Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Biology Guide Chapter 7 Genetics for the Future
How are insulin-producing bacteria created?
Cut the gene responsible for the production of insulin in humans. Cut bacterial DNA (plasmid), then join the gene responsible for the production of insulin in humans in bacterial DNA. Insert this DNA in the bacterial cell. Thus insulin producing bacteria are created.
What is the change that occurred in the genetic constitution of the bacteria that produce insulin?
Cut the gene responsible for the production of insulin in humans. Cut bacterial DNA (plasmid). Then join the gene responsible for the production of insulin in humans in bacterial DNA. The genetic constitution of the bacteria get changed.
Will the future generation of this bacteria have the ability to produce insulin? Why?
Provide a favourable medium for the multiplication of bacteria that has the change in genetic constitution. Bacteria produce inactive form of insulin. From inactive insulin active insulin is produced. Thus the future generation of bacteria show the ability to produce insulin.
What are traditional methods of biotechnology?
From BC 4000 onwards organisms like yeast, a kind of fungus, were used to prepare food items like bread. The ability of fungi and bacteria to convert sugar into alcohol was utilised to make wine, appam and cake. These can be considered as traditional methods of biotechnology.
What is biotechnology?
The use of microorganisms and biological processes for industrial purpose is called Biotechnology.
What is genetic engineering?
Genetic engineering is the technology of controlling traits of organisms by bringing about desirable changes in the genetic constitution of organisms.
What is the basis of genetic engineering?
The basis of genetic engineering is the discovery of the fact that genes can be cut and joined.
Explain molecular scissors and molecular glue.
The enzyme which is used for cutting genes are called molecular scissors. Restriction endonuclease is an example. The enzyme which is used for joining genes are called molecular glue. Ligase is an example of ‘ genetic glue ’.
How do new genes become a part of the genetic constitution of target cells?
Suitable vectors are used to transfer genes from one cell to another. Bacterial DNA is generally used as vectors. DNA with ligated genes enter the target cell. Thus new genes become a part of the genetic constitution of target cells.
What are the scope of genetic engineering?
Gene therapy, Genetically modified animals and
crops, Forensic test are the major scopes of genetic engineering.
Why is gene therapy essential?
Genetic engineering has made a great leap in the treatment of genetic diseases. Gene therapy is a method of treatment in which the genes that are responsible for diseases are removed and normal functional genes are inserted in their place. This has triggered great hope in the control of genetic diseases.
What is the relevance of the human genome project?
Even though science has progressed a lot, we couldn’t control genetic diseases. The reason for this is that we could not identify the exact gene and its location which is responsible for each trait. In 1990, the Human Genome Project was started as an attempt to solve the issue.
As a result of experiments conducted in various laboratories of the world until 2003, the secrets of human genome were revealed. With this, we can identify the location of a gene in the DNA, responsible for a particular trait.
What is the benefit of gene mapping?
The technology known as gene mapping helped to identify the location of a gene in the DNA responsible for a particular trait. Gene mapping leads to gene therapy.
Explain the term genome, junk genes.
The sum of genetic material present in an organism is called its genome. In human DNA, majority of genes, except the genes that code for protein are non-functional. They are called junk genes.
What are the major findings of human genome project?
- Human genome has about 24000 functional genes.
- Major share of human DNA includes junk genes.
- There is only 0.2 per cent difference in DNA among humans.
- About 200 genes in human genome are identical to those in bacteria.
Prepare a short note on the proteins that can be used for the treatment of diseases in humans are produced through genetic engineering?
Interferons is the protein required for treatment of viral diseases, Insulin is used for the treatment of diabetes, Endorphin is a protein required for treatment of the symptom pain, Somatotropin is a protein required for treatment growth disorders.
How genetic modification is possible?
Genetic engineering has progressed a lot more from biotechnology. Today, genetic modification in organisms can be implemented more effectively. This is made possible through the insertion of gene that code for desirable characters into the genetic constitution of an organism.
Write a short note on pharm animals.
One of the future promises of genetic engineering is pharm animals: Genes responsible for the production of insulin and growth hormones required for humans are inserted into animals like cow, pig etc, transforming them into pharm animals. There are certain limitations in producing insulin using bacteria. The most important hurdle in this field is the culturing of bacteria. Researches in this field show that instead of this, medicines can be extracted from the blood or milk of, genetically modified animals.
Prepare a short note on the genetic modification in plants?
Genetic modification is implemented not only in animals but in plants also. Today, insect-resistant plants like Bt brinjal, soybean, cotton, maize etc are common.
What are the things should be ensured while genetic modification carried out?
When genetic modification is carried out in organisms, it should be ensured that there are no harmful consequences to humans or nature.
Explain DNA profiling.
The technology of testing the arrangement of nucleotides is DNA profiling. Like the difference in the fingerprint of each person, the arrangement of nucleotides in each person also differs. Hence this technology is also called DNA fingerprinting.
What is the basis of DNA testing?
The arrangement of nucleotides in the DNA of each person differs. This finding is the basis of DNA testing.
How are relations identified through DNA testing?
The arrangement of nucleotides among close relatives have many similarities. So DNA fingerprinting is helpful to find out hereditary characteristics.
What is the scope of DNA testing?
Certain experiments conducted by the scientist Alec Jeffrey in 1984 paved the way for DNA testing. DNA fingerprinting is helpful to find out hereditary characteristics, to identify real parents in cases of parental dispute and to identify persons found out after long periods of missing due to natural calamities or wars.
DNA of the skin, hair, nail, blood and other body fluids obtained from the place of murder, robbery, etc., is compared with the DNA of suspected persons. Thus, the real culprit can be identified from among the suspected persons through this method.
Prepare a short note on the misuse and side effects of genetic engineering.
Genetic modification – Genetic modification is an intrusion upon the freedom of living beings and it is a violation of rights. It is criticized that genetically modified varieties cause haim to indigenous varieties and may cause health issues to humans.
Bio-weapons – Application of genetically modified pathogens and its multiplication through biotechnology’ upon enemies ‘is called Bioware. This becomes a threat to the existence of human beings.
Let Us Assess
Which of the following is not a part of modern genetic engineering?
a. DNA profiling
b. Gene mapping
c. DNA fingerprinting
d. X-ray diffraction
d. X-ray diffraction
Gene therapy 1c an example of the benefits of science for human existence.
a. What is gene therapy?
b. What was the discovery that led to gene therapy?
c. How does gene therapy become useful to human beings?
a. The sum of genetic material present in an organism is called its genome. We can cure genetic diseases by removing disease-causing genes from the genome and inserting normal functional genes. This method of treatment is called gene therapy.
b. The technology known as gene mapping helped to identify the location of a gene in the DNA responsible for a particular trait. Gene mapping leads to gene therapy.
c. We can cure genetic diseases by removing disease-causing genes from the genome and inserting normal functional genes.
Since genetic engineering has many harmful effects, it can t be promoted’. Do you agree with this statement? Why?
I do not agree with this statement. We must use science and technology as a means to overcome the challenges faced by human beings. Science and technology are the products of human thought. We can justify this only if they are utilized for human benefit.