Plus One Computer Science Notes Chapter 12 Internet and Mobile Computing

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Kerala Plus One Computer Science Notes Chapter 12 Internet and Mobile Computing

History of Internet:
Internet means international network of networks. The first form of Internet is ARPANET(Advanced Research Project Agency Network) started by US Department of Defence for their military during 1970’s. In 1989 a team lead by Tim Berners Lee introduced WWW(World Wide Web) by using the protocol HTTP. In 1998, Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) was established.

It is a network of networks. It means that international network. We can transfer information between computers within nations very cheaply and speedily.

A private network inside a company or organisation is called intranet.

It allows vendors and business partners to access the company resources.

Plus One Computer Science Notes Chapter 12 Internet and Mobile Computing

The hardware and software requirement for internet:

  • A computer with a modem (internal/external)
  • A telephone connection
  • An account with an ISP
  • A browser S/W eg: Internet Explorer or Mozilla…

Types of connectivity:
There are two ways to connect to the internet. First one dialing to an ISP’s computer or with a direct connection to an ISP.

Dial-up Connection:
Here the internet connection is established by dialing into an ISP’s computer. If ISP is not busy they verify the user name and password if it is valid they will connect our computer to the uses Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) or Point to Point Protocol (PPP). It is slower and has a higher error rate.

Direct connection:
In direct connection there is a fixed cable or dedicated phone line to the ISP. Here it uses ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) a high speed version of a standard phone line. Another method is leased lines that uses fibre optic cables.

Digital Subscribers Line (DSL) is another direct connection, this uses copper wires instead of fibre optic for data transfer. Direct connection provides high speed internet connection and error rate is less. Fibre To The Home(FTTH) uses optical fibers for data transmission.

Wireless broadband connectivity:
1. Mobile broadband:
Accessing Internet using wireless devices like mobile phones, tablet, USB dongles.

2. Wi MAX(Wireless Microwave Access):
It uses micro waves to transmit information across a network in a range 2 GHz to 11 GHz over very long distance.

3. Satellite broadband:
Accessing internet through satellite. A Very Small Aperture Terminal(VSAT) dish antenna and transceiver and modem are required at the user’s location. Expensive and high speed.

Internet access sharing methods:
One Internet connection can be shared among several computers using a LAN, Wi Fi or Li Fi.
1. Using LAN:
The Internet connection in a LAN can be shared among other computers in the network

2. Using Wi Fi(Wireless Fidelity):
It uses radio waves to transmit information across a network in a range 2.4 GHz to 5 GHz in short distance. Nowadays this technology is used to access internet in campuses, hyper markets, hotels by using Laptops, Desktops, tablet, mobile phones etc

3. Using Li Fi(Light Fidelity) network:
It is a fast optical(uses visible light for data transmission) version of Wi Fi. Its main component is a LED lamp that can transmit data and a photodiode that acts as a receiver.

Plus One Computer Science Notes Chapter 12 Internet and Mobile Computing

Services on Internet:
1. www(World Wide Web):
This means this website address is unique and can be accessed each nook and corner of the world.

2. A browser is a piece of software that acts as an interface between the user and the internal working of the internet. With the help of a browser the user can search information on the internet and it allows user to navigate through the web pages. The different browsers are

  • Microsoft internet explorer
  • Mozilla Firefox
  • Netscape Navigator
  • Google Chrome
  • Opera.

3. Web Browsing:

  1. The browser determines the URL entered.
  2. The browser asks the DNS for URLS corresponding IP address (Numeric address)
  3. The DNS returns the address to the browser.
  4. The browser makes a TCP connection using the IP address.
  5. Then it sends a GET request for the required file to the server.
  6. The server collects the file and send it back to the browser.
  7. The TCP connection is released.
  8. The text and the images in the web pages are displayed in the browser.

Search engines:
By using search engines we will get a variety of information. It is a newly developed tool that helped to search the information on the internet more effectively and easily. Search engines are programs that help people to locate information from crores of website on internet using a database that consists of references.

Users can interact with the search engine through the home page of the search engine. To get the information about artificial intelligence just type this in the box provided for it and click the search button. Search engines searches by using a particular search algorithm then displays the matching documents or web addresses.

Search engine use soft wares called spiders or bots to search documents and their web addresses. Spiders search the internet using the directions given by the search engines and prepare an index and stores it in a database. The searching algorithm searched this database when the users submits a request and create a web page displaying the matching results as hyperlinks.
eg: Google, Yahoo, Rediff etc.

E mail(Electronic mail):
It is used to send text, multi media messages between computers over internet. An example of an email id is Here jobi_cg is the user name, rediffmail is the website address and .com is the top level domain which identifies the types of the organisation. To send an email we require an email address. Some websites provide free email facility.

To send an email first type the recipients address and type the message then click the send button. The website’s server first check the email address is valid, if it is valid it will be sent otherwise the message will not be sent and the sender will get an email that it could not deliver the message.

This message will be received by the recipient’s server and will be delivered to recipient’s mail box. He can read it and it will remain in his mail box as long as he will be deleted. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol(SMTP) is used.
The email message contains the following fields:

  1. To: Recipient’s address will be enter here. Multiple recipients are also allowed by using coma.
  2. CC: Enterthe address of other recipients to get a carbon copy of the message.
  3. bcc: The address to whom blind carbon copies are to be sent. This feature allows people to send copies to third recipient without the knowledge of primary and secondary recipients
  4. From: Address of the sender
  5. Reply to: The emait address to which replies are to be sent.
  6. Subject: Short summary of the message.
  7. Body: Here the actual message is to be typed.

The advantages of email are given below:

  1. Speed is high
  2. It is cheap
  3. We can send email to multiple recipients
  4. Incoming messages can be saved locally
  5. It reduces the usage of paper
  6. We can access mail box anytime and from anywhere.

The disadvantages are:

1. It requires a computer, a modem, software and internet connection to check mail.
2. Some mails may contain viruses
3. Mail boxes are filled with junk mail. So very difficult to find the relevant mail.

Plus One Computer Science Notes Chapter 12 Internet and Mobile Computing

Social media:
Various social medias are Internet forums, social blogs, microblogs etc.

  1. Internet forums: It is an online discussion site where people can exchange information about various issues like social, political, educational etc in the text form.
  2. Social blogs: Conducting discussions about . particular subjects by entries or posts. eg:
  3. Microblogs: It allows users to exchange short messages, multi media files etc. eg:
  4. Wikis: In this we can give our contributions regarding various topics. eg:
  5. Social networks: By using these web sites we can post our data and’ view others data. eg:
  6. Content communities: By using these websites we can share multi media files. eg:

Advantages of social media:

  1. Bring people together: It allows people to maintain the friendship
  2. Plan and organize events: It allows users to plan and organize events.
  3. Business promotion: It helps the firms to promote their sales.
  4. Social skills: There is a key role of the formation of society.


  1. Intrusion to privacy: Some people may misuse the personal information.
  2. Addiction: sometimes it may waste time and money.
  3. Spread rumours: The news will spread very quickly and negatively.

Cyber Security:
It is used to provide protection of valuable information such as credit card information from unauthorized access, intentional access, deletion, etc. while shopping on the internet.

Computer virus:
A virus is a bad program or harmful program to damage routine working of a computer system. It reduces the speed of a computer. It may delete the useful system files and make the computer useless.

It is a stand alone malware program that replicates itself in order to spread to other computers. It slows down the traffic by consuming the bandwidth. In 2000 a worm called “ILOVEYOU” is affected many computers.

Trojan horse:
It appears as a useful software but it is a harmful software and it will delete useful software or files.

Sending an email without recipient’s consent to promote a product or service is called spamming. Such an email is called a spam.

It is a process of trespassing computer networks. Two types white hats and black hats. White hats hack the computer networks to test the security but black hats intentionally stealing valuable data or destroying data.

Plus One Computer Science Notes Chapter 12 Internet and Mobile Computing

Phishing (Fishing):
It is an attempt to get others information such as usenames, passwords, bank a/c details etc by acting as the authorized website. Phishing websites have URLs and home pages similar to their original ones and mislead others , it is called spoofing.

Denial of Service(DoS) attack:
Its main target is a Web server. Due to this attack the Web server/computer forced to restart and this results refusal of service to the genuine users. If we want to access a website first you have to type the web site address in the URL and press Enter key, the browser requests that page from the web server.

Dos attacks send huge number of requests to the web server until it collapses due to the load and stops functioning.

Man in the Middle attacks:
It is an attack in which an attacker secretly intercepts electronic messages send by the sender to the receiver and then modifies the message and retransmit it to the receiver.

To prevent this type of attack encrypted connections such as HTTPS(HTTP Secure), SFTP(Secure FTP) etc, must be used, that will be displayed in the URL.

Preventing network attacks
It is a system that controls the incoming and outgoing network traffic by analyzing the data and then provides security to the computer network in an organization from other network (internet).

Antivirus scanners:
It is a tool used to scan computer files for viruses, worms and Trojan horses and cure the infected system. If any fault found it stops the file from running and stores the file in a special area called Quarantine(isolated area) and can be deleted later.

Cookies are small text files that are created when we visit a website that keep track of our details. This information will help the hacker to use it for malicious purposes. It acts as a spyware.

Guidelines for using computers over internet:

  • Emails may contain Viruses so do not open any unwanted emails
  • Download files from reputed sources(sites)
  • Avoid clicking on pop up Advt.
  • Most of the Viruses spread due to the use of USB drives so use cautiously.
  • Use firewall in your computer
  • Use anti virus and update regularly
  • Take backups in a regular time intervals

Plus One Computer Science Notes Chapter 12 Internet and Mobile Computing

Mobile Computing:
The advancements in computing technology have led to the developments of more computing power in hand held devices like laptops, tablets, smart phones, etc. Nowadays people are able to connect to others through internet even when they are in move.

Mobile communication:
The term ‘mobile’ help the people to change their life styles and become the backbone of the society. Mobile communication networks do not require any physical connection.

Generations in mobile communication:
The mobile phone was introduced in the year 1946. Early stage it was expensive and limited services hence its growth was very slow. To solve this problem, cellular communication concept was developed in 1960’s at Bell Lab. 1990’s onwards cellular technology became a common standard in our country.
The various generations in mobile communication are
1.First Generation networks(1 G):
It was developed around 1980, based on analog system and only voice transmission was allowed.

2. Second Generation networks (2G):
This is the next generation network that was allowed voice and data transmission. Picture message and MMS(Multimedia Messaging Service) were introduced. GSM and CDMA standards were introduced by 2G.
(i) Global System for Mobile(GSM):
It is the most successful standard. It uses narrow band TDMA(Time Division Multiple Access), allows simultaneous calls on the same frequency range of 900 MHz to 1800 MHz. The network is identified using the SIM(Subscriber Identity Module).
(a) GPRS(General Packet Radio Services):lt is a packet oriented mobile data service on the 2G on GSM. GPRS was originally standardized by European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) GPRS usage is typically charged based on volume of data transferred. Usage above the bundle cap is either charged per megabyte or disallowed.

(b) EDGE(Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution):
It is three times fasterthan GPRS. It is used for voice communication as well as an internet connection.

(ii) Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA):
It is a channel access method used by various radio communication technologies. CDMA is an example of multiple access, which is where several transmitters can send information simultaneously over a single communication channel. This allows several users to share a band of frequencies To permit this to be achieved without undue interference between the users, and provide better security.

3. Third Generation networks(3G):
It allows high data transfer rate for mobile devices and offers high speed wireless broadband services combining voice and data. To enjoy this service 3G enabled mobile towers and hand sets required.

4. Fourth Generation networks(4G):
lt is also called Long Term Evolution(LTE) and also offers ultra broadband Internet facility such as high quality streaming video. It also offers good quality image and videos than TV.

Plus One Computer Science Notes Chapter 12 Internet and Mobile Computing

Mobile communication services:
1. Short Message Service(SMS):
It allows transferring short text messages containing up to 160 characters between mobile phones. The sent message reaches a Short Message Service Center(SMSC), that allows ‘store and forward’ systems. It uses the protocol SS7(Signaling System No7). The first SMS message ‘Merry Christmas’ was sent on 03/12/1992 from a PC to a mobile phone on the Vodafone GSM network in UK.

2. Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS):
It allows sending Multi Media(text, picture, audio and video file) content using mobile phones. It is an extension of SMS.

3. Global Positioning System(GPS):
It is a space- based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. The system provides critical capabilities to military, civil and commercial users around the world.

It is maintained by the United States government and is freely accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver. GPS was created and realized by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) and was originally run with 24 satellites. It is used for vehicle navigation, aircraft navigation, ship navigation, oil exploration, Fishing, etc. GPS receivers are now integrated with mobile phones.
Plus One Computer Science Notes Chapter 12 Internet and Mobile Computing 1

Smart Cards:
A smart card is a plastic card with a computer chip or memory that stores and transacts data. A smart card (may be like your ATM card) reader used to store and transmit data. The advantages are it is secure, intelligent and convenient. The smart card technology is used in SIM for GSM phones. A SIM card is used as an identification proof.

Plus One Computer Science Notes Chapter 12 Internet and Mobile Computing

Mobile operating system:
It is an OS used in hand held devices such as smart phone, tablet, etc. It manages the hardware, multimedia functions, Internet connectivity,etc. Popular OSs are Android from Google,iOS from Apple, BlackBerry OS from Black Berry and Windows Phone from Microsoft.

Android OS:
It is a Linux based OS forTouch screen devices such as smart phones and was developed by Android Inc. founded in Palo Alto, California in 2003 by Andy Rubin and his friends. In 2005, Google acquired this. A team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux Kernel.

The interface of Android OS is based on touch inputs like swiping, tapping, pinching in and out to manipulate on screen objects. In 2007 onwards this OS is used in many mobile phones and tablets. Android SDK(Software Development Kit) is available to create applications(apps) like Google Maps, FB, What’s App, etc.

It is of open source nature and many Apps are available for free download from the Android Play Store hence increase the popularity.
Different Android Versions are shown below
Plus One Computer Science Notes Chapter 12 Internet and Mobile Computing 2