Kerala State Board New Syllabus Plus One English Textbook Answers Unit 3 Chapter 3 The Sacred Turtles of Kadavu Text Book Questions and Answers, Summary, Notes.
Kerala Plus One English Textbook Answers Unit 3 Chapter 3 The Sacred Turtles of Kadavu (Based on Fijian Legend)
The Sacred Turtles of Kadavu (Based on Fijian Legend) Textual Questions and Answers
How, according to the legend, did the warriors of Kadavu save themselves a long journey by sea?
According to the legend, the warriors of Kadavu saved themselves a long journey by sea by sliding their canoes on rollers up over the narrow neck of land. This way they could avoid the long journey around the east and the west of the Kadavu island.
The turtles will not rise to the surface of the bay if any member of the nearby village ofNabukulevu is present there. What could be the reason?
It was the fishermen of Nabukelevu who tried to take away Tinaicoboga, the wife of the chief of Namuana, and herdaughterRaudalice. These two women saved themselves by turning into turtles. The turtles that now live in the bay are descendants of these two women. The people of Namuana and Nabukelevu are great rivals. That is why the turtles will not rise to the surface if any member of the village ofNabukulevu is present during the turtle calling by the Namuana maidens.
Are all rituals strange? Why?
Yes, all the rituals strange. They are strange because in all of them some impossible things are described. As they are passed from generation to generation, people go on adding things to the original story according to their imagination.
Comment on the opening sentence of the legend.
The opening sentence is the typical way of starting a story. Here the syntax (the order or the arrangement of words) is also changed. It says ‘Many, many years go,…. lived a very lovely princess called Tinaicoboga”. The verb here comes before the subject.
What happens to the two women when they go fishing?
When the two women go fishing, they are seized by the fishermen from the neighbouring village. Their hands and feet are tied and they are thrown into the hold of the canoe of the fishermen. As the women are taken away a storm rises in the sea and the canoe is in danger of drowning. The women turn into turtles and they are thrown into the sea by the fishermen. The belief is that the turtles that live in the Kadavu bay are the descendants of these two women.
What does the change in weather signify?
The change in weather signifies that the gods of the sea-answered the prayers of the two women – Tinaicoboga and her daughter Raudalice. The changed weather would help them to escape from the captivity of the fishermen from Nabukelevu.
Why are the women dressed in mourning?
They are dressed in mourning because they had lost the wife of their chief and her daughter – Tinaicoboga and Raudalice. Since they changed into turtles and never returned to their village, they were as good as dead.
What do the lines of the song indicate?
The lines of the song indicate that the women of Namuana love the wife of their chief and her daughter – Tinaicoboga and Raudalice and they also want to have a look at them.
The Sacred Turtles of Kadavu (Based on Fijian Legend) Textual Activities Questions and Answers
Activity -1 (Debate)
Who do you think are really punished; The Nabukelevu fishermen or the two women from Namuana?
I think the two women from Namuana are really punished. From two beautiful human beings they were changed into turtles!
Discuss the situation in the present context of atrocities against women. Conduct a debate on the topic: Are women empowered in our society?
a. Women are empowered in our society.
b. We have powerful woman like Sonia Gandhi, Mamata Banerjee and Mayawati.
c. Mrs. Indira Gandhi was the strongest Prime Minister India had.
d. Women have the same political rights as men.
e. In government services and public undertakings, women get the same salary for the same job.
f. Women are given preferential treatment when it comes to education and health care.
g. There are many programmes today meant for the empowerment of women.
a. The equal rights for women are limited to the paper.
b. Women don’t get equal pay with men especially in the private sector.
c. Women are treated as second class citizens.
d. In the home, man commands and the woman obeys.
e. There are so many limitations to the mode of dressing and such things for women.
f. No religion lets women to be priests. Some religions even deny access to women to their places of worship.
g. Because Manu had said in the past ‘Na Sthree Swatantryamarhati’, many people don’t let their women have any kind of freedom.
h. Even now the dowry system is very much active in different names like share & pocket money.
I Rapes and such heinous crimes against women are rampant.
Activity – II (Write-up)
You have read the story of an unusual Fijian ritual. Can you think of similar rituals practised in your locality?
Onam is festival that is celebrated by all the Malayalees. It is commemorated every year because of a legend. King Mahabali ruled Kerala and he was a just ruler. All the people were treated equally. There was liberty, equality and fraternity in the land. There was happiness everywhere. People here were happier than the inhabitants of heaven. So they became jealous. So one god, disguised as an ascetic, Vamana, came to Mahabali and requested him to give him three feet of land to sit and do his ‘tapassu’. The generous Mahabali gladly granted his wish. Then suddenly Vamana began to grow in size and he was as tall as the sky. With one foot he measured the entire land of Mahabali, with the second foot he measured the skies above the land.
Then he asked Mahabali where he duld have his third foot of land. Mahabali bent his head and told him he can have it there. Vamana put his foot on Mahabali’s head and Mahabali was pushed deep down into the underworld. As he was going down, he asked Vamana to give him a boon: He should be allowed to come back and visit his beloved people once a year. His request was granted. The Kerala people believe that Mahabali comes to earth to see them every year on Thiruvonam day.
To receive their beloved king, the people make pookkalams in their yards. They make sumptuous meals. They wear new clothes and adorn themselves as best as they can. They also have some folk dances and other entertaining things to welcome their great king. It is a festive season in Kerala and everybody looks happy on that day. The occasion is commercially exploited by businessmen to sell all kinds of things. It is the holiday season for Keralites and people organise tours and various other activities.
Activity – III (Travel Brochure)
Let’s prepare a travel brochure of a place of your choice.
A travel brochure should
- open with a catchy sentence which is followed by short, concise sentences.
- satisfy the interest of the target audience.
- highlight the main features:
- description of scenic beauty
- scope for adventures (sky diving, mountaineering, etc.)
- reference to local culture, customs and traditions.
- appeal to the five senses.
- present one or two positive testimonials from past visitors.
- include attractive photographs of the destination.
Niagara in Kerala? Yes, Athirappally Falls in Kerala is nicknamed The Niagara of India’. It is a 24-metre (80 ft).waterfall near the Vazhachal Forest Division and the Sholayar ranges. It is a thrilling sight especially in the monsoon season. At the Athirappally Falls, the water of the Chalakudy River surges around big rocks and cascades down in three separate paths. Below the falls the river remains turbulent for about 1 km. Then it calms down and flows smoothly until reaching the dam at Thumboormuzhi.
Wildlife in the area includes the Asiatic elephant, tiger, leopard, bison, sambar and the lion-tailed monkey. Different types of hornbill live in this area. Plantations in the area contain teak, bamboo and eucalyptus. This area is renowned for its biodiversity. You will see God’s plenty here. Visitors can reach the top of the waterfall via a paved path that leads through thick bamboo clusters. A steep narrow path also leads to the bottom of the falls. The best time to visit this wonderful place is between June and September. Many films are shot here because of its glory, splendour and scenic extravaganza. If you love Nature, beauty and adventure, come to Athirappally and enjoy its breathtaking view. It is truly the Niagara of India. Niagara is much bigger but it does not have the wildlife and the biodiversity seen in this miraculous place.
Athirappally is 30 km to the west of Chalakudy. The journey from Chalakudy to the Falls passes through a landscape of winding roads, small villages and lush green trees. If you enjoy local food, you will find a lot of small restaurants on your way where you can enjoy local dishes. But be careful! Some of them could be very spicy and hot!
The Sacred Turtles of Kadavu (Based on Fijian Legend) Textual Extended Activities Questions and Answers
Read the English translation of the Malayalam excerpt taken from S.K. Pottekkattwho has written several books of travel.
- Transfer the meaning; avoid word for word translation.
- Be aware of the cultural differences in languages.
- Ensure that the translation is in tune with the linguistic features of the target language.
Read the passage in Malayalam given on below. Here is the translation.
Athiranippadam is a village that gradually developed from a large muddy area. In the ancient times, a small river flowed through it and emptied its waters into the sea one mile west of the place. In the course of time, centuries perhaps, the river was filled with mud and reduced itself into a canal. That part is still known as the bank of the river. Even that canal stopped flowing and the entire area became a vast muddy field. As the muddy field began to dry up, men entered and started living here.
You decide to conduct a tour programme. What are the different stages involved in it? Discuss.
a. How many are ready to come?
b. How long is the tour programme?
c. What is the destination?
d. What are the things to be done there?
e. The cost per person.
f. The type of transport.
g. Food and Stay
h. Safety precautions to be taken
Activity – II (Travel Info)
Read the Travel Info given below:
- Heathrow Airport is one of the largest and busiest airports in Britain which connects the major cities in the world.
- The London Metro connects you to the major tourist destinations of the city.
Don’t miss out
- The National Gallery
- The British Museum
- The Tower of London
- Windsor Castle
- Fish and Chips-a true English treat of freshly caught fish and crisp potato fries.
Let’s prepare a Travel Info of a place of your choice.
Travel Info – Malampuzha Dam
Getting there : You can get to Malampuzha by road, train or plane, The nearest railway station is Palakkad Junction. The distance will be then 7km by road. The nearest airport is Coimbatore, From there the distance to Malampuzha is 55 km by road.
Information about Malampuzha Dam : It is the largest reservoir in Kerala, with the scenic hills of the Western Ghats in the background. It is a combination of a masonry dam with a length of 1,849 metres and an earthen dam with a length of 220 metres. The dam is 6,066 feet high and crosses the Malampuzha River, a tributary of Bharathappuzha.
Don’t miss out: The Dam, amusement park, boating facilities, rock garden and ropeway.
Around the reservoir of the dam are gardens and amusement parks. Boating facilities are available on the lake.
Cuisine : Fried Karimeen – A true treat for you – fish are freshly caught and fried – supplied with potato chips and special hot chutney.
Activity – III (Conversation)
Decide on a place to visit and approach a travel agency to make arrangements. Write a conversation between you and the travel agent.
Read the tips given below of the Text.
You should book the cheapest holiday possible, inquire about distance, price, travel time, etc.
You : Is that Intersight, the Tour Company?
Agent: Insight here, I am Tom. How can I help you?
You : I saw your advert in Malayala Manorama about the 8-days tour of Europe, starting on 19th April. I would like to join you.
Agent: You are welcome. To book you have to pay an initial amount of Rs. 30,000/-. Then you send us your passport. We have to get you a European visa.
You : When should I pay the rest of the amount?
Agent: It should be paid when you get the visa. We will let you know of the date.
You : How many are there in the group?
Agent: You are the 33rd member of the group.
You : What are the things I must bring with me?
Agent: You will need warm clothes as Europe is still cold in April. You should also bring your essential medicines. You can’t buy medicines in Europe as you buy them in India. You will need a doctor’s prescription and seeing a doctor could be quite expensive and time-consuming. Carry your camera with you as you will like to take photographs. Keep some Euros with you, in case you want to buy something special.
You : How much luggage can I carry?
Aent: You can carry 30 kgs. Bu I suggest you take the minimum luggage. Less luggage, more comfort.
You : Okay, thanks. I will send you the passport and the money soon.
Agent: That’s fine. I assure you that it will be a memorable trip. Bye!
You : Bye!
Activity – IV : (Introductory speech)
Imagine yourself to be a travel guide. A group of tourists visits one or the most popular tourist spots of your locality. How would you welcome them?
Prepare the script of a speech you will make o the occasion, introducing the tourist spot to the visitors.
Welcoming Tourists : Ladies and gentlemen, you are welcome to God’s Own Country, Kerala! I am your guide Joe. I will be with you during the entire tour of this place. I assure you that you will enjoy here. Here you are going to see some amazing sights. Be ready with your camera. These are some sights and sounds that will thrill you and you will come back again and again to see them and hear them!
Describing the location : This is Athirappally Falls. It is called The Niagara of India’. It is a 24-metre (80 ft) waterfall near the Vazhachal Forest Division and the Sholayar ranges. It is a thrilling sight especially in the rainy season. At the Athirappally Falls, the water of the Chalakudy River surges around big rocks and cascades down in three separate paths. Below the falls the river remains turbulent for about 1 km. Then it calms down and flows smoothly until reaching the dam at Thumboormuzhi.
Introducing special events/highlights: Here soon you are going to see the Asiatic elephant, tiger, leopard, bison, sambar and the lion-tailed monkey. Different types of hornbill are also here. You will see teak, bamboo and eucalyptus. This area is renowned for its biodiversity. You will see God’s plenty here. We will go to the top of the waterfall via a paved path that leads through thick bamboo clusters. A steep narrow path also leads to the bottom of the falls. Many films are shot here because of its glory, splendour and scenic extravaganza. If you love Nature, beauty and adventure, you will love this place. Niagara may be much bigger but it does not have the wildlife and the biodiversity seen in this miraculous place. Don’t forget to shoot these sights!
Offering advice: If you are weak or tired, don’t climb up to the top or go down to the bottom. The place could be slippery. Make sure your shoes have good grips: Taking a stick with you will be helpful.
Closing remarks: I hope you have enjoyed the sights and sounds. Thanks for coming. Come again!
Activity – V (Discussion)
In the poem given on below:
Our dear sister
is departing for foreign
in two-three days, and
we are meeting today
to wish her bon voyage.
You are all knowing, friends,
what sweetness is in Miss Pushpa.
I don’t mean only external sweetness
but internal sweetness.
Miss Pushpa is smiling and smiling
even for no reason
but simply because she is feeling.
Miss Pushpa is coming
from very high family.
Her father was renowned advocate
in Bulsar or Surat,
I am not remembering now which place.
Surat? Ah, yes,
Once only I stayed in Surat
with family members
of my uncle’s very old friend,
his wife was cooking nicely…
that was long time ago.
Coming back to Miss Pushpa
she is most popular lady
with men also and ladies also.
Whenever I asked her to do anything,
she was saying, ‘just now only
I will do it.’ That is showing
good spirit. I am always
appreciating the good spirit.
Pushpa Miss is never saying no.
Whatever I or anybody is asking
She is always saying yes,
And today she is going
to improve her prospect
and we are wishing her bon voyage.
Now I ask other speakers to speak
and afterwards Miss Pushpa
will do summing up.
there are grammatical mistakes, strange arrangement of words, phrases and idioms which are direct translations of expressions from Indian languages. They sound very odd ¡n English. Identify them and discuss.
a. departing for foreign (going abroad)
b. We are all knowing (We all know)
c. What sweetness is in Miss Pushpa (How sweet Miss Pushpa is)
d. I don’t mean only external sweetness but internal sweetness (She is sweet both externally and internally)
e. Miss Pushpa is smiling and smiling even for no reason but simply because she is feeling (Miss Pushpa always smiles because of her good feelings).
f. Miss Push is coming from very high family (Miss Pushpa comes from a noble family)
g. was renowned advocate (was a renowned advocate)
h. I am not remembering (I don’t remember)
i. Once only I stayed in Surat (Only once I stayed in Surat)
j. With family members of my uncle’s very old friend (with the family members of a very old friend of my uncle)
k. His wife was cooking nicely (his wife was a good cook)
l. She is most popular lady with men also and ladies also (Miss Pushpa is very popular with men and also ladies)
m. Whenever I asked her to do anything, she was saying, ‘just now only I will do it.’ (Whenever I asked her to do something she would say she would immediately do it)
o. That is showing good spirit (that shows good spirit)
p. I am always appreciating (I always appreciate)
q. Pushpa Miss is never saying no. (Pushpa Miss never says no)
r. Whatever I or anybody is asking she is always yes. (Whatever I or anybody asks her she agrees)
s. improve her prospect (improve her prospects) we are wishing her (we wish her)
Now I ask other speakers to speak and afterwards, Miss Pushpa will do summing up. (Now I ask other speakers to speak and later Miss Pushpa will respond)
The Sacred Turtles of Kadavu (Based on Fijian Legend) About the Author:
It is a multicultural island nation. It has the cultural traditions of the people of Oceanic, European, South Asian, and East Asian origins. It consists of nearly 320 islands in the southwest Pacific Ocean, 3152 kms from Sydney, Australia. Nearly 100 of these islands are inhabited.
The Sacred Turtles of Kadavu Summary
Kadavu is one of the larger of islands of the Fiji Group. Some 50 miles by water from the capital city of Suva is the Fijian village of Namuana. Namuana is at the foot of a beautiful bay close to the Government Station in Vunisea Harbour. Here, the island of Kadavu narrows down to an isthmus (a narrow strip of land connecting two large land masses). Legend says that in the days gone by, the warriors of Kadavu slid their canoes on rollers up over the narrow neck of land to save the long journey around the east and the west of Kadavu Island.
The women of Namuana village still preserve a very strange ritual – that of calling turtles from the sea. If you visit Namuana village to see turtle calling, your boat anchors in a beautiful bay under the cliffs of a rocky headland. You land on the beach and sit on the rocks. Or climb to a rocky tract to a point some 150 or 200 feet up the rock face. From here you can have a splendid view. You will find all the maidens of the village of Namuana assembled and singing a strange chant. As they chant, you will see giant turtles rise one by one on the surface, listening to the music.
This is not fairy tale. It actually takes place. The fishing of turtles is prohibited in this area.
There is another interesting sideline to this performance. If any member of the nearby village of Nabukelevu is present, then the turtles will not rise to the surface of the bay and the turtle calling has to be abandoned.
As is usually the case with such strange ceremonies and customs, in Fiji, the turtle calling is based on an ancient legend. This legend is passed on from father to son among the Fijian people of Kadavu.
Many, many years ago, in the beautiful village of Namuana, on the island Kadavu, lived a very lovely princess called Tinaicoboga. She was the wife of the chief of Namuana village. She had a charming daughter called Raudalice. The two women often went fishing on the reefs around their home.
Once they went farther than usual. They waded out on the submerged reefs. They became so involved with their fishing that they did not see the approach of a big war canoe. I was full of fishermen from the nearby village of Nabukelevu. This village is situated in the shadow of Mount Washington, which is the highest mountain on Kadavu Island. Today this mountain is well known to the mariners because there is a fine light-house there. It warns them of the dangers of the rocky coastline.
Suddenly the fishermen jumped out of their boats and caught the two women. They tied their hands and feet with the vine (the plant on which grapes grow) and threw them into their canoe and they went home in a great hurry. The women begged for their lives. But the cruel fishermen from Nabukelevu did not listen to their requests.
But the gods of the sea were kind. A great storm arose and the canoe was tossed about by huge waves, which almost drowned it. As the canoe was in serious difficulty, the fishermen were surprised to see that the two women lying in the water in the hold of the canoe had turned into turtles. To save their own lives, the fishermen threw the turtles into the sea. Immediately the weather changed and there were no more waves.
The Nabukelevu fishermen continued their journey home. The two women from Namuana who had changed to turtle lived on in the water of the bay. It is their descendants today who rise from the water when the maidens of their own village sing songs to them from the cliffs.
This is the translation of the song chanted by them:
“The women of Namuana are all dressed in mourning
Each carries a sacred club each tattooed in a strange pattern
Do rise to the surface Raudalice so we may look at you
Do rise to the surface Tinaicoboga so we may also look at you.”
You may doubt the truth of the legend. But the chanting of this strange song does bring the giant turtles to the surface of the blue waters of the bay, near Namuana village.
(From a Fijian legend)
The Sacred Turtles of Kadavu Glossary