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Kerala Plus One History Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 10 Displacement of Indigenes
In the American and Australian textbooks, there is no reference to the indigenous people there. What are the sources that throw light into the history of the indigenes?
Until the middle of the 20th century, the history textbooks of America and Australia explained how the Europeans discovered the Americas and Australia. But there were no references to the indigenous people there. It was in the 1940s, studies about the indigenes were started. The anthropologist of America started these studies. From the 1960s many people encouraged the indigenes to write their history or talk about it.
Today we can find many history books and novels written by the indigenes. In the museums of these countries, we can also see galleries exhibiting indigenous art. There are also special museums there, which depict the lifestyles of the indigenes. For example, the new National Museum of American Indians in the USA.
Europeans looked at the indigenes of America as uncivilized people. Do you agree with this view? Justify.
Europeans looked at the indigenes of America as, uncivilized people. But the French philosopher Rousseau pointed out that such people should be respected because they had not polluted their culture. Many people think that the term “noble savage” would be appropriate to them. But the world-famous poet William Wordsworth came out with another view. He said that those who live in close proximity with nature will have less imaginative and emotional strength, in short, the indigenes were seen either as uncivilized or as noble savages or as people with less emotional and imaginative power.
The indigenes thought the things they exchanged with the Europeans as mere gifts. But for greedy Europeans, the things they got-like fish and hides- were goods to be sold in the Western markets. The price of the things the Europeans sold to the indigenes depended on the supply.
The indigenes did not have any idea about the markets in far-away Europe. Sometimes European gave a lot of things but sometimes only very little in exchange for the items they got from the indigenes. They used to wonder why this was so as they had no idea about the market prices. The greed of Europeans often made the indigenes sad. In their greed to get more and more hides, they killed a lot of otters. The indigenes were afraid that the animals would take revenge on them.
The indigenes and Europeans had different concepts about forests. Explain.
The indigenes and Europeans had different concepts about forests. In the forests, the indigenes imagined many invisible things. But the Europeans simply wanted to clear the forests and convert them into cornfields.
Jefferson wanted a country with Europeans and small fields. The indigenes cultivated the land for their own use. They did not do it for selling or profit. Therefore acquiring land in their view was a serious mistake. This is what made Jefferson think that they were uncivilized.
Slavery was the main reason for the civil war in America. Evaluate this statement.
The economy of the Northern States in the USA was not dependent on plantations. Their economy as industry-based. Therefore they did not have to rely on slavery. They said that slavery is anti-human and demanded its abolition. During the 1861-65 period, there was a civil war between the Southern States which wanted to retain slavery and the Northern States which wanted to abolish slavery. The Northern States had the victory. Slavery was abolished. But only in the 20th century did the African Americans get their civil rights and the discrimination between the Blacks and Whites end.
The indigenes were slowly displaced from their land. How did the settlers acquire the land? What was the reaction of the indigenes?
As each new European settlement developed in America, the indigenes were forced to withdraw from their land. They withdrew after signing agreements showing that they had sold their lands. They were given only petty sums for their land. The Europeans often offered bigger amounts to the indigenes but actually gave them only smaller sums when the signing was done and thus they cheated the indigenes. Even the people in authority did not feel anything wrong in getting the land from the indigenes by questionable methods.
The indigenes did not give up their land without a fight. Between 1865 and 1890, the US army had to suppress a series of riots. Around this time the Metis in Canada made an armed conflict. Later they gave up their armed struggle.
In the 1840s, in California gold deposits were discovered. What were its repercussions?
There was always the hope there were gold deposits in North America. In the 1840s, in California, some gold deposits were discovered. This led to the Gold Rush. In the hope of reaping fortunes, many Europeans went to America. This caused railways to be built across the American mainland. Using thousands of Chinese labourers, America completed the work of the railways in 1870. In 1885, the railway network in Canada was also completed.
The main reason for the industrial revolution in the Northern States of America was the development of the railways. Explain.
The main reason for the industrial revolution in the Northern States of America was the development of the railways. The railways helped in linking different places and in the quick transport of men and material. Another reason for the industrial revolution there was the manufactured machines. With this large scale, farming was made easy.
With the development in industry, industrial cities began to grow in the USA and Canada. The number of factories increased many-fold. In the 1860s, the economy of the US was undeveloped. But by 1890, it became a powerful industrial nation.
There was also large scale agriculture. Vast areas were cleared for cultivation. By 1880, the bison (wild buffaloes) faced extinction. With this their hunting by the indigenes came to an end. By 1892, the European settlements were almost complete throughout the USA. The region between the Pacific and the Atlantic was divided into States. In a short time, the USA established its colonies in Hawaii and the Philippines. Thus the US became an imperial power.
The American people gave democratic rights much value. Justify.
The American people gave democratic rights (the right to vote, etc.) much value. The War of independence which they fought was, in one sense, was a fight for democratic rights. They also gave a lot of value to property rights. But their right to vote and right to property was applicable only to the Whites. The indigenes were denied those rights.
In 2000, Daniel Paul, a Canadian, pointed out this paradox. Thomas Paine, who was the spokesperson of democracy during the American War of Independence and the French Revolution, has underscored the contributions of the Red Indians of America to the development of the USA.
Critically examine the relations between the indigenes in Australia and the European settlers.
There are a lot of similarities between America and Australia in this respect. When Captain Cook and his team reached Australia they had some fights with the local people. In an encounter in Hawaii, an indigene killed Captain Cook. Some such isolated incidents were used as the pretexts by Europeans to unleash violence against the indigenes in the 19th and 20th centuries, 90% of the local people died of various diseases that the Europeans had brought with them. Moreover, in their fight with the colonialists, the indigenes lost their land and resource.
The British made Australia a place to which they could exile their criminals. Earlier they sent their criminals to their American colonies. When America got the independence they chose Australia for that. Among the early settlers in Australia, a good number were criminals from the UK. These exiled criminals were let free in Australia on the condition that they would not return to England even when they finished their jail terms. These criminals had no regret to drive away the indigenes from their land and forcefully occupy it.
Make a timeline showing the development of Australia.
1850 : Australian colonies were given self-rule.
1851 : Chinese workers migrate – It was stopped by law in 1855.
1851-61 : Flow of people into the gold mines.
1901 : The Federation of Australia is formed with 6 States.
1911 : Canberra is established as the capital.
1948-75 : Some 2 million Europeans migrate to Australia.