table below.

a. Tropic of Capricorn
b. Tropic of cancer
c. Shortest night
d. Longest night
e. Longest night
f. Shortest night
g. Winter solstice
h. Summer solstice

Question 8.
The time of sunset varies over different months. Why?
When the sun is over the northern hemisphere northern hemisphere, experiences longer days and shorter nights. When the sun is over, the southern hemisphere, the northern hemisphere experience shorter days and longer nights. This causes variations in the time of sunrise and sunset.

Question 9.
The seasons experiencing in the northern hemisphere are given in the table. Write do¬wn the corresponding seasons in the southern hemisphere.

 Months Seasons A. 22 December to 21 March Winter B. 21 March to 21 June Spring C. 21 June to 23 September Summer D. 23 September to 22 December Autumn

• Summer
• Autumn
• Winter
• Spring

Question 10.
The following are the hints related to certain seasons. Identify each season.
a. Transition season between winter and summer
b. Transition season between summer and winter
a. Spring
b. Autumn

Question 11.
Following are a few natural phenomena occurring in different seasons in India. Identify the season represented by each.
a. Sprouting and blooming of plants and trees
b. Trees shed their leaves.
c. Drying of reservoirs.
d Dry atmosphere and low temperature.

a. Spring
b. Autumn
c. Summer
d. Winter

Question 12.
Each degree of longitude corresponds to four minutes of time. How can we arrive at this fact?

• Earth takes 24 hours to complete one rotation, i.e., 360° or 1440 minutes
• In other words it takes 1440 minutes to complete one rotation.
• Hence 1 ° of longitude corresponds to 4 minutes (1440 ÷ 360 = 4 min)

Question 13.
The world is divided in to 24 time zones.
a. What is the longitudinal extent of each of these time zone?
b. What is the time difference within a time zone?

a. 15°
b. 1 hour

Question 14.
There is an increase in time towards the east and decrease in time towards the west of ail the longitudes other than 180° longitude. Why?

• The earth rotates from west to east
• So the sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
• He nee these are increase in time towards the east and decrease in time towards the west

Question 15.
Explain the significance of Greenwich meridian and International date line in determining time.

• Greenwich meridian – 0° longitude. It is based on this longitude that the time is calculated worldwide.
• International date line – 180°longitude. There is a difference of 24 hours on either side of this line of longitude. So it is drawn deviated to avoid the land areas and to pass entirely through the ocean.

Question 16.
Every country considers a particular longitude as their standard meridian for determining time. Why?
The local time is different at different longitudes. If the same country follows different time, this may create a lot of confusions and problems. So the longitude passing almost through the middle of the country is considered as the standard meridian. The local time at this longitude is considered as the standard Time.

Question 17.
Why do certain countries consider more than one longitude as their standard meridians? Give an example for such a country.
It is not practical to follow only one standard time for the countries with wide longitudinal extent. So more than one longitudes are considered as standard meridians.
Eg: Russia, China, USA

Question 18.
What is the standard meridian of India?
8214° East longitude

Question 19.
The standard meridian of India is 82‘/2° East longitude. Why do India consider this longitude as the standard meridian?
82 1/2 ° East longitude passes almost through the middle of the country.

Question 20.
Which among the following longitudes is drawn deviated to avoid the land areas?
a. Equator
b. Greenwich meridian
c. International date line d 82/2° East longitude

c. International date line

Question 21.
Why is International date line drawn deviated from the land areas?

• There is a difference of 24 hours on either side of this longitude.
• If this line passes through land areas, the same inhabited areas may have different days.

Question 22.
What is the Greenwich Mean Time when the Indian Standard time is 2 pm on Mon¬day?
8.30 am on Monday (2 pm – 5 hrs. 30 min = 8.30 am)

Question 23.
Determine the local time at 45° East and at 45° West longitude when the Greenwich Mean Time is 10 am Wednesday.
45° East- 1 pm Wednesday
$$\left(\frac{45}{15}=3 \text { hrs, } 10 \mathrm{am}+3 \mathrm{hr}=1 \mathrm{pm}\right)$$
45° West- 7 am Wednesday
$$\left(\frac{45}{15}=3 \text { hrs, } 10 a m-3 h r=7 a m\right)$$

### Seasons and Time Exam Oriented Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is revolution?
The earth revolves around the sun in elliptical orbit. This motion is known as revolution.

Question 2.
What is rotation ?
The earth rotates its own axis is known as rotation.

Question 3.
What is the tilt of the earth?
23 1/2°

Question 4.
How much time does the earth take to complete one rotation ?
24 hrs.

Question 5.
Why the amount of solar energy received on earth is different ?
Due to the apparent movement of the sun.

Question 6.
What is the amount of sunlight received in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere when the sun is vertically over the equator ?
Equal amount of sunlight.

Question 7.
What is parallelism of the earth’s axis ?
The axis of the earth is tilled at an angle of 66 1/2 from the orbital plane. If measured from the vertical plane this would be 23 1/2°The earth maintains this tilt throughout its revolution. This is known as the parallelism of the earth’s axis.

Question 8.
What do you mean by apparent movement of the sun ?
Since the earth maintains its parallelism throughout the revolution, the position of the sun is in relation to the earth varies. The sum shifts apparently between Tropic of Cancer (23 1/2 °North) and Tropic of Capricorn (23 1/2 °South). This is known as the apparent movement of the sun.

Question 9.
What is the main reason for the occurrence of seasons ?
The apparent movement of the sun due to the inclination of axis is the main reason for the occurrence of seasons.

Question 10.
How did the term equinoxes and solstices derived ?
The word equinox is derived from the Greek words equi and noxe. ‘Equi’ means equal and ‘noxe’ means night. The word solstices derived from the Greek words sol and stic. Sol means sun and stic means stationary state.

Question 11.
What is equinoxes?
When sum is over head over the equator on March 21 and September 23, the length of the day and night will be equal on both the hemisphere. These days are called equinoxes.

Question 12.
What do you mean by Summer solstice? How does it affect Northern and Southern Hemisphere?
The apparent position of the sun shifts from the equator to the Northern Hemisphere from March 21 to June 21. The sun will be vertically above the Tropic of Cancer on June 21. This day, known as summer solstice. As a result of summer solstice, Northern hemisphere will have longest day and longest night in the Southern hemisphere.

Question 13.
Name the parallels marked in the following diagram.

0° — Equator
23 1/2 °N — Tropic of Cancer
23 1/2 °S — Tropic of Capricorn
66 1/2°N — Arctic circle
66 1/2 °S — Antarctic circle
90°N — North pole
90° S — South pole

Question 14.
What will be season in Northern and Southern hemisphere from September to March ?

• In Northern hemisphere — Winter
• In Southern hemisphere — Summer

Question 15.
The seasons are not same in the two hemisphere. What are the reasons for this ?
Revolution of the earth, rotation of the earth, tilt of the axis and inclination of the axis in the same direction.

Question 16.
Compare Rotation and Revolution, equinoxes and solstice ?

 Rotation Revolution Movement of the earth on it’s own axis. Movement of the earth around the sun. It takes 24 hrs to complete one rotation It takes 365 days and 6 hrs to complete one revolution It causes day and night It causes changes in seasons.
 Equinox Solstice Sum comes vertically over the equator. Sum comes vertically over the Tropic of Cancer or Tropic of Capricorn. It occurs on March 21 and September 23 It occurs on June 21 and December 22 It results in equal days and nights. Leads in differences of the duration of day and night.

Question 17.
What will happen if the earth stops rotation?
The regular occurrence of day and night will | not be possible. The side of the earth which j for as the sun always feel day and the other | side always will have night. If the earth stops j rotation, it will become an unsuitable planet j to sustain life.

Question 18.
What will happen if the axis of the earth be-comes vertically ?