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Kerala Plus one Political Science Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 7 Federalism
Federalism Questions and Answers
What is Federalism?
Federalism is the system by which powers of the nation are divided between the Centre and the States. If all the powers of the nation are concentrated in the Central government, such a system will be called unitary government. America is a Federal system But China is a unitary system.
Complete the following chart:
Indian Federalism and American Federalism are different. Do you agree?
The Indian Constitution follows the federal system. This is what article 1 states: “India that is Bharat shall be a Union of States.” When India became free on 15 August 1947, the integration of the Princely, States became necessary. Our Federation did not come into existence through an agreement among existing States. It is a creation of the self-identity of the Indian people through the Constitution. The American Federal system came into existence as the result of an agreement among 13 colonies. Today America is Federation of 50 States.
Explain how powers are divided among the States and the Centre in the Indian Federalism.
In the 11th Section of the Constitution, Articles 245 to 263 deal with the relations between the States and the Centre. Article 246 talks about the 3 lists for legislation. The content of the 7th schedule is the three lists – Union List, State List, and the Concurrent List. On subjects mentioned in the Union List, the Parliament makes the Laws. It has 97 subjects. The most important subjects of the nation are in this list. The State List has subjects over which the States can make Laws. It has 66 subjects.
Over the subjects mentioned in the Concurrent List, both the Parliament and the State Assembly can make laws. It has 47 subjects. If any subject is not mentioned in the State List or Concurrent list, the Parliament will have the power to makes laws on that subject.
The main subjects in the Union List are: Defence, Armed Forces, Military Camps, the Fortresses of armed forces, arms and ammunition, nuclear energy, defence industry, Central Intelligence, Preventive Detention, Foreign Policy, Diplomacy, Treaties and Agreements, Possessions abroad, Exchange of criminals, Passport, Visa, Migration, Pilgrimage outside the country, crimes against international laws, Railway, National Highways, National waterways, Shipping and Navigation, Light Houses, Big ports, Naval hospitals, air traffic, movement of goods, Post, Telephone, Broadcasting, Public Debt, Currency and Coin making, Foreign loans, Reserve Bank, Post Office and so on.
Main items in the State List: Law and Order, Police, Jail, Local government, public health.
Main items in the Concurrent list: Criminal Law, Criminal procedure, Marriage, divorce, etc.
Categorize the following and put in the appropriate columns: Police, education, defense, Foreign trade Banking, Jail, Forest, agriculture, adulteration.
|Union list||State list||Concurrent List|
Critically examine the Indian Federalism.
India is a Federation. All the features of a federation are found in the Indian Constitution.
- Written and Rigid Constitution
- Division of Authority
- Independent Federal Judiciary
The Indian Constitution stands for a strong federal system. It created a strong federal system. The following show strong Central control:
- All the most important subjects are in the Union list.
- Governors are appointed by the Centre.
- The Centre has the right to declare emergency.
- The Centre has Residuary Powers.
Name the Commission that was appointed to study the Centre-State relations
Evaluate the Centre-State relations in India.
The Constitution is merely framework of Federalism. It is the political processes that supply the flesh and blood to it. Therefore the changing political processes are the most important factor that influences Indian federalism.
Demand for administrative autonomy: Many States of India are clamoring for greater autonomy. Often this causes rifts between the Centre and the states. The role of Governors and President’s rule: The role of Governors has caused many rifts between the Centre and the states. Often the Governors have to work as yes-men to the Central Government. Presidential rule in case of Constitutional Emergency is also a matter of conflict.
Demand for New States: This is another headache for the Federalism. For example, the demand for Telangana State.
Inter-State Conflicts: Sometimes these conflicts grow to such levels that federalism itself is threatened.
There are States in India that demand autonomy. What are the major demands of such States?
Many States and Political Parties demand more autonomy for States. But autonomy means different things to different States and Parties. By Division of authority what some States want is more powers to be given to them. Many States and Political Parties demand more self-rule for their States.
Another demand is that States must have their own sources of income and they should have greater control over their natural resources. Some States wanted autonomy so that they can control their resources.
A third demand is that Centre should not interfere with the State administration. The States can’t tolerate the intervention by the Centre. The fourth reason for self-rule is linked to cultural and language matters. The opposition to Hindi in Tamil Nadu and the imposition of Punjabi in Punjab are causes of protest. The domination of the Hindi speaking States over the other States often causes rifts. Some States protested saying that Hindi was being forcefully imposed on them.
Inter-State Conflicts are common in India. Explain with examples.
- River-Water Conflict
- Boundary Conflict
River-water conflicts often become serious as they affect the drinking water and water for irrigation.
Examples are Kaveri Water conflict, Mullaperiyar problem.
Boundary problems also exist in many States. Although the States were formed on linguistic basis, there are many linguistic minorities living in the boundary areas. Example, the conflict between Maharashtra and Karnataka regarding Belgaum.
Which Indian State has got special status according to the Constitution?
Jammu-Kashmir (Article 370).
Write down the years in which the following States were formed:
Kerala, Punjab, Sikkim, Goa, Uttaranchal, Nagaland, Jharkhand
Kerala — 1956
Punjab — 1966
Sikkim — 1975
Goa — 1987
Uttaranchal — 2000
Nagaland — 1963
Jharkhand — 2000
There is an opinion Governors are responsible for aggravating the Centre-State Conflicts. Do you agree? Explain.
I don’t fully agree. A Governor is appointed by the Central Government. Governor is the head of the State Executive. Governors being Central Government appointees often clash with the State Governments. In the matter of imposing President’s rule and the dissolution of the State Government, there often develop rifts between the Governors and State Governments. But it would be unfair to put the blame of bringing problems to Indian Federalism on the Governors alone. There are some other reasons too for the Centre-State Conflicts.
Match the following:
|Residual Powers||Article 356|
|Authority to dissolve the Government||Inter-States Conflicts|
|State Reorganization Commission||Cyber laws|
|River Water Conflict||Article 370|
|Residual Powers||Cyber laws|
|Authority to dissolve the Government||Article 356|
|State Reorganization Commission||1954|
|Jammu Kashmir||Article 370|
|River Water Conflict||Inter-States Conflicts|
What is the relevance of Article 356?
Article 356, which empowers the President to dissolve the democratically elected State government, has been often criticized. The first time it was used in Punjab in 1951. Before the election of 1967, the Article 356 was used 8 times. Three times it was in Kerala. By 1998, this article was used nearly a hundred times.
Point out the major topics of inter-state conflicts in India.
- River Water Conflict
- Boundary Disputes
Since water is need for drinking and also for irrigation in the States, the overwater conflicts between States become highly complex. Examples are the Kaveri River water conflicts and the Mullaperiyar River Water conflicts.
There are also boundary conflicts between States. Although the States were formed on the basis of language, there are linguistic minorities staying in the border villages. For example, there is the conflict between Maharashtra and Karnataka about Belgaum.
An Administrative System in which two kinds of ……….. governments work is called
From the following, find out which one is included in the Concurrent List.
Cyber laws are examples for ………….
……..is a State which has a special status as per Article 370 of the Constitution.