Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 8 Kerala towards Modernity
Choose the items related to Column A from Column B.
|The Portuguese||Attingal Revolt|
|The Dutch||Carnatic Wars|
|The French||Battle of Colachel|
|The English||Struggle of Kunjali Marakkars|
|The Portuguese||Struggle of Kunjali Marakkars|
|The Dutch||Battle of Colachel|
|The French||Carnatic wars|
|The English||Attingal Revolt|
How did the English East India Company get dominance in Kerala?
- The Subsidiary Alliance introduced by Lord Wellesley was a clever device to bring the native states under the Company’s rule.
- Captain Keeling, a representative of English East India company visited Kerala in 1615 and signed trade agreement with the Zamorin of Kozhikode. Later the Company secured the consent to start warehouses at Vizhinjam, Thalassery and Anchuthengu.
- By the Treaty of Sreerangapattanam in 1792 signed between the British and the ruler of Mysore Tipu, Malabar came under the control of the British.
- Travancore and English East India Company signed a Treaty in 1795. As per the treaty, Travancore admitted the supremacy of the British. In return the British promised Travancore protection from enemies. The British appointed a Resident in Travancore who was given the power to intervene in the internal affairs of the state.
- Following the Treaty of 1792, Kochi accepted British supremacy and was forced to pay tribute.
- Thus British ruled Malabar directly and Kochi and Travancore indirectly through the subservient Samantha Rajas.
- The whole of Kerala came under the control of the British by the end of the 18th century.
Analyse the impacts of British rule in the trade, industry and agricultural fields in Kerala.
- The British took Kerala merchandises at cheap prices. The industrial products of England were sold at high prices here.
- The self sufficient village economy was destroyed.
- Kerala became part of world market.
- Foreign trade increased.
- The trade monopoly of salt, tobacco, timber and spices came under the control of the British.
- The plantation industry and traditional industry developed in Kerala.
- British capital investment increased in Kerala.
- Rulers of Travancore encouraged modern industries.
- Modem industries progressed in Kerala.
- Banks were started.
- Cultivation of plantation crops in the place of food crops became widespread in Kerala.
- The cultivation of coconut and tapioca became widespread.
- Forests were destroyed on a large scale for the cultivation of coffee, tea, cardamom and rubber on hilly areas.
- Kerala became a hub of cash crop production.
Choose from the bracket the persons related to the following events.
a. Kundara Proclamation :
b. Vaikom Satyagraha : …………………
c. Guruvayoor Satyagraha : …………….
d. Keezhariyoor Bomb Case : ………………..
e. Malayali Memorial : ……………….
(Dr.Palpu, GP.Pillai, Pazhassi Raja, KKelappan, K.B.Menon, Sree Narayana Guru, Velu Thampi Dalawa, T.KMadhavan)
a. Velu Thampi Dalawa
List the social reform movements and protests developed in Kerala to eradicate social evils and inequalities.
Social Reform Movements
- Samathwa Samajam – Vaikunda Swamikal
- Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam – Sree Narayana Guru
- Sadhujana Paripalana Sangham – Ayyankali
- Travancore Muslim Mahajanasabha – Vakkom Abdul KhaderMoulavi
- Atmavidya Sangham – Vagbhatananda
- Sahodara Prasthanam – Sahodaran Ayyappan
- Araya Samajam – Pandit K.P.Karuppan
- Nair Service Society – Mannath Padmanabhan
- Yogakshema Sabha – V.T.Bhattathiripad
- Prathyaksha Raksha Daiva Sabha – Kumara Guru Devan
Agitations / Protests
- Channar Revolt
- Aruvippuram Consecration
- Vaikom Satyagraha
- Guruvayoor Satyagraha
- Temple Entry Proclamation
The National Movement in Kerala had no uniformity. Find out the reasons.
- The National Movement in Kerala lacked a unified form because Kerala was not administratively united.
- Malabar was ruled directly by the British. So the national movement was strong there.
- The British controlled the administration of Kochi and Travancore indirectly through the Residents. So political agitations were not strong and powerful here as in Malabar.
Give a detailed account, of the events that led to United Kerala.
Malayalis were divided by three different administrative dispensations though they spoke the same language.
- The Nagpur Session of the Indian National Congress in 1920 decided to set up State Congress Committees on a linguistic basis.
- The first All Kerala Political Conference was held at Ottappalam in 1921. The Kerala Pradesh Congress Committee came into existence uniting Travancore, Kochi and Malabar regions.
- The joint meeting of the people of native states of Malabar, Cochin and Travancore held in Ernakulam in 1928 approved the Aikya Kerala resolution.
- The Congress Session held in Payyanur in 1928 under the Chairmanship of Jawaharlal Nehru demanded that Kerala should be reorganised as a distinctive state after independence.
- The United Kerala resolution passed at the j United Kerala Convention held at Thrissur in 1947 under the Chairmanship of K.Kelappan.
- The United Kerala Convention of 1949 held at Palakkad.
The state of Thiru – Kochi formed after the unification of the princely states of Cochin and Travancore on 1st July 1949.
- The formation of States Reorganisation Commission with Fazl Alias Chairman in 1953.
- The State Reorganization Act passed in 1956 on the report of the States Reorganization Commission.
- The formation of Kerala state on 1st November 1956 including Malabar and TavancoreCochin.
Prepare a note on the arrival of the Europeans to Kerala and their goals.
The arrival of Vasco da Gama in Calicut in 1498 j led to the beginning of European trade in Kerala,The Zamorin granted the Portuguese the permission to trade from Calicut. The Portuguese insisted on monopoly in trade. Their aim was to drive away the Arabs and the Chinese who had traded with Kerala for centuries.
They demanded Zamorin to expel the Arab merchants from Kozhicode. But j the Zamorin rejected this demand and the furious Portuguese tried to obtain trading rights from the Raja of Cochin. The naval force of Zamorin under Kunjali Marakkar put up a tough resistance against the Portuguese, but failed.
The Dutch were the second European power to come to Kerala for trade. They also tried to get the monopoly of trade in Kerala by defeating the other foreign powers. They captured Cochin from the Portuguese in 1663 and expelled the Portuguese from Kerala. The rise of Travancore under Marthanda Varma was a severe blow to the Dutch in establishing their trade monopoly in South Kerala. In the battle of Colachel fought in 1741, Marthanda Varma defeated the Dutch and so they had to leave Kerala.
In 1615, Captain William Keeling arrived in Calicut with ships as the representative of the English East India Company. He concluded a treaty with the Zamorin who gave them freedom of trade in his country. They also tried to get the monopoly of trade in Kerala. They obtained permission to open warehouses at Vizhinjam and Anjengo. They succeded in establishing their political power in Kerala after defeating the other European powers.
In the Carnatic wars fought between the English and the French, the English succeeded and this gave them the monopoly of trade in South India.
By the end of the 18th century, the whole of Kerala came under the British.
How did Malabar, Travancore and Cochin come under the British rule?
The British got Malabar by the Treaty of Sreerangapattanam signed between the British and Tipu Sultan, the ruler of Mysore in 1792. The Company signed new treaties with the rulers of Cochin and Travancore. The King of Cochin was forced to give tribute to the Company by accepting the British supremacy in 1792. Thus Cochin came under the control of the British.
By the treaty of 1795, Travancore accepted British supremacy. Instead the British promised them protection from the enemies. Thus the British controlled Kerala ruling Malabar directly and Cochin and Travancore indirectly through vassal kings or Samantha rajas. By the end of the 18th century, Kerala came completely under British domination.
Prepare a list of the early resistance against the British in Kerala, including the regions they broke out and their reasons.
Examine the list given below and write your assumptions on foreign trade in Kerala.
- The British took away the products and raw materials necessary for the industries of England at cheap rate. The English products were imposed on the natives at high prices.
- They took away from Kerala coconut Jaggery, cashew nut and pepper. Instead they brought clothes and metal products to Kerala.
- Foreign trade increased in Kerala.
- The self sufficient village economies ruined.
Give an account of the results of the attempts made by the British to improve trade in Kerala.
The British amended the trade laws of Malabar, Kochi and Travancore to their favour. This gave them monopoly of trade. They introduced uniform coinage and metrology systems. Roads and bridges and railways were constructed for enabling the easy transportation of commodities. Later these helped the industrial progress ill Kerala. They developed ports at Kochi, Kozhikode and Alappuzha for better trade facilities. These ports helped for the foreign trade in Kerala.
Analyse the changes commercialisation brought about in Kerala’s agricultural sector.
- The cultivation of commercial crops for markets and industries instead of food crops is known as commercialization of agriculture. The British encouraged market – driven cultivation in the agricultural sector.
- Coconut products had high demand in foreign markets. So large scale cultivation of coconut began instead of paddy.
- The scarcity of paddy caused famine in many areas. To overcome famine, tapioca was cultivated on a large scale.
- Coffee, tea, cardamom and rubber began to be cultivated as plantation crops. This resulted in food scarcity and unemployment.
- Forests were cleared on a large scale for the cultivation of plantation crops.
- Asa result of commercialization, the Britishers became the owners of plantations in Kerala.
Prepare a note on the plantation industries and traditional industries developed in different parts of Kerala and on the factors that contributed their growth.
Plantation industries like tea factories, coffee factories and rubber factories were concentrated in Wayanad and Idukki regions which produced most of the tea, coffee and rubber. The availability of raw materials was the reason for the concentration of these industries here.
The traditional industries that developed in Kerala during the British rule were coconut oil industry, coir industry, cashewnut industry, tile industry and handloom industry.
Alappuzha has extensive coconut cultivation. So coconut oil industry and coir industry were concentrated in Alappuzha. The factors that led to the development of these industries here were the availability of raw materials, foreign capital investment, availability of labourers and the presence of backwaters.
Kollam had extensive cultivation of high quality cashewnut. As a result, cashew industries were concentrated in Kollam.
Tile factories were concentrated in Farook, Kollam and Ollur where clay for making tile was available.
Handloom factories were in Kannur.
Prepare a flow chart showing the industrial
development in Kerala during the British rule.
Discuss the changes in the fields of health and judicial sector’ of Kerala during the British period.
- The British reformed the judicial system in Kerala. The new system put an end to trial and punishment based on caste of the accused. Instead it introduced unified punishments depending on the nature of guilt after hearing the accused.
- The principle of equality before law irrespective of caste was established.
- Set up trial courts in different places of Kerala.
- Introduced Allopathy system of treatment.
- Vaccination against small pox started first in Malabar.
- Government hospitals were started in Travancore, Kochi and Malabar.
Evaluate the role played by Channar Revolt, Vaikom Satyagraha and Guruvayoor Satyagraha to bring about social changes in Kerala.
Channar Revolt was the struggle of the Channar women of Southern Travancore to wear upper clothes. The struggle for gaining this right began in 1822 and came to a successful end in 1859. In 1859, the Maharaja of Travancore Uthram Thirunal was forced to issue an order allowing Channar women to wear jackets.
The Vaikom Satyagraha of 1924 was an important agitation in Kerala for the right to travel. Lower caste Hindus had no right to travel on the road around the Mahadeva Temple of Vaikom. An agitation was started under the leadership of T.K.Madhavan for throwing the road open for all.
A Savarna Jatha was organised from Vaikom to Trivandrum under the leadership of Mannath Padmanabhan to support the Satyagraha and submitted a memorandum to the Maharaja. Following the agitation, the lower caste Hindus secured permission to travel through the roads around Vaikom Temple.
The Guruvayoor Satyagraha was started in 1931 under the leadership of K.Kelappan demanding entry into the Guruvayoor temple for all castes of Hindus.
A.K.Gopalan was the volunteer captain of the struggle. The orthodox sections manhandled P.Krishna Pillai. The authorities of the temple closed the temple down. Though the Satyagraha was not a success, it created an atmosphere against untouchability. Following these popular protests, Temple Entry Proclamation was announced in November 1936 in Travancore, in 1947 in Malabar and in 1948 in Kochi.
Thus Channar Revolt, Vaikom Satyagraha and Guruvayoor Satyagraha helped to eradicate untouchability, and obtain the right of travel and right of worship.
Prepare a flow chart on the major political protests in Malabar, Travancore and Kochi.
Analyse the circumstances that led to the formation of United Kerala.
- The Nagpur Session of Indian National Congress in 1920 decided to form Congress Committees on linguistic basis.
- The first All Kerala Political Conference held at Ottapalam in 1921. People from Malabar, Kochi and Travancore joined together in this.
- Payyanur Congress Session under the Presidentship of Jawaharlal Nehru in 1928.
- United Kerala Convention held at Trichur in 1947.
- The merger of Travancore and Kochi on 1 July 1949.
- The formation of States Reorganization Commission in 1953.
- The State Reorganization Act of 1956.
- Formation of Kerala State in 1956.