# Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 4 Periodic Table

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## Kerala State Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Solutions Chapter 4 Periodic Table

### Periodic Table Textual Questions and Answers

Earlier Attempts for Classification of Elements

Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Notes Chapter 4 Question 1.
Explain the earlier attempt of classification by Lavoiser?
Antoine Lavoisier classified the known elements into metals and nonmetals. But he was not able to duly classify metalloids.

9th Class Chemistry Periodic Table Kerala Syllabus Question 2.
Explain Newland’s law of octaves?
Newlands arranged elements in the increasing order of atomic mass. He noticed that every eighth element has properties similar to those of the first elements. But this peculiarity could be noticed in elements upto calcium only.

Octaves of Newlands

9th Class Chemistry 4th Chapter Kerala Syllabus Question 3.
Define Mendeleev’s periodic law?
In 1869 Mendeleev arranged the known 63 elements in horizontal and vertical columns and gave shape to the periodic table. He found that the chemical and physical properties of elements repeat at a regular intervals when they were arranged in the increasing order of atomic masses. Based on this Mendeleev proposed the periodic law of elements. The law states that physical and chemical properties of elements are periodic function of their atomic masses.

Chemistry Notes For Class 9 Periodic Table Kerala Syllabus Question 4.
What is meant by groups and periods in the periodic table?
The vertical columns in the periodic table are known as groups and the horizontal rows are called periods.

Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Chemistry Notes Question 5.
Evaluate the Mendeleev’s periodic table and find the following.
a) Total number of periods
b) Total number of Groups
c) Are the same elements showing similar properties arranged in the same group or same period?
a) 6
b) 8
c) Same group

Class 9 Chemistry Notes Kerala Syllabus Question 6.
1. For the first time elements were comprehensively classified in such a way that elements of similar properties were placed in the same group. This has made the study of chemistry easy.
2. When the classification was made in such a way that the elements of similar properties came in the same group. It was noticed that certain their proper group. The reason for this was wrongly determined atomic masses and consequently, those wrong atomic masses were corrected.
Eg. The atomic mass of beryllium was known to be 14. Mendeleev reassessed it as a and assigned beryllium a proper place.
3. Columns were left vacant for elements which were not known at the time and their properties were predicted also. This gives an impetus to experiments in chemistry.

Ex Mendeleev give names Eka aluminum and Eka silicon to those elements which were to come below aluminum and silicon respectively in the periodic table and predicted their properties. Later when these elements gallium and germanium were discovered the prediction of Mendeleev turned out to be true.

Hsslive Guru 9th Chemistry Kerala Syllabus Question 7.
Explain the limitation of Mendeleev’s Periodic table?
1. Elements with large difference in properties were included in the same group.
eg. Hard metal like copper [Cu], Silver [Ag] were included along with soft metals like sodium [Na] potassium [K],
2. No proper position could be given to element hy¬drogen. Non-metallic hydrogen was placed along with metals like sodium [Na] and potassium [K]
3. The increasing order of atomic mass was not strictly followed throughout.
eg. Co and Ni, Te and I
4. As isotopes are atoms of same element having different atomic masses, they should have been given different position while arranging them in the order of atomic mass. But this was not done.

Counting Atomic Calculator is a free online tool that displays the atomic mass for the given chemical formula.

Modern Period Table

Periodic Table 9th Class Pdf Kerala Syllabus Question 8.
State and explain modern periodic table and mod-ern periodic law?
In 1913 Mosely through his x-ray diffraction experiments proved that the properties of elements depended on the atomic number not on the atomic mass.

According to this the periodic law of Mendeleev and the periodic table were modified consequently the modern periodic table was prepared by arranging elements in the increasing order of atomic number. The modern periodic law states that the physical and chemical properties of elements are periodic function of their atomic number.

Periodic Table Chapter Class 9 Kerala Syllabus Question 9.
How many periods in the modern periodic table?
7

Labour India Class 9 Chemistry Kerala Syllabus Question 10.
Which is the shortest period?
I period

9th Class Chemistry Chapter 4 Kerala Syllabus Question 11.
Number of elements in the third period?
8

Class 9 Chemistry Periodic Table Kerala Syllabus Question 12.
Total number of groups?
18

Periodic Table In 9th Class Kerala Syllabus Question 13.
Explain representative elements?
Elements of group 1 and 2 also those in groups of 13 – 18 are called representative elements it belongs to metals, nonmetals, and metalloids.

Periodic Table Chemistry Class 9 Kerala Syllabus Question 14.
Do in representative elements do they include metalloids [eg. Si, Ge, As, Sb…) exhibiting the characteristics of metals and non-metals?
Yes

Periodic Table Notes Pdf Class 9 Kerala Syllabus Question 15.
As there elements existing in solid, liquid and gaseous state find examples?

• In solid-state- sodium, aluminum, carbon
• In liquid state – Bromine
• In gaseous state – oxygen, neon, argon

9th Class Chemistry Chapter 4 Notes Kerala Syllabus Question 16.
Write the electronic configuration of elements with atomic number 1-10

 Element Atomic number Electronic configuration Hydrogen 1 1 Helium 2 2 Lithium 3 2, 1 Beryllium 4 2, 2 Boron 5 2, 3 Carbon 6 2, 4 Nitrogen 7 2, 5 Oxygen 8 2, 6 Fluorine 9 2, 7 Neon 10 2, 8

The atom of the elements of these group show the periodically in electron filling they contain 1 -8 electron in their outermost shell. The elements of these groups are called representative elements.

Noble Gases

Kerala Syllabus 9th Standard Notes Chemistry Question 17.
List the elements in group 18
Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon, Radon

9 Class Chemistry Chapter 4 Kerala Syllabus Question 18.
Now try to write their electronic configuration
2He – 2
10Ne – 2, 8
18Ar – 2, 8, 8
36Kr – 2, 8, 18, 8
54Xe – 2, 8, 18, 18, 8
86Rn – 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8

Question 19.
How many electrons are there in the outermost shell of each element?
8

Question 20.
The elements do not normally take part in chemical reactions. Find the reason?
They have a stable configuration in the outermost shell.

Transition Elements

Question 21.
Which group of elements belong to transition elements?
Elements of group 3-12 in the periodic table are transition elements.

Question 22.
Find out whether elements familiar to you are present in these groups?
Copper, silver, gold, iron

Question 23.
Aren’t transition elements metals?
Yes

Question 24.
What are the characteristics of transition elements?
1. They from coloured compound,
2. They show similarity in properties as well as in a period.
3. In compounds, they exhibit different oxidation state
eg. Fe2+ and Fe3+

Lanthanides and Actinoids

Question 25.
Which element is next to lanthanum with atomic number 57 of group 6 in the periodic table?
Cerium with atomic No. 58

Question 26.
Find out the position allotted to the elements with atomic number 58-71?
Separate position at the bottom of the periodic table.

Question 27.
Is the same way aren’t the elements with atomic number 90 to 103 of period 7 give separate positions at the bottom of the periodic table?
Yes. These elements are called inner transition elements.

Question 28.
What is meant by inner transition elements?
Inner transition elements from Cerium [Ce] to Lutecium [Lu] of period 6 are called lanthanides. Inner transition elements from Thorium (Th] to Lewrencium [Lr] of period 7 are called actinoids. Lanthanoids are also called rare earth. Actinoids are man-made artificial elements (except thorium and uranium).

Periodic trends in the periodic table

Question 29.
Electronic configuration of group I elements of the periodic table are given

 Element Atomic number Electron configuration Group Period H 1 1 1 1 Li 3 2, 1 1 2 Na 11 2, 8, 1 1 3 K 19 2, 8, 8, 1 1 4 Rb 37 2, 8, 18, 8, 1 1 5 Cs 55 2, 8, 18, 18, 8, 1 1 6 Fr 87 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1 1 7

Question 30.
What is the peculiarity seen in the electronic configuration of the outer most shell of these elements?
All these elements we can see one electron in the outermost shell.
Hence elements of group I exhibit similarity in chemical properties.

Question 31.
Which are the electrons shows the chemical properties of elements?
Outermost electrons.

Question 32.
Is there any relationship between the group number and the number of electrons present in the outermost shell? What is it?
Same, group number equal tot he number of election in the outermost shell for the elements in groups 1 and 2.

Question 33.
Observe figure the electronic configuration of the second-period elements of the group from 13-18 given below.

(i) Won’t we get the group number of these elements by adding 10 to the number of elements by adding 10 to the number of electrons in the outermost shell?
Yes

(ii) Analyze table 3.1 and find whether there is any relation between the number of shells in an atom and the number of periods?
Number of shells in an atom and the period number is same.

Size of an Atom in Group

Question 34.
Are you familiar with the Bohr model of an atom? See the Bohr model of atoms of certain elements, in group I.

(i) Which among them is the biggest?
Potassium (K)

(ii) Which one is the smallest?
Hydrogen [H]

(iii) What happens to the size of an atom when we move down the group?
Increases

(iv) What is the reason for this?
Number of shells increases.
As we move from top to bottom of a group in the periodic table the size of the atom increases as there is an increase in the number of shells.

Atomic Size in Period

See (Fig 3.3) the representation of Bohr model of elements with atomic numbers 3 to 9 in the second period of the periodic table.

Question 35.
Is there are in the number of shells with the increase in atomic number?
No.

Question 36.
What happens to the nuclear charge with increase in atomic number?
On moving from left to right in a period, as nuclear charge increases, the force of attraction on the outer-most electrons increases and consequently the size of atom decreases.

Ionisation Energy

Question 37.
You have understood how sodium chloride is formed by combining sodium and chlorine atoms. The Bohr model of sodium and chlorine are given below

(i) Which among these atoms lose electrons?
Sodium atom

(ii) Which one gains electrons
Chlorine atom

Question 38.
How the ions are formed?
Atom becomes charged when there is transfer of electrons [Lose or gain electrons] they are called ions.

Question 39.
Define ionization energy?
The amount of energy required to liberate the most loosely bound electrons from the outermost shell of an isolated gaseous atom of an element is called ionization energy.

Question 40.
What are the factors affecting the ionization energy? Nuclear charge
Size of the atom

Question 41.
When the size of an atom increases, does the attraction of the nucleus on the outermost electron increase or decrease?
Decrease

Question 42.
Then what is the change in ionization energy?
As the size of atom increases ionization energy decreases.

Question 43.
Can you find out how ionization energy changes as we move from top to bottom in a group?
Ionization energy decreases.

Question 44.
What is the general trend in the variation of ionization energy on moving across a period from left to right?
Ionization energy increases

Question 45.
Find how ionization energy changes with increase in nuclear charge?
On moving from left to right in a period, as nuclear charge increases, the size of the atom decrease hence ionization energy increase.

Question 46.
Define electronegativity?
In the case of two atoms joined by a covalent bond, electronegativity is the ability of each atom to attract the bonded electrons.

Question 47.
How size of an atom influence the electronegativity?
As the size of an atom increases the distance between the nucleus and the outermost electron increases, hence the electronegativity decreases. As we move in the same period form left to right size of atom decrease hence electronegativity increases.

Question 48.
What is the basis for the chemical properties of metals and non-metals?
Metals are the elements which give away the electrons and those that accept electrons are generally non-metals. Metals are electropositive elements because they lose electrons to form positive ions. Non-metals are called electronegative elements because they gain electrons in chemical reactions to form negative ions.

Question 49.
What is relationship between metallic character and the size of an atom?
As the size of the atom increases metallic character also increases.

Question 50.
How do the metallic character and nonmetallic character vary while moving from left to right in a period? Arriving at a conclusion by assessing the size of atom?
In the periodic table, while moving from to top to bottom in groups metallic character generally in-creases while non-metallic character decreases.
In a period as we move form left to right metallic character generally decreases while non-metallic character increases.

Question 51.
Don’t you think that there is a relationship between ionization energy and metallic -non-metallic character? Is the element with highest ionization energy metallic or non-metallic?
Non-metallic

Question 52.
Then what about those having the low ionization energy?
Metals

Question 53.
Isn’t there a relationship between electronegativity and metallic, non-metallic character? Explain the relationship?
Non-metals are more electronegative.

Metalloids

Question 54.
Explain metalloids?
Elements exhibiting the properties of both metal as well as nonmetal are called metalloids, eg. Silicon [Si], germanium [Ge] Arsenic [As], Antimony [Sb] and Tellurium [Te] belongs to this category.

Question 55.
You must understand certain periodic trends in the periodic table? Based on these (✓)the correct option given below in table 3.7.

 Trends In a group from  top to bottom In period from  left to right Size of atom ✓ Increases/  decreases Increases/  decreases ✓ Metallic character ✓ Increases/ decreases Increases/ decreases ✓ Non-metallic character Increases/ decreases ✓ ✓ Increases/ decreases Ionization energy Increases/ decreases ✓ ✓ Increases decreases Electronegativity Increases/ decreases ✓ ✓ Increases/ decreases

Let Us Assess

Question 1.
The table given below lists the contributions and names of scientists who made earlier attempts in the classification of elements. Fill in the blanks.

 Contribution/Findings Name of Scientist Triads Dobereiner Law of octaves Newlands Classification of elements into metals and non-metals Antonie Lavoisier Modern periodic law Henry Moseley

Question 2.
Complete the table

 Element Atomic number Electronic  configuration Group  number Period  number Lithium 3 2,1 1 2 Oxygen 8 2J3 16 2 Argon 18 2,8,8 18 3 Calcium 20 2,8,8,2 2 4

Question 3.
Symbols of certain elements are given. Write their electronic configuration and find the period and group in which they are included.

a) $$_{6}^{12} C$$
Electronic configuration 2, 4
Period – 2
Group – 14
b) $$_{12}^{24} \mathrm{Mg}$$
Electronic configuration 2,8,2
Period-3
Group – 2
c) $$_{17}^{35} \mathrm{Cl}$$
Electronic configuration 2,8,3
Period – 3
Group – 17
d) $$_{13}^{27} \mathrm{Al}$$
Electronic configuration 2,8,3
Period – 3
Group – 13
e) $$\begin{array}{l}{20} \\ {10}\end{array} \mathrm{Ne}$$
Electronic configuration 2,8
Period – 2
Group -18

Question 4.
There are three shells in the atom of element ‘X’, 6 electrons are present in its outermost shell.
a) Write the electronic configuration of the element.
b) What is its atomic number?
c) In which period does this element belong?
d) In which group is this element included?
e) Write the name and symbol of this element.
f) To which family of element does is this element belong to?
g) Draw and illustrate the Bohr atom model of this element.
a) 2, 8, 6
b) 16
c) 3
d) 16
e) Sulphur, ‘S’
f) Oxygen family

Question 5.
Electronic configurations of elements P, Q, R, and S are given below. (These are not actual symbols).
P – 2, 2
Q -2, 8, 2
R – 2, 8, 5
S – 2, 8
a) Which among these elements are included in the same period?
b) Which are those included in the same group?
c) Which among them is a noble gas?
d) To which group and period does the element R belong?
a) P and S, Q and R – belongs to same period
b) P and Q, belongs to same group
c) S
d) R belongs to 3rd period and 15th group

Question 6.
An incomplete form of the periodic table is given below. Write answers to the questions connecting the position of elements in it.

a) Which is the element with the biggest atom in group 1?
b) Which is the element having very lowest ionization energy in group 1?
c) Which element has the smallest atom in period 2?
d) Which among them are transition elements?
e) Which of the elements L and M has the lowest electronegativity?
f) Among B and I which has higher metallic character?
g) Which among these are included in the halogen family?
h) Which is the element that resembles E the most in its properties?
a) D
b) D
c) M
d) G, H
e) L
f) B
g) M, N
h) F

### Periodic Table Model Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Symbols of certain elements are given write down the electronic configuration and find the period and group in which they are included.

a) $$\begin{array}{l}{23} \\ {11}\end{array} \mathrm{Na}$$
Electron configuration 2, 8, 1
Period – 3
Group – 1
b) $$_{17}^{35} \mathrm{Cl}$$
Electron configuration -2, 8, 7
Period – 3
Group-17
c) $$_{9}^{19} \mathrm{F}$$
Electron configuration -2, 7
Period – 3
Group – 17

Question 2.
A, B, C, D are four elements. The electronic configuration is given below and find the answers in the following (Hint. The symbols are not real)
A – 2, 2
B – 2, 8, 5
C – 2, 7
D – 2, 8, 2
a) Find the elements belongs to same period?
b) Find the elements belongs to same group.
c) ‘C’ belongs to which period and group?
a) B, D, and A, C because the number of shells are same.
b) A, D because the number of electrons in the outermost shell is same.
c) ‘C’ belongs to second period and 17th group

Question 3.
Table given below lists the contributions and names of scientists who made earlier attempts in the classification of elements. Make them in the correct order.

 Contribution/Findings Name of scientist Octet Rule John Dalton Triads New Lands Modern periodic table Lavoisier Classify into metals Henry Moseley Non-metals Atomic theory Dobereiner

 Contribution/Findings Name of Scientist Triads Dobereiner Law of octaves Newlands Classification of elements into metals and non-metals Antonie Lavoisier Modern periodic law Henry Moseley

Question 4.
An incomplete form of the periodic table is given below.
write answers in the question connecting the position of elements in it.

1. Which element has the largest atomic size in group I?
2. Write the transition elements?
3. Which element has the lowest ionization energy in the 2nd period?
4. Which element belongs to Noble gas elements?
5. Compare L, M which element has the lowest electronegativity?
6. Write the element belongs to Halogen family?