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Kerala Plus One Political Science Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 7 Nationalism
Nationalism Questions and Answers
“Nationalism has got two faces.” Explain.
Nationalism has two faces – creative nationalism and destructive nationalism. Creative Nationalism is an emotional and spiritual power that unifies all factors that make up a nation. The creative nationalism we see in India is unity in diversity. Militant and aggressive nationalism is the opposite of creative nationalism. The WW II was the result of the militant and aggressive nationalism of the Nazis and Fascists.
What is nationalism?
Nationalism is an emotional and spiritual power that unifies all factors that make up a nation. Nationalism includes national styles, national expectations, national goals, national conflicts, national anthem, national flower, national flag and national symbol. Toynbee defines nationalism as the religion of modern nations.
“A nation is an imaginary society.” Do you agree with this opinion? Explain.
I agree. Nationalism is the feeling that one is the son/daughter of a particular nation even if he/she is living in another country because of his/her work. For example, an Indian may work and live in Dubai or New York. But nationalism reminds him that he is a son of India and he should be loyal to her. He should be proud of the fact that he is an Indian and do all he can to keep her dignity up. The Palestine nationalism was even above territory. Even though there was no territory for Palestine, Palestine nationalism was very strong. The strong nationalism gave birth to the State of Palestine which now consists of West Bank and Gaza Strip.
Give examples of Indian nationalism.
- National Anthem
- National Flag
- National symbol
- Ashoka Pillar
Common political identity is required for nation-building. Explain the factors that contribute towards nationalism.
Nationalism is an emotional and spiritual power that unifies all factors of the political theory prevalent in the nation. The nationalism we see in India is unity in diversity. Indian nationalism is the feeling that we all are Indians. Without nationalism, no new nation can originate or survive. It is nationalism that supplies the basis for the building up of a nation. Loyalty to the nation, its strength, its power, and its working and the legality, etc. are emotions that are generated in the minds of people. In the background of nationalism, the common behavior of a nation can be analyzed. Nationalism includes national styles, national expectations, national goals, national conflicts, national anthem, national flower, national flag, and national symbol. Toynbee has said that. Nationalism is the religion of the modern nation. Factors that nourish Nationalism:
a) Shared Beliefs: It is some beliefs that help the formation of a nation. Nation is not a concrete thing like a building, river or forest that we can see and touch. Nation is a concept built around certain beliefs of the people. When we say that a people are a nation, we do not mean their physical behavior. Nation is a vision and a collective fellowship of people who wish to have their own separate identity. It is like a group of a team. They work for a common goal in a common fellowship. A nation can exist only as long as the people are deeply rooted in unity.
b) History: A people who consider themselves as a nation have a sense of a continuous historical existence. It is something that they can look back with pride and look forward to with hope. They have a common history based collective memories, legends and historical documents. Thus they acquire individuality as a nation. We can take our Indian nationalist leaders as examples. We point out our ancient civilization, cultural heritage and other past achievements, thus making a unique identity of our own.
c) Territory: Territory is another essential aspect of a nation. A nation has a separate area of land. There people will have lived together for long, shared their past, bringing a common identity to them. It helps them to think that they are one nation. That is why they can talk about their own country of birth.
d) Shared political ideals: Apart from the sense of a common history and some territory of their own, the people of a nation are persuaded to think of unity because of their common vision and goal for the future. They have some ideals quite peculiar to them and these also make a nation different from others.
e) Common Political Identity: Many people think that just because individuals have a common political vision regarding the society and the government, they can’t form a nation. They feel that something like a common language or common heredity is necessary to have the drive to form a nation. A common language or a common religion might bring about a common cultural Identity. When people celebrate the same feasts on the same day and actively take part in the festivities, they feel some kind of unity. But it is possible that in a democratic setup and democratic values, too much of religion may prove a threat.
Suggest some programs to develop nationalist feelings among students.
Celebrating Independence Day, Republic Day and Gandhi Jayanthi in an appropriate manner. The singing of the national anthem every day in school. Organizing Patriotic songs, discussions on important national issues, Debates on issues of national interest, Competitions, etc. Making albums containing the pictures of national leaders, the history of India’s Independent struggle, etc.
What do you understand by the Right to Self-Determination? How has this idea resulted in both the formation of and challenges to nation-states?
A nation has the freedom to take decisions on its own and carry them out without being pressurized by any external forces. In the present scenario of globalization and liberalization, there is a threat to the Right to Self-Determination. This will negatively affect nationalism and the continued existence of modem nations.
“Neither descent, nor language, nor religion, nor ethnicity can claim to be a common factor in nationalism all over the word.” Do you agree? Comment.
I agree. Much more than the above factors, it is the unity in diversity that influences the nationalism of a nation. Nationalism is strengthened without any difference in religion, tribe, language and region.
Identify the factors leading to the destruction of nationalism.
Economic and Social inequalities
“We have seen that nationalism can unite people as well as divide them, liberate them as well as generate bitterness and conflict.” Illustrate your answer with suitable examples.
Indian nationalism led us to freedom and the integration of the Princely States. It also led to the division of the country. German nationalism led to the unification of Germany and later to World War II.
Prepare a table showing the differences between constructive nationalism and aggressive nationalism.
|Creative Nationalism||Aggressive (Destructive) Nationalism|
|Creates loyalty||Creates hatred.|
|Unites people||Divides people.|
|Develops sense of freedom & liberates people.||Causes conflicts and wars.|
|Encourages democracy & self rule||Develops isolation.|
|Encourages economic growth||Looks at other people with suspicion.|
|Encourages cultural growth.||Develops instability.|
|Encourages diversity in social, economic and political spheres.||Creates many small nations.|
It was ………… who called nation as an ‘imaginary society’.
A ………….. is a society which shares some special characteristics.
Which among the following are the factors that constitute a nation?
b) Political identity
c) Common political principles
d) All of the above
All of the above