Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Notes Chapter 1 Revolutions that Influenced the World
American War of Independence inspired the struggle against imperialism in different parts of the world in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. The victory of American War of Independence is considered as the victory of democracy, freedom and self determination. The French Revolution of 1789 was against the despotic rule of kings and feudal system. The Russian Revolution, the Chinese Revolution and the Latin American Revolution were also against despotic rule of kings and foreign domination.
→ Renaissance : Renaissance means ‘rebirth’. It was the awakening of the artistic and intellectual activities which had taken place in the Italian cities and the rest of the European countries.
→ Enlightenment : An advancement in the intellectual activities of man which tried to explain the natural world and the role of man in it in the light of rationalism.
→ American War of Independence: The struggle of the American colonies to protest against the policies and rule imposed by England.
→ Mercantilism : The policy implemented by the British merchants with the help of their motherland in the American colonies.
→ Pilgrim Fathers : The group of people who exiled to America from the religious persecution of the King of England in the seventeenth century and established colonies there.
→ Boston Tea Party: To oppose the high tax levied on tea by the British government, a group of people disguised as the Red Indians, boarded the ships at night in the Boston Harbour and threw 342 chests of tea into the sea. This incident is known as Boston Tea Party.
→ Continental Congress : The meetings of the delegates of American colonies that met at Philadelphia to protest against the policies and rules imposed by England.
→ American Declaration of Independence: The famous declaration of independence issued by the American Continental Congress on 4 July 1776.
→ Treaty of Paris 1783 : The treaty by which Britain ratified the freedom of the thirteen colonies of America.
→ French Revolution: The struggle of the French middle class against the autocratic rule and social inequality that prevailed in Europe.
→ Estates : The three strata of French society. The First Estate consisted of clergy, the Second Estate consisted of nobles and the Third Estate consisted of middle class.
→ Social Contract : The famous work of the French philosopher Rousseau, which influenced the French Revolution greatly.
→ Tennis Court Oath : The members of the Third Estate of France declared themselves as the National Assembly of France, assembled at a tennis court and swore not to leave until they had framed a constitution for France. This event is known as the ’Tennis Court Oath’.
→ Latin American Revolution : The struggle of the Latin American people against the colonial rule of Spain and Portugal.
→ Russian Revolution : The struggle led by the Bolsheviks in Russia under the leadership of Lenin against the autocratic rule and social inequality.
→ Marxism : It is an ideology founded by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels. The core of this ideology is that the changes in society are based on the prevailing mode of production.
→ Duma : The name of Russian Parliament.
→ Bloody Sunday : The workers of Russia organised a huge march at Petrograd on 9th January 1905 demanding political rights and economic reforms. The march was fired by the soldiers and hundreds of demonstrators were massacred. This event is known as the Bloody Sunday.
→ A February Revolution : The workers along with the soldiers captured Petrograd in February 1917. The Czar Nicholas II was thrown out of power and a provisional government was formed under Alexander Kerensky. This is known as February Revolution.
→ October Revolution: The event through which the Bolsheviks under Lenin attained power in Russia is known as October Revolution.
→ Chinese Revolution : The struggle against the foreign rule and monarchy in China.
→ Open Door Policy : The policy put forward by America that argued for equal rights and opportunities for all countries in Chinese markets.
→ Long March : The journey that started under the leadership of Mao Zedong from Kiangsi in South China and ended at Yanan in north-west China, covering around 12000 kms is known as Long March.
Revolutions that Influenced the World – Famous Persons
→ George III : The king of England during the American War of Independence.
→ George Washington : Commander – in – chief of the Continental Army. The first President of the United States of America.
→ John Locke : English philosopher. Opposed dictatorship and monarchy. One of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers.
→ Thomas Paine : English – American political activist, philosopher and revolutionary. Author of ‘Common Sense’.
→ Thomas Jefferson : American Founding Father, Principal author of the ‘Declarations of Independence’. Served as the third US President from 1801 to 1809.
→ Benjamin Franklin : One of the Founding Fathers of USA. American author and diplomat. Played a key role in the preparation of American Declaration of Independence.
→ Louis XIV : The French king who said: ‘I am the State’.
→ Louis XVI: The French king at the time of the French Revolution.
→ Rousseau, Voltaire, Montesquieu : Thinkers who influenced French Revolution.
→ Napoleon Bonaparte : The Emperor of France from 1800 to 1815, following the French Revolution.
→ Simon Bolivar: Liberated Venezuela, Equador, Colombia and Peru from Spanish control. Known as ‘Liberator’ and the ‘George Washington of South America’.
→ Jose De San Martin : Liberated Argentina from Portuguese rule. Known as ‘Protector’.
→ Nicholas II : Czar of Russia at the time of the Russian Revolution.
→ Vladimir Lenin : Leader of Bolshevik party. The first Communist ruler of Russia.
→ Dr. Sun Yat Sen : Leader of Chinese Republic.
→ Chiang Kaishek: Ruler of China who opposed Communism. He was deposed by the Communist party in 1949.
→ Mao Zedong : The leader of Communist Revolution of China. The first Chairman of the People’s Republic of China.
Revolutions that Influenced the World – Important Years and Events
- 1773 – Boston Tea Party
- 1774 – First Continental Congress, Philadel-phia
- 1775 – Second Continental Congress, Phila-delphia
July 4 – Declaration of American Indepen-dence
- 1783 – Treaty of Paris, England ratified the freedom of 13 American colonies.
- 1789 – French Revolution / French Declara-tion of the Rights of Man
- 1792 – Proclaimed France as a Republic
- 1799 – Napoleon seized power in France
- 1815 – Battle of Waterloo. Napoleon was defeated by the European Alliance
- 1900 – Boxer Rebellion
- 1905 – Russia-Japan war and the defeat of Russia
- 1917 – Russian Revolution
- 1924 – Formation of USSR
- 1949 – Establishment of People’s Republic of China