Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 6 Struggle and Freedom

Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 6 Struggle and Freedom

Answer the following. Score 1 each.

A. Choose the correct answer.

Question 1.
The first Satyagraha organised by Gandhiji in India after returning from South Africa
Champaran Satyagraha
Ahmedabad Cotton Mill Strike
Kheda Satyagraha
Answer:
Champaran Satyagraha

Question 2.
The first of the regional agitation led by Gandhiji.
Khilafat Movement
Kheda Satyagraha
Champaran Satyagraha
Answer:
Champaran Satyagraha, 1917

Question 3.
Who directed the film ‘Gandhi’?
Syam Benagal
Richard Attenborough
Rajath Kapoor
Answer:
Richard Attenborough

Question 4.
The Act passed by the British Parliament in 1919 by which a person could be arrested and imprisoned without trial
Rowlatt Act
Minto-Morley Act
The Act of 1919
Answer:
Rowlatt Act

Question 5.
The Chairman of the Committee which recommended the Rowlatt Act
Sir Alan Rowlatt
Sir Sydney Rowlatt
Sir William Rowlatt
Answer:
Sir Sydney Rowlatt

Question 6.
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre took place on
3 April 1919
13 April 1919
11 April 1919
Answer:
13 April 1919

Question 7.
The army chief who was responsible for the Jallian wala Bagh Massacre
General Dyer
General Sanderson
General Franco
Answer:
General Dyer

Question 8.
The first national level struggle by the Indian National Congress under the leadership of Gandhiji
Khilafat movement
Non-Co-operation movement
Salt Satyagraha
Answer:
Non-Co-operation movement

Question 9.
The President of the Lahore Congress Session of 1929
Mahatma Gandhi
Jawaharlal Nehru
Subash Chandra Bose
Answer:
Jawaharlal Nehru

Question 10.
Quit India struggle began in the year
1942
1941
1943
Answer:
1942

Question 11.
The military wing started by Hindustan Socialist Republican Association for armed rebellion
Anuseelan Samiti
Indian National Army
Indian Republican Army
Answer:
Indian Republican Army

Question 12.
Who founded Abhinav Bharat Society?
V.D.Savarkar
Surya Sen
Sukh Dev
Answer:
V.D.Savarkar

Question 13.
The founder of Indian Republican Army
Lala Hardayal
Surya Sen
Bareenderkumar Ghosh
Answer:
Surya Sen

Question 14.
Under whose leadership was the Congress Socialist Party formed in 1934?
Jai Prakash Narayan
Jawaharlal Nehru
Subhash Chandra Bose
Answer:
Jai Prakash Narayan

Question 15.
The political party formed by Subhash Chandra Bose
Congress Socialist Party
Ghadar Party
Forward Bloc
Answer:
Forward Bloc

Question 16.
The founder of Indian National Army
Rash Bihari Bose
Subhash Chandra Bose
Captian Lakshmi
Answer:
Rash Bihari Bose

Question 17.
The centre of Salt Satyagraha in Kerala
Payyannur
Kozhikode
Thiruvananthapuram
Answer:
Payyannur

Question 18.
The founder of Ghadar Party
Lala Hardayal
Surya Sen
V.D.Savarkar
Answer:
Lala Hardayal

Question 19.
Who is known as ‘Frontier Gandhi’?
Maulana Abdul Kalam
Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan
Subhash Chandra Bose
Answer:
Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan

Question 20.
The last British Viceroy of India
Lord Mountbatten
Lord Wavel
Clement Atlee
Answer:
Lord Mountbatten

Question 21.
The first martyr of Indian freedom struggle from South India
Bhagat Singh
Vanchi Iyer
Raj Guru
Answer:
Vanchi Iyer

Question 22.
Which was the last popular protest organized by the Indian National Congress under the leadership of Gandhiji?
Answer:
Quit India Movement

B. Answer in a sentence each.

Question 1.
What was the reason for the Ahmedabad cotton mill strike of 1918?
Answer:
Cotton mill workers in Ahmedabad started their strike in 1918 when they were denied ‘Plague Bonus’. During the plague outbreak in Ahmedabad in 1917, the labourers were given a bonus up to 80% of their wages to prevent labourers from quitting the job for fear of plague. When the plague threat was over, this bonus was withdrawn and the labourers started agitation against it.

Question 2.
Where was All India Kisan Congress formed? Name the leader who took efforts to form it.
Answer:

  • Lahore
  • N.G Renga

Question 3.
‘If the Battle of Plassey laid the foundation for British rule, Jallianwala Bagh shook the foundation’. Whose words are these? When was this said?
Answer:
Gandhiji said this after the Jallianwala Bagh massacre.

Question 4.
Name the national educational institutions started in India during the Non co-operation struggle.
Answer:

  • Kashi Vidya Pith
  • Gujarat Vidya Pith
  • Jamia Millia

Question 5.
Who were the leaders of Indian Khilafat Movement?
Answer:

  • Maulana Mohammad Ali
  • Maulana Shoukath Ali

Question 6.
What were the important decisions of the Lahore Congress Session of1929? Who was its Chairman?
Answer:

  • The Session declared that the ultimate aim of Indian freedom struggle was to attain complete freedom.
  • It also decided to start the Civil Disobedience Movement under the leadership of Gandhiji.
  • Jawaharlal Nehru was the Chairman.

Question 7.
When did the Quit India struggle begin? What was the slogan given by Gandhiji in this struggle?
Answer:

  • Quit India struggle began in August 1942.
  • Gandhiji gave the slogan ’Do or Die’.

Question 8.
When was the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association formed? Who were its main leaders?
Answer:

  • Hindustan Socialist Republican Association was formed in Delhi in 1928 by the revolutionaries of Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
  • Its main leaders were Bhagat Singh, Chandra Sekhar Azad, Raj Guru and Sukh Dev.

Question 9.
Why did Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt throw bomb at the Central Legislative Assembly?
Answer:
To protest against the attempts to pass laws curtailing civil rights.

Question 10.
Who were the founders of Anuseelan Samiti?
Answer:

  • Bareender Kumar Ghosh
  • Pulin Bihari Das

Question 11.
What was the name of the women wing of Indian National Army? Who was in charge of this regiment?
Answer:

  • Jhansi Regiment
  • Captain Lakshmi

Question 12.
Which were the earlier labour unions formed in India?
Answer:

  • Ahmedabad Textiles Association
  • Madras Labour Union
  • All India Trade Union Congress

Question 13.
Who were the leaders of the All India Trade Union Congress at the time of its formation in 1920?
Answer:

  • N.M. Joshi
  • Lala Lajpat Rai

Question 14.
Name the British Prime Minister who agreed to the independence of India. To which political party did he belong?
Answer:

  • Clement Atlee
  • Labour Party

Question 15.
What was Mountbatten Plan?
Answer:
The strategy prepared by Lord Mountbatten, the last Viceroy of India, for the transfer of power, by dividing India into India and Pakistan.

Question 16.
When was the Indian Independence Act passed?
Answer:

  • The British Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act in July 1947.
  • As per this Act, two free nations – India and Pakistan came into existence.

Question 17.
Who gave leadership to the anti-Rowlatt agitations in Punjab?
Answer:

  • Saifuddin Kitchlew
  • Satyapal

Question 18.
People’s protest against the Act which violated civil rights resulted in the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre? Which was that Act?
Answer:
RowlattAct, 1919

Question 19.
How did Gandhiji respond to jallianwala Bagh Massacre?
Answer:
If the battle of plassey laid the foundation for the British rule, the Jallianwala Bagh shook the foundation.

Question 20.
Why did Gandhiji stop Non-Cooperation Movement after the Chauri Chaura incident?
Answer:
People turned to violence and Gandhiji was disappointed.

Question 21.
What did Gandhiji aim by Civil Disobedience?
Answer:
To disobey all anti-democratic and anti-popular civil laws made by the British government.

Question 22.
Who gave leadership to Dharasana struggle?
Answer:
Sarojini Naidu. It was a struggle in connection with Salt Satyagraha.

Answer the following. Score 2 each.

Question 1.
Write a note on the role of Gandhiji in the indigo farmers’ protest at Champaran.
Answer:
The indigo farmers of Champaran were exploited by the European planters. Gandhiji intervened.in the problems faced by the indigo farmers in Champaran and adopted the strategies of disobedience of British laws and Satyagraha. His involvement compelled the authorities to pass laws in favour of the indigo farmers. After the struggle in Champaran, Gandhiji worked for the progress of this region by establishing primary schools, initiating medical aids and involving in cleaning activities.

Question 2.
What was the reason for the Kheda agitation?
Answer:
The rulers decided to collect tax from the farmers of Kheda who were living in utter misery due to drought and crop failure. Gandhiji used the weapons of Satyagraha and non payment of tax in this agitation. The authorities agreed to reduce tax rates.

Question 3.
What was Rowlatt Act?
Answer:

  • In the pretext of preventing extremist activities, the British Parliament passed the Rowlatt Act in 1919 limiting civil rights. As per this Act, any person could be arrested and imprisoned without trial.
  • The Committee which recommended this Act was led by Sir Sydney Rowlatt.

Question 4.
What was the reason for Khilafat Movement?
Answer:

  • Khilafat Movement was the worldwide protest against the efforts of Britain which tried to limit the power of Khalifa, the ruler of Turkey and the spiritual leader of world Muslims, after the First World War.
  • In India, Maulana Mohammad Ali and Moulana Shoukath Ali gave leadership to Khilafat agitation.

Question 5.
Gandhiji supported the Khilafat agitation and used it as a forum to propagate his ideologies. What were its results?
Answer:

  • Hindu-Muslim unity was intensified.
  • Anti British feeling spread to the nook and comer of India.

Question 6.
Why did Gandhiji use salt as a tool of protest
against the British?
Answer:

  • Salt tax constituted two fifth portion of the income collected by the British through taxes.
  • The tax was a heavy burden for the poor people.

Question 7.
Which were the main centres of Salt Satyagraha in India?
Answer:

  • Dandi – Gujarat
  • Payyannur – Kerala
  • Vedaranyam – Tamil Nadu
  • Bombay – Maharashtra
  • Noakhali – Bengal

Question 8.
Write a note on Congress Socialist Party.
Answer:

  • Taking cue from the Russian Revolution, socialist ideologies started to spread in India.
  • At a meeting under the chairmanship of Jai Prakash Narayan in Bombay in 1934, the Congress Socialist Party was formed.
    During the Quit India agitation, leaders like Jai Prakash Narayan and Aruna Asaf Ali led the movement from their hideouts.

Question 9.
Who is known as ‘Frontier Gandhi’? Why is he called so?
Answer:

  • Khan Abdul Gaffer Khan is called Frontier Gandhi.
  • Gaffer Khan led countless agitations in the North West frontiers. Tried his best for Hindu- Muslim unity. Strongly opposed the dual nation theory.

Question 10.
What was the objective of Gandhi in travelling across India with the Khilafat leaders to propagate ideas?
Answer:

  • To intensify Hindu – Muslim unity
  • To spread anti – British feeling to the nook and corner of the nation.

Question 11.
Write the result of the rise of the movements of workers and peasants.
Answer:

  • Organization of labourers and farmers and their subsequent protests energised Indian National Movement.
  • Their policy of equally opposing the imperialist policies of the British government as well as the feudal system that existed in India triggered agitations and revolts in various parts of the country. E.g. Tebhga struggle.

Question 12.
Who were the leaders of Congress Socialist Party?
Answer:

  • Jawaharlal Nehru
  • Subhash Chandra Bose
  • Jai Prakash Narayan
  • Aruna Asaf Ali

Answer the following. Score 3 each.

Question 1.
Complete the table.

Struggle

Area

Year

Ahmedabad 1918
Cotton mill strike …………………………………….
………………………………………… Gujarat 1918
Struggle of indigo Bihar ……………………….
farmers in Champaran

Answer:

Struggle

Area

Year

Ahmedabad Cotton mill strike Gujarat 1918
Peasant struggle in Kheda Gujarat 1918
Struggle of indigo farmers in Champaran Bihar 1917

Question 2.
Complete the sun diagram on the characteristics of Non-Co-operation Movement.
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 6 Struggle and Freedom Important Questions 1
Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 6 Struggle and Freedom Important Questions 2

Question 3.
Write on the functioning of Hindustan Socialist Republican Organisation that adopted an approach different from Gandhian way of struggle for freedom.
Answer:
Revolutionaries from Punjab, Rajasthan, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh gathered in Delhi and formed the revolutionary organisation Hindustan Socialist Republican Association in 1928. Bhagat Singh, Chandra Sekhar Azad, Raj Guru and Sukh Dev were the main leaders. They floated a military wing called Republican Army for armed revolution. Their plan was to overthrow the colonial government through military action and establish a federal republic of Indian states.

Question 4.
What led to the formation of peasant agitations in India?
Answer:

  • The tax laws of the British
  • Severe exploitation of the Zamindars
  • Low price of agricultural produces

Question 5.
Match the agitations and places suitably.

Agitations

Places

Telengana Struggle Bengal
Naval Mutiny Andhra Pradesh
Tebhaga Struggle Bombay

Answer:

Agitations

Places

Telengana Struggle Andhra Pradesh
Naval Mutiny Bombay
Tebhaga Struggle Bengal

Question 6.
Write a note on Round Table Conferences.
Answer:
The British government convened in London three Round Table Conferences in 1930,1931 and 1932 to discuss the administrative reforms to be implemented in India. Representatives of Indian political parties, princely states and other organizations were invited to attend the conference. The Indian National Congress boycotted the first and third conferences. Gandhiji attended the Second Round Table Conference as the representative of Indian National Congress.

Question 7.
Examine the factors that caused Quit India Movement.
Answer:

  • Reluctance of the British to implement constitutional reforms in India.
  • Public disgust with price hike and famine.
  • The assumption that the British would be defeated in the Second World War.

Question 8.
What were the main objectives of the All India Trade Union Congress formed in 1920? Who were the main leaders at the time?
Answer:

  • To organise and act as a working class.
  • To facilitate Indian working class to co-operate with the working class outside India.
  • To participate actively in the Indian freedom struggle.
  • Leaders were N.M. Joshy and Lala Lajpat Rai.

Question 9.
Which plan proposed that Punjab and Bengal should be partitioned? Write other two recommendations of the plan.
Answer:

  • Mountbatten Plan
  • Other recommendations:
    • To form a separate country in Muslim majority area as per their wish.
    • To appoint a Commission to determine the borders in Punjab and Bengal.

Question 10.
Give a short description about the role of Subhash Chandra Bose in Indian National Movement.
Answer:
Subhash Chandra Bose was a leading figure in Indian freedom movement. At various stages of the national movement, he expressed his difference of opinion on Gandhian ideas of struggle. Quitting the Congress, he formed a political party called ‘Forward Bloc’. He took charge of the Indian National Army formed by Rash Bihari Bose to attain freedom for India.

He formed a provisional government for free India in Singapore, with the aim of forcing the British to quit India. With the support of the Japanese army, the Indian National Army marched to the northeast border of India and hoisted the Indian flag in Imphal.

Answer the following. Score 4 each.

Question 1.
The first national struggle by the INC under the leadership of Gandhiji was the Non Co-operation movement. Examine the characteristics of Non co-operation Movement.
Answer:

  • Denial of taxes
  • Boycott foreign products
  • Boycott elections
  • Lawyers shall boycott courts
  • Students shall boycott English schools

Question 2.
Find out examples to show how the Indian society responded to Gandhiji’s appeal for Non Co-operation.
Or
How did people respond to Gandhiji’s appeal for Non Co-operation?
Answer:

  • Workers in various parts of India struck work.
  • Farmers in Awadh refused to pay taxes.
  • Farmers in Uttar Pradesh refused to carry the luggage of the colonial officials.
  • The tribal groups in northern Andhra entered the forests and collected the forest produces violating the forest laws.
  • The public including women, burnt foreign clothes on the streets.

Question 3.
Match the columns suitably.

A

B

Ghadar Party Subhash Chandra Bose
Indian Republican Arm V.D.Savarkar
Indian National Army Lala Hardayal
Abhinav Bharat Society Surya Sen

Answer:

A

B

Ghadar Party Lala Hardayal
Indian Republican Army Surya Sen
Indian National Army Subhash Chandra Bose
Abhinav Bharat Society V.D.Savarkar

Question 4.
Arrange the following in chronological order.

  • Chauri Chaura incident
  • Quit India Movement
  • Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
  • Kheda Peasant struggle

Answer:

  • Kheda Peasant Struggle (1918)
  • Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (1919)
  • Chauri Chaura incident (1922)
  • Quit India Movement (1942)

Question 5.
What were the proposals put forward by Gandhiji as part of Civil Disobedience Movement?
Answer:

  • To lift salt tax.
  • To declare 50% tax relaxation for farmers.
  • To increase the tax on imported foreign clothes.
  • To release political prisoners.
  • To cut short military budget and high salary to top officials.
  • To implement prohibition of liquor.

Question 6.
What were the instructions that Gandhiji gave to the people as part of Quit India Movement?
Answer:

  • Farmers shall not pay land tax.
  • Princely states shall recognise the sovereignty of their people.
  • Without quitting their positions in the army, soldiers shall disobey orders to shoot and kill Indians.
  • Government officials shall disclose their loyalty to Indian National Congress without resigning their positions.
  • If possible, students shall boycott schools till obtaining freedom.

Question 7.
What was Mountbatten Plan? What were its main proposals?
Answer:
Lord Mountbatten, the last Viceroy of India prepared a strategy for India’s freedom by dividing it. This was the Mountbatten Plan.
Its Proposals were :

  • To divide Punjab and Bengal.
  • To appoint a Commission to determine the borders in Punjab and Bengal.
  • To form a separate country in Muslim majority area as per the Muslim wish.
  • To conduct a referendum to determine whether to add North-West Frontier Province to Pakistan or not.

Question 8.
‘ Name the organisation that framed Kisan Manifesto. Write the demands included in the ‘Kisan Manifesto.
Answer:

  • The All India Kisan Samiti Conference held in Bombay prepared Kisan Manifesto.
  • Reduce 50% of land tax and lease charge.
  • Write off debts.
  • Cancel feudal taxes.
  • Ensure minimum wage for agricultural workers.
  • Recognise peasant unions.

Question 9.
Write the factors that helped Gandhiji to gain the trust and recognition of the common people of India.
Answer:

  • Gandhiji became familiar to the Indians after his involvement in addressing the problems of the Indian expatriates in South Africa.
  • His protests in South Africa made him famous.
  • Gandhiji was very popular because he lived among the common people and his food and clothing was similar to that of the common man in India and he spoke in their language
  • Common people found in Gandhiji a saviour who could solve their problems.

Question 10.
Write the main constructive programmes during the Non Co-operation movement.
Or
Along with Non Co-operation, constructive programmes were also given importance. Elucidate.
Answer:

  • Established national educational institutions.
  • People made indigenous products.
  • Spun khadi clothes using charka.
  • Participated to eradicate untouchability.
  • Popularised Hindi.

Question 11.
Examine the reasons why Gandhiji selected salt as a powerful weapon against the British during the Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930?
Answer:

  • Salt tax constituted two fifth portion of the income collected by the British through taxes.
  • There was three fold hike on salt price.
  • Salt tax was a heavy burden for the poor people.
  • British government banned small scale indigenous salt production.
  • The demand for lifting salt tax was a slogan suitable to inspire all segments of society.

Question 12.
Write the factors that forced Britain to give
independence to India.
Answer:

  • The collapse of imperialism in the world after the Second World War.
  • Consequent to financial crisis, Britain lost its capacity to maintain colonies.
  • Freedom struggles in the colonies of Asia and Africa intensified.
  • The super power USA and Soviet Union were against colonialism.

Question 13.
What were the common characteristics of the early struggles under Gandhiji?
Answer:

  • The early struggles were originated and based on economic issues.
  • Adopted the methods of non payment of tax and Satyagraha.
  • Received the help of regional leaders.
  • His methods of struggle made him acceptable to all sections of people.
  • People got the belief that Gandhiji could solve the problems of people.

Question 14.
How did the Jallianwala Bagh massacre influence Indian National Movement?
Answer:
Rowlatt Act limited the civil right of Indians. People gathered at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar on 13 April 1919 to protest against the arrest of those who led anti – Rowlatt agitations in Punjab. The army chief ordered to shoot without warning and this resulted in the Jallianwala Bagh massacre.

The massacre intensified the protests at the national level. ‘Jallianwala Bagh shook the foundation of British rule’, Gandhiji said. Anti – British feeling fuelled and strengthened the national movement. People became very courageous to fight against the British.

Question 15.
Which were the labour and peasant organisations formed after the Russian Revolution? What were their main objectives?
Answer:

  • Ahmedabad Textile Association
  • Madras Labour Union
  • All India Trade Union Congress
  • Objectives:
    • To organise and act as a working class.
    • To participate actively in the Indian freedom struggle.

Answer the following. Score 5,6 each.

Question 1.
Examine the role of Gandhiji in Indian freedom struggle.
Answer:
The period from 1917 to 1947 in Indian history is known as Gandhian era.

Gandhiji and Champaran Satyagraha:
Gandhiji started his social activities in India by intervening in the problems faced by the indigo farmers in Champaran in 1917. In Champaran, he resorted to disobedience of British laws and Satyagraha. His involvement compelled the authorities to pass laws in favour of the indigo farmers.

Gandhiji and Ahmedabad Cotton Mill Strike:
Cotton mill workers in Ahmedabad started their strike in 1918 when they were denied plague bonus. Gandhiji adopted the tools of disobedience of British laws and Satyagraha here also. Following his Satyagraha, the authorities agreed to hike the wages of the employees.

Gandhiji and Kheda peasant struggle:
The rulers decided to collect tax from the poor farmers of Kheda who were living in utter misery due to drought and crop failure. Starting Satyagraha, Gandhiji protested against the decision. He advised the people not to pay tax. As a result, the authorities were forced to reduce tax.

Gandhiji and Rowlatt Act:
When the protests against Rowlatt Act failed, Gandhiji suggested starting Satyagraha. Vigorously reacting to this proposal, people in various parts of the country went to the streets and started demonstrations and strikes. The massacre at Jallianwala Bagh intensified the protest against the British. Gandhiji said about the Jallianwala Bagh massacre: ‘If the Battle of Plassey laid the foundation for the British rule, Jallianwala Bagh shook the foundation’.

Gandhiji and Non-Co-operation Movement:
The first national level struggle by the INC under the leadership of Gandhiji was the non co-operation movement. The confidence gained from the anti- Rowlatt protest motivated Gandhiji to declare non co-operation against the British. The methods of agitation were denial of taxes, boycott foreign goods, boycott elections, etc.

In addition to this, Gandhiji motivated the people to participate in constructive programmes like making indigenous products, spinning Khadi cloth using charka, establishing national educational institutions, popularising Hindi and eradicating untouchability. Non co-operation movement had a great role in making the national movement a grass root mass movement. But he suspended the Non cooperation movement due to the Chauri Chaura incident.

Gandhiji and Civil Disobedience:
The Lahore Congress Session of 1929 decided to launch a Civil Disobedience Movement under the leadership of Gandhiji. With the civil disobedience, Gandhiji meant to disobey all anti-popular and antidemocratic laws made by the British government. As part of the movement, Gandhiji demanded to lift salt tax, to declare 50% tax relaxation for farmers and to release political prisoners. Gandhiji selected salt as a powerful weapon against the British.

The Civil Disobedience Movement began with the Dandi March in 1930. Gandhiji broke the salt law by making salt. Inspired by the call of Gandhiji, people in various parts of the country started to produce salt on their own, violating the British regulations. The British government arrested Gandhiji and suppressed the movement callously.

Gandhiji and Quit India Movement:
The Quit India Movement was the last popular protest organised by the INC under the leadership of Gandhiji. It was a mass movement based on the ideology of non-violence, meant to force the British to leave the country, offering complete freedom to Indians. As part of the movement, Gandhiji called for:

  • Princely states shall recognize the sovereignty of their people.
  • Farmers shall not pay land tax.

Gandhiji gave the slogan ‘Do or Die’ to the Indians. The movement became strong all over India. The British government in India began to shake. But the government suppressed the movement very severely and arrested leaders including Gandhiji.
Gandhian ideas played a major role in making the national movement a mass movement and finally achieving independence.

Question 2.
Examine the relevance of Non-Co-operation Movement and Quit India Movement in Indian freedom struggle.
Answer:
Indian freedom movement became a mass movement after the adoption of Non-Co-operation movement.

Non-Co-operation Movement:
The first national level struggle by the INC under the leadership of Gandhiji was the Non-Co-operation movement. It was a novel agitation of not to co-operate with the British. The characteristics of Non- co-operation policy were:

  • Denial of taxes
  • Returning the British awards and prizes
  • Boycott elections
  • Boycott foreign goods
  • Lawyers shall boycott courts
  • Students shall boycott English schools

In addition to his appeal for Non-Co-operation, Gandhiji motivated the people to participate in constructive programmes like making indigenous products, spinning khadi cloth using charka, establishing national educational institutions, popularising Hindi and eradicating untouchability. Kashi Vidya Pith, Gujarat VidyaPith and Jamia Millia were some of the national educational institutions started during this period.
People in different parts of India responded to Gandhiji’s appeal for non co-operation.

  • Farmers in Awadh refused to pay taxes.
  • Workers struck work.
  • The tribal groups in northern Andhra entered the forests and collected the forest products violating the forest laws.
  • Lawyers boycotted courts.
  • Students quitted colleges and schools run by the British.
  • The public, including women, burnt foreign clothes on the streets.

Non-Co-operation movement had a major role in making the national movement, which was till then confined to the elite of the society, a grass root mass movement. However, Gandhiji withdrew the movement following the Chauri Chaura incident in 1922.

Quit India Movement:
The Quit India Movement was the third mass movement launched by Gandhiji against the British. It was a mass movement based on the ideology of nonviolence meant to force the British to leave the country offering complete freedom to Indians. As part of the movement, Gandhiji called for:

  • Farmers shall not pay tax.
  • Princely states shall recognise the sovereignty of their people.
  • Government officials shall disclose their loyalty to Indian National Congress without resigning their positions.
  • Without quitting their positions in the army, soldiers shall disobey orders to shoot and kill Indians.
  • If possible, students shall boycott education till attaining freedom.

Gandhiji gave the slogan ‘Do or Die’ to the common people. The Quit India Movement began on August 8,1942. The next day, Gandhiji and all the top leaders of the Congress were arrested. In protest, the uncontrolled mob demolished government offices, electric lines and railway lines. At the end of 1942, India was under the fire of popular unrest. The British government suppressed the movement very severely. The Quit India movement was a clear indication of the people’s determination to grab freedom for their country.

Question 3.
By making salt as a tool of protest, Gandhiji proved that any trivial issue can be snowballed into a popular strategy to trigger public protest and intensify a mass movement. Examine this statement in the light of Civil Disobedience Movement launched by Gandhiji.
Answer:
Civil Disobedience Movement:
The Lahore Congress Session of 1929 decided to start a civil disobedience movement under the leadership of Gandhiji. This was the second mass movement launched by Gandhiji against the British.

With the civil disobedience movement, Gandhiji meant to disobey all anti-popular and antidemocratic laws made by the British government. As part of the movement, Gandhiji proposed the following.

  • To lift salt tax.
  • To declare 50% tax relaxation for farmers.
  • To increase the tax on imported foreign clothes.
  • To release political prisoners.
  • To cut short military budget and high salary of top officials.
  • To dissolve the secret surveillance wing formed to watch Indians.
  • To start coastal shipping service.
  • To implement prohibition of liquor.

Gandhiji gave top priority to reducing salt tax due to a variety of reasons. He selected salt as a powerful tool against the British because:

  • Salt tax constituted two fifth portion of the income collected by the British through taxes.
  • Salt tax was a heavy burden for the poor people.
  • There was three fold hike on salt price.
  • The British government banned small scale indegenous salt production.
  • The demand for lifting salt tax was a slogan suitable to inspire all segments of the society.

Gandhiji began the civil disobedience with Salt Satyagraha. The Salt Satyagraha began with the famous Dandi March by Gandhiji on 30 March, 1930. Gandhiji along with 78 followers marched from Sabarmali Ashram to Dandi, a coastal village in Gujarat. He broke the salt law by making salt. Inspired by the call of Gandhiji, people in various parts of the country started to produce salt on their own, violating the British regulations.

Payyannur in Kerala, Vedaranyam in Tamil Nadu, Bombay in Maharashtra, Naokhali in Bengal and North West Frontier Province were some of the centres of this protest. As part of the protest, volunteers made salt and distributed it to the people, hoisted national flag and chanted anti- British slogans. Gandhiji was arrested and the movement was suppressed callously.

Question 4.
Which are the three major struggles organised under the leadership of Gandhiji? Explain each of them.
Answer:

  • Non – Co – operation movement
  • Civil Disobedience (Salt Satyagraha)
  • Quit India movement

Non – Co-operation movement :
The first national level struggle by the INC under the leadership of Gandhiji was the Non-Co-operation movement. It was a novel agitation of not to co-operate with the British. The characteristics of Non- co-operation policy were:

  • Denial of taxes
  • Returning the British awards and prizes
  • Boycott elections
  • Boycott foreign goods
  • Lawyers shall boycott courts
  • Students shall boycott English schools

In addition to his appeal for Non-Co-operation, Gandhiji motivated the people to participate in constructive programmes like making indigenous products, spinning khadi cloth using charka, establishing national educational institutions, popularising Hindi and eradicating untouchability. Kashi Vidya Pith, Gujarat Vidya Pith and Jamia Millia were some of the national educational institutions started during this period.
People in different parts of India responded to Gandhiji’s appeal for non co-operation.

  • Farmers in Awadh refused to pay taxes.
  • Workers struck work.
  • The tribal groups in northern Andhra entered the forests and collected the forest products violating the forest laws.
  • Lawyers boycotted courts.
  • Students quitted colleges and schools run by the British.
  • The public, including women, burnt foreign clothes on the streets.

Non-Co-operation movement had a major role in making the national movement, which was till then confined to the elite of the society, a grass root mass movement. However, Gandhiji withdrew the movement following the Chauri Chaura incident in 1922.

Civil Disobedience Movement:
The Lahore Congress Session of 1929 decided to start a civil disobedience movement under the leadership of Gandhiji. This was the second mass movement launched by Gandhiji against the British.

With the civil disobedience movement, Gandhiji meant to disobey all anti-popular and antidemocratic civil laws made by the British government. As part of the movement, Gandhiji proposed the following.

  • To lift salt tax.
  • To declare 50% tax relaxation for farmers.
  • To increase the tax on imported foreign clothes.
  • To release political prisoners.
  • To cut short military budget and high salary of top officials.
  • To dissolve the secret surveillance wing formed to watch Indians.
  • To start coastal shipping service.
  • To implement prohibition of liquor.

Gandhiji gave top priority to reducing salt tax due to a variety of reasons. He selected salt as a powerful tool against the British because:

  • Salt tax constituted two fifth portion of the income collected by the British through taxes.
  • Salt tax was a heavy burden for the poor people.
  • There was three fold hike on salt price.
  • The British government banned small scale indegenous salt production.
  • The demand for lifting salt tax was a slogan suitable to inspire all segments of the society.

Gandhiji began the civil disobedience with Salt Satyagraha. The Salt Satyagraha began with the famous Dandi March by Gandhiji on 30 March, 1930. Gandhiji along with 78 followers marched from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi, a coastal village in Gujarat.

He broke the salt law by making salt. Inspired by the call of Gandhiji, people in various parts of the country started to produce salt on their own, violating the British regulations. Payyannur in Kerala, Vedaranyam in Tamil Nadu, Bombay in Maharashtra, Naokhali in Bengal and North West Frontier Province were some of the centres of this protest.

Quit India Movement:
The Quit India Movement was the third mass movement launched by Gandhiji against the British. It was a mass movement based on the ideology of non¬violence meant to force the British to leave the country offering complete freedom to Indians.
As part of the movement, Gandhiji called for:

  • Farmers shall not pay tax.
  • Princely states shall recognise the sovereignty of their people.
  • Government officials shall disclose their loyalty to Indian National Congress without resigning their positions.
  • Without quitting their positions in the army, soldiers shall disobey orders to shoot and kill Indians.
  • If possible, students shall boycott education till attaining freedom.

Gandhiji gave the slogan ‘Do or Die’ to the common people. The Quit India Movement began on August 8, 1942. The next day, Gandhiji and all the top leaders of the Congress were arrested. In protest, the uncontrolled mob demolished government offices, electric lines and railway lines. At the end of 1942, India was under the fire of popular unrest. The British government suppressed the movement very severely. The Quit India movement was a clear indication Of the people’s determination to grab freedom for their country.

Question 5.
Match the items related to Column A from Columns B and C.

A

B

C

Hindustan Socialist Gandhiji 1919
Republican Association
Lahore Congress Session Bhagat Singh 1923
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre C.R.Das 1929
Champaran Satyagraha Jawaharlal Nehru 1928
Swaraj Party General Dyer 1917

Answer:

A

B

C

Hindustan Socialist Bhagat Singh 1928
Republican Association
Lahore Congress Session Jawaharlal Nehru 1929
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre General Dyer 1919
Champaran Satyagraha Gandhiji 1917
Swaraj Party C.RDas 1923

Question 6.
Match suitably.

A

B

Khilafat Movement Sir Sydney Rowlatt
Indian Republican Army Khan Abdul Gaffer Khan
Congress Socialist Party Surya Sen
Rowlatt Act Moulana Mohammad Ali
Frontier Gandhi Jai Prakash Narayan

Answer:

A

B

Khilafat Movement Moulana Mohammad Ali
Indian Republican Army Surya Sen
Congress Socialist Party Jai Prakash Narayan
Rowlatt Act Sir Sydney Rowlatt
Frontier Gandhi Khan Abdul Gaffer Khan

Question 7.
Prepare a Timeline using the events and years.

  • Lahore Congress Session
  • Second Round Table Conference
  • Champaran Satyagraha
  • Quit India Movement
  • Chauri Chaura Incident

Answer:
Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions Chapter 6 Struggle and Freedom Important Questions 3

Question 8.
Arrange the following in chronological order.

  • Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
  • Non Co-operation Movement
  • Ahmedabad Cotton Mill strike
  • Bombay Naval Mutiny
  • Formation of Swaraj Party

Answer:

  • Ahmedabad Cotton Mi 11 strike (1918)
  • Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (1919)
  • Non Co-operation Movement (1921)
  • Formation of Swaraj Party (1923)
  • Bombay Naval Mutiny (1946)

Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Important Questions