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Kerala State Syllabus 8th Standard Basic Science Solutions Chapter 13 Diversity for Sustenance
Diversity for Sustenance Textbook Questions and Answers
Diversity For Sustenance Kerala Syllabus 8th Chapter 13 Biosphere
Biosphere is the part of earth where life exists. Living world contains plants, animals, microorganisms, etc. Abiotic factors are also essential for the existence of living world. Sun is the ultimate source of energy in living world. Green plants convert light energy to chemical energy by photosynthesis.
Illustration (Text Book Page No:182)
Diversity For Sustenance Class 8 Kerala Syllabus Chapter 13 Question 1.
Discuss and complete the illustration given below suitably.
Diversity For Sustenance Pdf Kerala Syllabus 8th Chapter 13 Ecology
Ecology is the study of interrelationship of organisms among themselves and with their environment.
Basic Science Class 8 Chapter 13 Kerala Syllabus Chapter 13 Producers
Plants that perform photosynthesis are the producers.
Hss Live Guru Biology 8 Kerala Syllabus Chapter 13 Consumers
Organisms that directly or indirectly depend on green plants for energy are called consumers. Animals that directly depend plants are called primary consumers. Those dependent on primary consumers are the secondary consumers. The organisms depend on secondary consumers are called tertiary consumers.
Indicators (Text Book Page No: 183)
Hss Live Guru 8th Biology Kerala Syllabus Chapter 13 Question 1.
How do food chain and food web differ from each other?
The chain of animals that eat and being eaten constitute food chain. But in nature different food chains are interrelated and this network is called food web.
Eg. Food Chain
8th Class Biology Notes Pdf Kerala Syllabus Chapter 13 Question 2.
Is a single organism involved in more than one food chain?
- Same organism belongs to different food chains.
- Beneficial. No species increase or decrease beyond a level.
8th Class Physics Notes Kerala Syllabus Chapter 13 Question 3.
Is the possibility of an organism becoming food to more Is the possibility of an organism becoming food to more than one organism helpful to the existence of the food chain?
If a particular species increase its number, the animals that forms its food get destroyed. It cause food scarcity and thus they themselves destroyed.
Diversity For Sustenance Notes Kerala Syllabus 8th Chapter 13 Question 4.
How does the variation in the number of a particular organism in the food chain affect the existence of other organisms?
The number of an organisms decrease it adversely effects the existences of another group that depend them for their food. The increase and decrease in the number of organisms adversely affect the equilibrium of environments.
Hss Live Guru 8 Biology Kerala Syllabus Chapter 13 Trophic Level
Trophic level indicates the position of an organism in a food chain. Green plants belong to first trophic level. All food chains start from green plants. Herbivores are in II trophic level and Carnivores are included in III trophic level.
The Illustration (Text Book Page No: 184)
Basic Science For Class 8 Chapter 13 Question 5.
Did you read the note on trophic level?
Complete the illustration by including the organisms of the food web at various trophic levels
Tertiary Consumers – Eagle, Mongoose
Secondary Consumers – Frog, Snake
Primary Consumers – Grasshopper, Rat
Producers – Grass, Paddy
Hsslive Guru Biology 8th Kerala Syllabus Chapter 13 Question 6.
Does the same organism occupy more than one trophic level?
The same organism is included in different trophic levels as the complexity of food web increases.
Kerala Syllabus 8th Standard Chemistry Notes Chapter 13 Question 7.
Is there any possibility of a fifth trophic level?
The number of trophic levels is an ecosystem is not constant. Even though in nature the food chains are not too long. This is to reduce the loss of energy during transmission.
Kerala Syllabus 8th Standard Physics Notes Chapter 13 Question 8.
How does the elimination of organisms from the higher trophic levels affect the ecosystem?
The loss of organisms in higher levels cause tremendous increase in the number of organisms in the lower levels. It disrupt the equilibrium of environment.
Interactions in the Ecosystem
Many relations exist in nature. It maintains the equilibrium and stability of the ecosystem.
Food relations between organisms are good examples for these interactions.
Predation: One is benefitted. Other is harmed,
eg. Tiger and Deer.
Parasitism: One is benefitted. Other is harmed,
eg: Mango tree and Loranthus.
Competition: Both are harmed first. Later the winner is benefitted.
eg: Paddy and Weeds.
Mutualism: Both are benefitted
eg: Sea anemone and Hermit crab.
Commensalism: One is benefitted and the other is neither benefitted nor harmed.
eg : Mango tree and Vanda
Biodiversity is the sum total of all the diverse species of organisms and their ecosystems (habitats)
Biodiversity has 3 different levels such as ecosystem diversity species diversity and genetic diversity.
Walter G. Rosen is the scientist who used the term ‘biodiversity’ for the first time.
Indicators (Text Book Page No: 186)
Hsslive Guru 8th Class Kerala Syllabus Chapter 13 Question 9.
Are all ecosystems alike in biodiversity?
Are all organisms seen in an ecosystem also seen in another ecosystem?
Organisms adapted to the conditions of particular ecosystems. The physical and chemical structure of each ecosystem is different. So organisms seen in one ecosystem may not be present in another ecosystem.
What is the need for protecting natural ecosystems?
Natural ecosystem are to be conserved for the existence and conservation of organisms. Ecosystems are the treasure houses of biodiversity. They provide innumerable services. Essential services, Ecological services, supporting services, and cultural services.
Indicators (Text Book Page No: 188)
Large scale destruction of ecosystems
Birds are primary the victims of changes occurring in the ecosystem
Overexploitation of the natural resources
The unwise interference of human beings destroys our ecosystem with rich biodiversity. If adversely affects the bird diversity in our locality. Many species of birds disappeared due to habitat loss. The pesticides like DDT, endosulfan used in agricultural field kills or drives away the birds that come
in search of food.
Conservation of Biodiversity
Conservation of organisms within their natural habitat is termed as in-situ conversation.
eg: Wildlife sanctuaries, National Parks, Community Reserves, etc.
Conservation of organisms outside their natural habitats is termed ex-situ conservation.
eg : Zoological garden, botanical garden, gene bank
Indicators (Text Book Page No: 183)
What is the scope of ex-situ conservation?
It is possible to conserve the endangered animals by keeping them in specialized environment and by providing suitable conditions for reproduction. Rare species of plants can be conserved. Seeds, gametes, etc. can be collected and make we when necessary.
What is the significance of gene banks?
Gene banks are research centers. Here special arrangements are these to collect seeds, gametes, etc. and to preserve them for long periods. Animals can be recreated when necessary.
Let US assess (Text Book Page No: 195)
Phytoplankton – zooplankton – fish – seal – shark
a) In which trophic level is the secondary consumer of this food chain included?
b) Rewrite the food chain in such a way that the organism in the third trophic level figures in the second trophic level.
a. In 3rd trophic level.
b. algae → fish → duck
Find the odd one out from the following. Justify your answer.
a) Quagga, Malabar civet cat, Nilgiri Tahr, Lion-tailed macaque.
b) Eravikulam, Mathikettan shola, Periyar, Silent Valley
a. Quaaga, Extinct
b. Periyar – Wildlife Sanctuary Others are national parks.
Examine the statements given below and rewrite if there are errors.
a) Extinct species are included in the Red Data Book.
b) WWF is an organisation working with the objective of protection of biodiversity.
c) Gene banks are included in in-situ conservation.
In red data book endangered organisms are included
b. Right / True
c. Seed bank, sperm bank etc. are ex-situ conservation methods.
Diversity for Sustenance Additional Questions & Answers
Classify the following as producers and consumers.
Lizard, Planktons, Paddy, Calotes, Carrot, Grasshopper, Tortoise, Algae, Snake
Find out suitable example for the animal relations mentioned.
Crops × Weeds
Mango tree × Vanda
Mango tree × Loranthus
Fish × Heron
Hermit crab × sea anemone
i. Mango tree and Loranthus
ii. Hermit Crab – Sea anemone
iii. Mango tree and Vanda.
Complete the illustration Suitably
a. Environmental / Ecological services
b. Cultural services
c. Food, Medicine
d. Nutrient Cycle, Pollination
Which are the different types of conservation of biodiversity?
These are mainly two types.
- In-situ conservation in which organisms are conserved within their natural environment
- Ex-situ conservation in which animals are protected out their natural environment.
Classify the following into Ex-situ and In-situ.
(Zoological Gardens, Sacred Groves, Gene banks, Biosphere Reserves, Botanical Gardens, National parks)
|National parks||Zoological Gardens|
|Sacred Groves||Gene Banks Botanical|
Expand the following terms.
JNTBGRI – Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute.
MBG – Malabar Botanical Garden RGCB – Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology.
Why do all the food chains start from green plants?
The basis of all food chains is the plants. They are the producers. These are eaten by the herbivores which in turn are eaten by the carnivores.
The members at the successively higher levels are lesser in number and larger in size in a food chain. What about their body weight? What would be the reason for that?
In the successively higher levels in the food chain the number of consumers decreases and the size of their body increases. The number of producers will be very large. The number of animals which feed on them is less in number. But their body size increases.
Hay → Horse
Paddy → Fowl → Fox
Phytoplankton → Tadpole → Fish → Man
Grass → GrasshopperFrog → Snakes Vulture
Examine the food chain given above and classify them as primary consumers, secondary and tertiary consumers.
Producers: Hay, Paddy, Phytoplankton, Grass
Primary consumer: Horse, Fowl, Tadpole, Grasshopper
Secondary consumers: Fox, Fish, Frog, Snake
Tertiary consumers: Vulture, Man
What will happen if the number of herbivores increases?
If the number of herbivores increase they will eat away all the grass and shrubs and they will have to face shortage of food. The destruction of grass and shrubs will cause soil erosion and the top fertile soil will be washed away.
Animals which are facing extinction.
- Wild goat
- Musk deer
- Indian wild Ass
- Lion-tailed Monkey
- The large Indian Bustard
- Kashmir deer
- Himalayan Tig
- Silver owl