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Kerala Plus Two History Notes Chapter 12 Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement Civil Disobedience and Beyond
This chapter discusses the activities of Gandhiji during the period 1915-1948. it also talks about the work he did among the various sections of the Indian society, it examines many democratic Movements for which he was the inspiration and also the leader. This chapter also talks about Gandhiji’s life, political activities, and the social movements related to his work.
The Champaran, Kheda, and Ahmedabad Satyagraha of Gandhi were a preparation for his entry into Indian National Movement. These activities helped him in understanding the problems of the people.
They helped Gandhi to have close contact with people. The sympathy he showed to the poor people helped him to get a place in their hearts.
The Non-Cooperation Movement was the first strong moment of Gandhi against the British. It was part of Gandhi’s concept of non-violence. In the beginning, he co-operated with the British. He believed in their sense of righteousness. He showed his loyalty to the British in the First World War by asking the Indians to join the British army. But some developments in 1919 made Gandhi change his attitude. The Rowlett Acts, Jaiian Wala Bagh tragedy, the Khilafat Movement, etc. were some of them. These incidents made his attitude towards British change and made him not to cooperate with them. They also prompted him to start the Non-Cooperation Movement.
By 1922, Gandhi was able to make Indian Nationalism a highly popular Movement. Until then it was a Movement of intellectuals and professionals. But soon, with the efforts of Gandhi, thousands of farmers, artisans, and workers joined the Movement. Many of them started calling Gandhi ‘Mahatma’ showing him their respect. He was not like other leaders who preferred to keep some distance from people. He sympathized with them and became one of them. He lived like them and dressed like them. He also spoke in their language.
After the stopping of the Non-Cooperation Movement, Gandhiji retired from active political life. Then he concentrated on social issues like the propagation of khadi and removal of untouchability. Bu 1928, he started thinking of re-entering political activities. That year two important things happened – a. The visit of the Simon Commission and b. the Bardoli Satyagraha.
In 1942, the then British PM, Winston Churchill, sent a Mission under one of his Cabinet Members, Sir Stafford Cripps, to make an agreement with Gandhi and the Congress.
The Cripps Mission failed. After that Gandhiji decided to start his third protest against the British. This is the Quit India Movement. It was started in August 1942.
On 30 January 1948, as Gandhiji was going to take part in a prayer meeting, Nathuram Godse shot and killed him. Godse was a Brahmin from Pune.
1915 – Mahatma Gandhi returns to India from South Africa.
1917 – Champaran Movement
1918 – The Peasant Unrest in Kheda, The Labour Movement in Allahabad.
1919 – Rowlett Satyagraha (March-April) Julian Wala Bagh murder (April)
1921 – Non-Cooperation Movement and the Khilafat Movement.
1928 – Peasant Revolt in Bardot.
1929 – Congress’s Lahore Meeting; Poorna Swaraj is accepted as the aim.
1930 – Civil Disobedience Movement starts – Dandi March (March-April)
1931 – Gandhi Irwin Pact (March), II Round Table Conference.
1935 – India Government passes Laws-Some form of Representative Government is promised.
1939 – Congress Ministries resign.
1942 – Quit India Movement (August)
1946 – Gandhiji visits Noakhali and other areas to prevent religious strife.