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Kerala Plus One History Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 9 The Industrial Revolution
Chapter 9 the Industrial Revolution Notes Question 1.
Define Industrial Revolution and describe its main features.
The changes that took place in the industry and economy of England between 1780s and 1850s are called the first Industrial Revolution.
The Industrial Revolution was a technological revolution. It was new technology and new machines that brought the Industrial Revolution in England. The progress in technology made large scale production possible.
Industrial Revolution: Main Changes:
- Change from physical labour to machine work.
- Movement from the home system to the factory system.
- Large scale mechanization.
- Use of energy sources like steam and electricity.
- Revolutionary changes in travel and communication (Ships, railway).
Make a note of the books and writers that throw light into the Industrial Revolution.
The term Industrial Revolution was first used by George Michel of France and Frederick Engels of Germany. In English language, it was used for the first time by Sir Arnold Toynbee (1889-1975) who was a great thinker and economist. He used this term to describe the changes that took place in England between 1760 and 1820. On this subject, he delivered a series of lectures in Oxford University. After his death, these lectures were published in a book form with the title Lectures on the Industrial Revolution in England: Popular Address, Notes, and other Fragments. It was this book that popularised the term Industrial Revolution.
Class 6 History Chapter 9 Questions and Answers Question 3.
Industrial Revolution started in Britain. Why?
Industrial Revolution started in Britain. There are many factors that helped Britain to become the first industrial nation.
1. Political stability: As England, Wales and Scotland came together under a single long, there has been political stability in Britain since the 17th century. The country had common laws and a unified currency system. The market in the country had a national character. Since regional authorities did not impose taxes on goods, there ‘ was no price increase. This kind of political stability helped Britain.
2. Wide use of money: Since the 17th century, money had been used extensively as a means of transaction. With this, a lot of people began to get cash as wages and salaries instead of goods. By using this cash, people could buy any goods of their choice. This enlarged the market and it helped the Industrial Revolution.
3. The Influence of the Agricultural Revolution: Prior to the Industrial Revolution, there was an agricultural, revolution in Britain. Big landowners bought the small pieces around them and enclosed the fields with fences. Thus there were big estates that helped in the increased production of foodstuff. The people who earned their livelihood by grazing cattle in the open fields could not continue to do so and they became jobless. They went into big cities seeking jobs. By providing raw materials and labour, the agricultural revolution helped the Industrial Revolution.
4. Cities, trade and wealth: The growth of cities and trade and the availability of wealth helped the Industrial Revolution. From the 18th century, cities have been growing in Europe. Out of the 19 metropolises, 11 were in Britain. London was the biggest. London became a centre of all the markets in the country.
Explaining the discoveries and changes in the manufacturing of coal and iron, describe how they helped the Industrial Revolution.
Coal and iron ore were essential for the. manufacture of machines were plenty in England. Materials like black lead, copper and white lead which were extensively used in industries were also plenty in the country. But until the 18th century, there was a shortage of “usable iron”. Iron was made by melting iron ore into a liquid state and then separating the pure iron from it. To melt iron ore charcoal was used. There were many problems with this. Since charcoal was brittle, it was difficult to transport charcoal to faraway places. Because of the impurities in it, the iron produced this way was not of high quality. Moreover charcoal could not produce high heat. Because of the large scale deforestation, there was a shortage of charcoal.
The solution to this problem was found by the Darby family of Shropshire. In 50 years, three generations of this family (grandfather, father, and son) brought a revolution in the refining of iron.
In 1709, Abraham Darby (1677-1717) developed the first blast furnace which could maintain a very high degree of heat. In it, coke could be used. Coke was made by removing the sulphur and other impurities from coal. With this, there was no need for charcoal. The iron that was made from the blast furnace of Darby was strong and of a higher quality.
Darby II(1711-1768) made cast iron from iron. This would not break easily. Henry Cort (1740-1823) made two important discoveries – the puddling furnace to remove impurities from pig iron and the rolling mill to produce rails. These discoveries helped in producing many different kinds of iron products.
The cotton industry had two special features. Write about them.
The cotton industry had two special features.
1. Cotton had to be completely imported. The major portion of the cloth made from this was fully exported. This: helped in maintaining the colonization process. To get raw materials and to’ sell the finished goods, control over the colonies was essential.
2. The cotton industry largely depended on the work of women and children in factories. This showed the cruel face of the early industrialization.
In 1773, John Kay invented the flying shuttle. What were the other inventions related to the cotton industry?.
1. In 1773, John Kay invented the flying shuttle. Using this, the speed in weaving clothes was increased. One worker Could now do the work of two. Since spinning (thread-making) was a slow process, enough thread was not available for weaving clothes. This problem was solved by Hargreaves.
2. In 1765 James Hargreaves had invented the, spinning jenny. This jenny could produce many strands of threads at the same time. But the strands were not sufficiently strong.
3. In 1769 Richard Arkwright invented a new spinning machine called water frame. This machine could produce strong threads. The production capacity of the spinners increased 7 times.
4. In 1779, Samuel Crompton invented a machine called mule. With this, a spinner could make 250 strands of thread simultaneously.
5. In 1787 Edmund Cartwright invented power loom. This machine worked with mechanical energy and it drastically increased the speed of weaving. It was easy to work with it. If the thread broke, it would stop automatically. Anything could be woven in this loom.
From the 1830s, importance was given by the cotton industry to increase the productivity of workers and not to inventions.
Chapter 9 the Industrial Revolution Question 7.
For large scale industrialization, steam power was essential. Describe the major inventions in the area.
In 1698, Thomas Savery invented a pump that worked on steam power. It was used to drain water from mines. It was called Miner’s Friend. It worked very slowly. Moreover when the pressure increased the boiler burst.
In 1712, Thomas Newcomen invented another steam engine. This helped in draining water from the mines in a better way. But the steaming chamber became cold too soon and thus energy was lost and this was a defect of this machine.
In 1769, James Watt developed his steam engine. Until then all the steam machines were used only in the mines. From mere pumps, James Watt changed steam engines to a driving force. His steam engines were suitable for different industries. In 1775, with the help of his friend Mathew Bouton, James Watt established a factory in Birmingham for producing steam engines. This factory-produced steam engines one after the other. By the end 18th century, stream energy of Watt replaced water power.
History Plus One Chapter 9 Question 8.
During the period of the Industrial Revolution, There was great progress in the building of canals. Justify.
An important thing that took place during the Industrial Revolution was the changes in the modes of travel. These changes were first visible in the construction of canals and railways.
Canals were first made to transport coal to the cities. Taking coal by road was expensive and slow. Since a lot of coal was needed, there was a great need for canals. The most famous of the early canals were Worsley Canal built by James Brindley (1716-72). Transporting coal to the city was its aim. When the canal was completed, the price of coal was reduced to half.
HssLive in History Question 9.
The most surprising change in travel was the development of the railway. Explain.
The most surprising change in travel was definitely the development of the railway. George Stevenson started the railway age. In 1814 he built the steam engine called rocket. With this engine, a train could go as fast as 35 miles an hour and this was history. Soon railways became a new means of travel and transport. Rail travel was available throughout the year and it was cheap and fast. People and goods could be easily transported.
Railway travel connected two inventions – rails and steam engines. In the 1760s iron rails replaced wooden rails. At the beginning of the 19th century, steam engines began to be used in railways.
In 1801 Richard Trevithick developed a machine called. Puffing Devil. This machine was useful in dragging trucks around the mines.
In 1814 George Stevenson made a train with the name Blucher. It could climb hills carrying even goods weighing 30 tons. It was Stevenson that built the first rail Connecting Stockton and Darlington. In 1830, Liverpool and Manchester were linked by rail. With the opening of this railway line, the railway age dawned.
Chapter 9 the Industrial Revolution Answers Question 10.
Prepare a seminar paper showing the Changes the Industrial Revolution brought.
The Industrial Revolution brought many changes in the life of people. Though it brought ease and comfort to one section of the people, it brought misery and pain to some others.
Rich persons invested money in different industries to reap profits. Their income increased dramatically because of the proper use of goods, services, knowledge, and productivity. But industrialization arid urbanization adversely affected common people. Families were separated, cities became crowded and dirty, and the terrible work conditions in the factories made people suffer.
In 1750, in England, there were only two cities that had more than 50,000 people. By 1850, this increased to 29. The speed of this growth did not reflect on the life of people. They.did not have proper places to live and sanitation facilities. Not even enough drinking water was available. Persons newly coming to the cities were forced to live in the slums in, or close to, the cities. But the rich people built their second homes in villages which were free from pollution.
A survey done in 1842 revealed that the longevity of the workers (labourers) in the city was less than those of others. The average life expectancy of workers was 15 years in Birmingham, 17 in Manchester and 21 in Derby. This was because in cities many children died at a very young age. Many died even before they reached 5. The increase in the city population was because of migration from the rural areas and not because of increased birth rates there.
Workers died prematurely mainly because of contagious diseases. Cholera and typhoid that came as the result of water pollution and tuberculosis that spread through the atmosphere killed many. In a cholera epidemic in 1832, more than 31,000 workers died.
Until the end of the 19th century, the municipal authorities ignored these dangerous circumstances. There was also no medical expertise to diagnose and treat these diseases.
Women, Children, and Industrialization:
One of the worst outcomes of industrialization was the exploitation of women and children. Children of poor parents had to work in the fields and also at home. They worked under strict supervision from their parents or relatives. The village women had to work in the field. They grew cattle and gathered wood. They also made thread using looms.
In the factories of the city, women and children were made to work. The work here was quite different from the work in villages. They had to work in factories and mines for long periods without rest and under strict supervision. They were punished severely for any little mistakes they made. The income from the women and children were needed for meeting the expenses of the family as the men earned very little as they had low wages.
Even when the use of machines became widespread, employers preferred women and children to do the work because they had to be paid much less than men. The women and children would not protest against bad working conditions.
In the cotton industries of Lancashire and Yorkshire, plenty of women and children were employed. In silk-making, brocade making and sewing, women were the main workers. In the iron industry at Birmingham also they worked along with children.
Children were made to labour hard. Machines like the spinning jenny were made in such a way that children with small bodies and fast fingers could work them. Since children could move in between the many thickly laid machines in the factory, they were preferred in the cotton mills. Even on Sundays, they had to work cleaning the machines. Thus they were denied rest and even clean air. Accidents were common in the factories. Some even died in factories as they fell on to the machines being tired and sleepy.
The work in the mines was also dangerous. Accidents were usual there. These were caused by the upper portions of the mines crumbling or because of the explosions carried out there. Mine owners employed children to draw the carts filled with coal along the underground rails. Since entrances were narrow and small, children were preferred by the cruel owners. The children carried loads of coal. Working in the mines was looked upon as training for working in the factories. Evidences from the factory records show that there were children of even less than ten years working there.
It is true that the self-confidence and economic situation of the working women were better. But the adverse circumstances in which they worked, the children they lost at birth or infancy, and the dirty slums in which they were forced to live spoiled the little satisfaction they got from the wages they earned.
Plus One History Notes in Malayalam Question 11.
Against the evils of industrialization, there were strong protests. Prepare a seminar paper based on this statement.
Against the evils of industrialization, there were strong protests in England as well as in other industrialized societies. The slogans of the French Revolution “Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity” gave these movements impetus. The French Revolution had shown the way for fighting for organizing democratic institutions, controlling the price of essential things like bread and to reduce the sufferings caused by wars.
Political protests against the adverse conditions in the factories of England were getting stronger. Workers also demanded the right to vote. The British government first tried to suppress these movements. It brought hew laws preventing the people from protesting.
Between 1792 and 1815, there were constant wars between England and France. As a result, European trade suffered. Factories had to close down. Unemployment increased. The prices of essential things like bread and meat skyrocketed.
In 1795, the British government passed two Combination Acts. The Combination acts said that any writing or speech against the king, constitution or government is against the law. The Parliament; banned any unpermitted meeting of more than 50 persons. But the protests against government policies continued. The Parliament which included landowners, producers and professionals were against giving voting right to the workers. It also backed the anti-people Corn Laws.
The workers in the factories and cities started expressing their anger in many ways. From 1790 there were many ‘Bread Riots’ throughout Britain. The main food of the poor people was bread. The increase in its price troubled them. People captured hoarded bread and distributed it among people at reasonable prices. This was a big blow to the greedy merchants. The ‘bread riots’ continued until 1840.
The Enclosure Movement started by the rich in the early 1700s increased the misery of the common people. Rich landowners bought pieces of land from small farmers and increased the size of their farms which were protected by enclosures (walls). This also adversely affected poor people. They were forced to work in industries.
The introduction of machines in the cotton industry j destroyed the livelihood of many. Thousands of J weavers lost their jobs. They became poor. In the 1790s, the weavers began to demand the legal minimum wages. The Parliament was not ready to make such laws. Against this, the weavers started protests. The government dismissed them from their jobs by force. The desperate workers destroyed power looms. They believed that it was the machines that destroyed their means of livelihood. Workers made strong resistance against mechanization in the wool industry at Nottingham. There were also protests in Leicestershire and Derbyshire.
The workers in Yorkshire who traditionally sheared (cut) the wool from sheep destroyed the shearing frames that were brought for this purpose. In the 1830s, workers in the fields protested against the threshing, machines. They destroyed the machines that were a threat to their jobs. 9 of the protesters were hanged. 450 were deported to Australia as criminals.
Luddism was another Movement that was started against industrialization. Workers who thought that machines were the cause of all their troubles started this movement with the plan of destroying them. This Movement was begun under General Nel Ludd. England suppressed this moment by using the army. Luddism was not a movement that merely wanted to destroy machines. The members of this group demanded minimum wages. They also wanted to stop the exploitation of women and children in the factories and other workplaces. They were interested in the formation of labour organizations.
In the initial years of industrialization, workers did not have voting rights. They had no other way of expressing their anger and despair. In August 1819, there was a big meeting at St. Peters Field in which more than 80,000 people came. They demanded democratic rights like the right to call public meetings, to organize political groups and freedom . of the press. Army rushed to the scene and brutally attacked those attending the meeting. This incident is known as Peterloo Massacre. [Rejecting all the demands of the workers, that year itself the Parliament passed “Six Acts”. The Combination Acts of 1795, which prohibited workers from taking part in political activities, were strictly enforced. However, the Peterloo Massacre made some gains:
1. All the liberal political groups approved the idea of increasing the number of representatives in the House of Commons.
2. In 1824, the Combination Acts were repealed.
For improving the condition of workers, the government carried out some legal steps. Based on this statement, write a note on factory laws.
In 1819 laws were passed prohibiting the employment of children below the age of 9 in factories. The working time of children between 9 and 16 was fixed as 12 hours per day. But this rule was not effectively implemented.
Workers in the northern regions of England had. carried out intense protests against the existing conditions. As a result, in 1833, the British Parliament passed a factory law. This law prohibited the employment of children below the age of 9 in silk factories and cotton mills. The time of work for the children was fixed at 8 hours per day. There was also a condition to appoint factory inspectors to ensure that the laws were kept.
Marking the end of 3 decades of protests in 1847 the “Ten Hours Bill” was passed. By this law the working time was limited. Men had to work only for 10 hours.
Plus One History Notes Question 13
“The Industrial Revolution can’t be seen as a revolution.” In a classroom discussion Abnijn. expressed this view. Do you agree with him? Justify.
It is true that nowadays nobody sees the Industrial Revolution as a revolution. Revolution means radical and sudden changes in the existing situation. Industrialization did not happen suddenly.
In fact, industrialization was a slow process. It was a continuation of the existing situation. Things like concentration of workers in factories and extensive use of money were already in existence in England. Therefore industrialization cannot be seen as a revolution.
Industrialization in England was a regional process. Until the 19th century, a major portion of England had no factories or mines. Industrialization was centered around a few cities like London, Manchester, Birmingham, and Newcastle. That means industrialization there was a regional affair. It did not happen throughout the country. Therefore using the term industrial revolution is quite inappropriate.
Adding the word ‘industrial’ to the world ‘revolution’ is inappropriate. Why?
Adding the word ‘industrial’ to the world ‘revolution’ is quite inappropriate. It is so because the changes happened not only in the economic and industrial spheres but also in the social arena. For example, two classes came up in society – the capitalists (bourgeoisie) and the workers (labour class).