Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Guide Chapter 4 Keeping Diseases Away
Biology Class 10 Kerala Syllabus Chapter 4 Question 1.
What threatended the state again, soon after the great floods?
The spread of contagious diseases threatended the state soon after the flood. Increase in number of rats may lead to spreading of rat fever. There is a shortage of drinking water in the flood affected areas of the state. The mental health of children in flood affected areas also is in threat.
What are the reasons for the proliferation of diseases?
Lack of hygiene, Dirty surroundings, Environmental pollution, Stagnant water, Organic wastes, Poor sanitation, etc. lead to the proliferation of diseases.
What are the pathogenic microorganisms.?
Bacteria, Fungus, Virus, Protozoa
How are pathogens transmitted from one person to another?
Pathogens are transmitted from one person to another by contact, through contaminated food and water, cough, sneezing, unsterilized equipments, vectors and cloth.
What can we do to avoid the proliferation of diseases?
|Lack of hygiene||Awareness about hygiene|
|Dirty surroundings||Continuous cleaning activities|
|Environmental pollution||Continuous cleaning activities|
|Stagnant water||Provide situations for flowing of water|
|Organic wastes||Organic waste disposal|
|Poor sanitation||Common urinal and toilets|
Prepare a short note on bacteria.
Bacteria is a prokaryote. They enter the body and multiply through binary fission. The toxins produced by them destroy cells and cause disease.
Prepare a short note on rat fever.
Leptospira is the bacteria that causes rat fever. The bacteria that comes out through the urine of rat, dog and certain other animals remain alive in stagnant water and moisture. When bacteria reach blood through wounds, they affect body cells and produce certain toxins.
They cause damage to blood capillaries which in turn leads to internal bleeding. Severe fever, headache, muscle pain, redness in eyes, etc. are the major symptoms. Rat fever can be completely cured through early diagnosis and treatment. The realization that immunization is better than treatment is very important to stop the spread of disease.
What are the precautions taken after flood?
The Department of Health has given numerous instructions to avoid health issues that may arise after overcoming the emergency situations. Drinking boiled water and water purified using enough quantity of chlorine prevents water borne diseases. As there is a chance for the multiplication of mosquitoes in stagnant water, proper measures to check increase in mosquitoes should be adopted.
For controlling diseases like rat fever, eliminate the vectors and take preventive medicines as per the directions of experts. Disease affected persons must undergo diagnostic tests to confirm their illness and should take proper medicines. People living in unsafe places must shift to safe places as per instructions. Ensure personal hygiene and environmental hygiene at the rehabilitation centres and create an atmosphere to protect health.
Name the pathogen of Diphtheria.
Diphtheria spreads through cough, sneezing or directly from the infected person to another person. Diphtheria affects the mucus membrane of the nose and the throat. Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the pathogen.
Class 10 Biology Chapter 4 Kerala Syllabus Question 10.
What are the symptoms of Diphtheria?
Diphtheria affects the mucus membrane of the nose and the throat. Toxins produced by the Corynebacterium diphtheriae cause fever, throat pain and inflammation in the lymph glands of the throat. Cells in the mucus membrane which are destroyed by the toxins produce an ash coloured thick coating in the throat within two or three days. Gradually brain, heart and kidneys are affected.
Explain the treatment of Diphtheria.
Antitoxins which act against the toxins are used to protect the uninfected cells. But, if the disease becomes severe the patient cannot be recovered through medication. So vaccination is the best preventive method.
Which is the causative agent of tuberculosis?
Tuberculosis is an air borne disease that affects the lungs. Tuberculosis is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Which are the symptoms of tuberculosis?
This disease can affect us at any age. Loss of body weight, fatigue and persistent cough are the major symptoms.
How does tuberculosis spread?
When the patient speaks, coughs or sneezes, the pathogens spread to air providing a chance to reach other people.
Which parts of the body can be affected by tuberculosis?
Tuberculosis mainly affects the lungs-. Kidneys, bones, joints, brain, etc., are also affected by this disease.
Name the vaccine against tuberculosis.
BCG is used as preventive vaccine against tuberculosis
Prepare a short note on virus.
Virus has the simple structure with a DNA or RNA molecule within a protein coat. Virus has no cell organelles as seen in normal cells. Hence virus multiplies by taking control over the genetic mechanism of the host cells. Viruses infect not only human beings but also plants, other animals and even bacteria.
Which is the natural vector of Nipah virus?
Fruit eating bats act as the Nipah virus vectors.
What are the situations that enable the Nipah virus to enter humans?
Fruit eating bats act as the Nipah virus vectors. ’ From the saliva and urine of fruit eating bats that are seen in the remains of fruits eaten by bats, Nipah virus enters humans and pigs. From pigs also Nipah virus enters humans.
AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome) is a dreadful disease that has gripped the world by fear. Lymphocytes play a major role in providing immunity to the body. HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) enters the body and multiplies using the genetic mechanism of lymphocytes. Hence the number of lymphocytes decreases considerably and reduces the immunity of the body. Various other pathogens which enter the body in such a situation make the condition of AIDS even more fatal.
Class 10 Biology Keeping Diseases Away Question 21.
What are the ways by which HIV spreads?
How AIDS does not spread?
- By touch, shaking hands, coughing, sneezing, etc.
- Through insects like mosquitoes, houseflies, etc.
- By staying together and sharing food
- By using same toilets
- By taking bath in the same pond.
What is the reason for hepatitis?
Hepatitis is a liver disease. Hepatitis is also caused by virus.
What are the symptoms of hepatitis?
Inflammation of the liver is its major symptom. When the flow of bile secreted by the liver is blocked, an increase in the level of bile pigment called bilirubin in blood is noticed. This imparts dark yellow colour to the mucus membrane, white portion of the eyes and the nails. This is the external symptom of the disease.
How hepatitis get transmitted?
Disease gets transmitted through contaminated food and water, blood components and excreta of the patient. Certain hepatitis do get transmitted in the same way as the transmission of HTV.
What are the preventive measures taken against the transmission of dengue fever and chikungunya?
Dengue fever and Chikungunya that are common in Kerala are also viral diseases. These diseases are transmitted through mosquitoes. Contaminated surroundings promote the multiplication of pathogens. The increase in the number of vectors like mosquitoes leads to the spread of communicable diseases much beyond control. Observing dry day, prevent the stagnation of water, etc. can be taken to prevent the multiplication of mosquitoes. It is our duty to keep our surroundings clean.
Explain about fungus.
Fungi are of various types. Some fungi are pathogenic. The toxins produced by the fungi cause diseases.
Prepare a table containing diseases caused by fungus, symptoms and mode of transmission.
|Diseases caused by fungus||Mode of transmission||Symptoms|
|Ringworm||Spreads through contact.||Manifests as round, red blisters on the skin|
|Athletes’ foot||Pathogens enter through the toes when they come in contact with contaminated water, and soil.||Manifests on the sole of the foot and between the toes. Appearance of reddish scaly rashes that cause itching|
Write about malaria.
Malaria is caused by the protozoan, plasmodium. High fever with shivering and profuse sweating are the major symptoms of malaria. Other symptoms include headache, vomiting, diarrhoea, anaemia. The vector is female Anopheles mosquito.
Write about diseases in which worms as pathogens.
Filariasis is caused by filarial worms that are spread by culex mosquitoes. The worms stay in the lymph ducts and obstruct the flow of lymph by blocking the ducts. This causes swelling in the lymph ducts in the legs.
What are the preventive measures to be taken against communicable diseases?
Contaminated surroundings promote the multiplication of pathogen’s. The increase in the number of vectors like mosquitoes leads to the spread of communicable diseases much beyond control. In order to control the spread of communicable diseases, it is necessary to avoid situations that lead to the multiplication of pathogens and vectors. It is our duty to keep our surroundings clean.
What are non-pathogenic diseases?
- Deficiency of nutrients – Marasmus, Kwashiorkor, Rickets
- Lifestyle diseases – Diabetes, Heart attack, Hypertension
- Occupational diseases – Silicosis, Asbestosis
- Genetic diseases – Haemophilia, Sickle cell anaemia.
Why do haemophilia patients lose blood excessively, even through minor wounds?
Blood clots with the help of some proteins present in blood plasma. The synthesis of proteins fails when the genes that control protein synthesis become defective. Hence excess blood is lost even through minor wounds.
What is the treatment of haemophilia?
As haemophilia is a genetic disease, a complete cure is not possible at present. Temporary relief is brought in by injecting the deficient protein identified through clinical diagnosis.
Explain the reason for sickle cell anaemia.
The defects of genes may also cause deformities in the sequencing of amino acids which are the building blocks of haemoglobin. As a result of this, the structure of haemoglobin changes and this in turn decreases its oxygen carrying capacity.
How does the deformity of red blood cells in sickle cell anaemia patients affect their body?
The defects of genes may also cause deformities in the sequencing of amino acids which are the
building blocks of haemoglobin. As a result of this, the structure of haemoglobin changes and this in turn
decreases its oxygen carrying capacity. The oxygen carrying capacity of red blood cells decreases. The
sickle shaped RBCs get collected in the blood vessels and block the flow of blood in them
Cancer is caused by the uncontrolled division of cells spreading to other tissues. The normal cells get transformed into cancerous cells when the control system of cell division fails.
How cancer becomes complicated?
Various reasons such as environmental factors, smoking, radiations, virus, hereditary factors, and alterations in genetic material lead to the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells. The disease may become complicated with the spread of cancer cells to other parts of the body through blood and lymph.
How is cancer treated?
Currently surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, etc., are used in the treatment of cancer. It is difficult for the patients to recover if the disease becomes severe. Hence, early diagnosis of the disease is crucial in the treatment of cancer.
Biology Class 10 Kerala Syllabus Chapter 4 Question 40.
What are lifestyle diseases? Write the reasons also.
Lifestyle diseases are caused by unhealthy living style. The changes in food habits, lack of physical exercise, stress, bad habits like consumption of alcohol, drug abuse, smoking, etc., lead to various lifestyle diseases.
- Diabetes – deficiency of insulin or its malfunctioning
- Fatty Liver – deposition of excess fat in the liver
- Stroke- rupture’ of blood vessels in brain, block of blood flow
- Hypertension – decrease in diameter of arteries due to deposition of fat
- Heart attack – block of blood flow due to deposition of fat in coronary arteries, which carry blood to heart
How does smoking affect heart, lungs, and brain?
Brain – Stroke, addiction to nicotine.
Lungs – Lung cancer, emphysema, bronchitis Heart – Hypertension, loss of elasticity of arteries, decrease in functional efficiency
Prepare a poster to make people aware of drug abuse.
Find out diseases which are affected by domestic animals and complete the table.
|Anthrax||Bacteria||Oozing of blood from nose and mouth
Foam and froth from mouth
Sudden occurrence of fever
|Foot and mouth diseases||Virus||Severe fever
Boils in the mouth and between claws, which burst open .
Loss of appetite
|Swelling of udder||Bacteria||Swelling of udder
Low yield of milk
Infection in the udder
Inflammation of nipple
|Pullorum Poultry disease||Bacteria||Loose and white coloured excreta
Block in breathing
Prepare an illustration related to plant diseases.
• Brown spots on leaves
• Leaves dry up
• Leaves shrink and become chaff
• Reduced yield
Let Us Assess
Which among the following is not a bacterial disease? ,
“Food safety will be adversely affected with the spread of plant diseases. ”
a. Do you agree with this statement? Why?
b. Give two examples of plant diseases.
a. I agree with this statement. Food safety can be ensured by the availability of food materials. Spread of plant diseases adversely affect the production of food materials.
b. Bunchy top of banana, Blight disease of paddy.
Prepare a pamphlet including the major measures to be taken to prevent rat fever.
Leptospira is the bacteria that causes rat fever. The bacteria that comes out through the urine of rat, dog and certain other animals remain alive in stagnant water and moisture. Prevention of stagnation of water, avoid food which contains the urine of rat, keep the surroundings clean, engage in destroying rats, etc. help to prevent rat fever.
What is the importance of vaccination in preventing diphtheria?
Antitoxins which act against the toxins are used to protect the uninfected cells. But, if the disease becomes severe, the patient cannot be recovered through medication. So vaccination is the best preventive method.
What health habits should be adopted to prevent lifestyle diseases?
Lifestyle diseases are caused by unhealthy living styles. The changes in food habits, lack of physical exercise, mental stress, bad habits like consumption of alcohol, drug abuse, smoking, etc. lead to various lifestyle diseases. Avoiding junk foods and fast food, regular exercise, avoid the consumption of alcohol and drugs, avoid smoking, decreasing stress, etc. should be adopted to prevent lifestyle diseases