Students can Download Chapter 4 Graphs and Charts for Business Data Notes, Plus Two Accountancy Notes helps you to revise the complete Kerala State Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

## Kerala Plus Two Accountancy Notes Chapter 4 Graphs and Charts for Business Data

Introduction

One of the very useful features of Libre Office Calc Spreadsheet is the capability to create charts and graphs of the data. They are visual representations of numerical data, which has atleast two-dimensional relationship. The graph has at least two axes-x and y. X axis is usually horizontal while Yaxis is vertical.

Types of Graphs and Charts

Libre Office Calc provides various types of chart to help us to display data in different ways as per the need of the viewers. The major types available are given below:

1. Column chart:

It is the most commonly used chart type. It shows a bar chart or bar graph with vertical bars. The X axis shows the categories and Y axis shows the value for each category. Column chart are used to compare values across categories.

2. Bar chart:

This type of chart shows a bar graph or column chart with horizontal bar. The Y axis shows categories and the X axis shows the value for each category. It is suitable for comparing multiple values.

3. Line chart:

A line chart shows values in the Y axis and categories in X axis. The Y values of each data series is connected by a line. Line chart shows data changes for a certain period of time.

4. Pie chart:

A pie chart displays the contribution of each value to a total. It represents multiple subgroup of a single variable. It contains only one data series. A pie chart shows values as circular sectors of the total circle. Pie chart may be

- Normal Pie chart
- Exploded Pie chart
- Doughnut chart or Donut chart
- Exploded Doughnut chart

5. Area chart:

The chart shows values as points on the Y axis. The X axis shows categories. The Y values of each data series are connected by a line. The area between each two lines is filled with a colour.

6. Scatter chart:

Scatter chart is also known as XY chart. In this type of chart, both axes display values. This chart is used to show the relationship among two variables.

7. Radar chart:

It is also known as Net chart or Star chart. A radar chart has a separate axis for each category and the axes extend outward from the center of the chart. The value of each data point is plotted on the corresponding axis.

Basic steps for Graphs /Charts/Diagrams using Libre Office Calc

The steps involved in the chart preparation is given below:

- Step 1: Data entry (in spread sheet, in the form of a table)
- Step 2: Data selection (select data for plotting chart)
- Step 3: Plotting the chart (Standard tool bar → Insert → chart wizard)
- Step 4: Chart type (choose a chart type from the list)

Elements of a Chart

Chart elements | Description |

1. Axes Titles | Mention the names or title for X, Y and Z axes |

2. X, Y, & Z axes | In 2D chart, the horizontal X axis contains categories and vertical Y axis contains dependent values. In 3D chart, Z axis will also be there represents the depth which |

3. Chart Area | This is the total space that is enclosed by a chart. It is the background of the chart. |

4. Chart wall | In 2D chart, the wall or area is bounded by X and Y axis. In 3D chart the wall is bounded by three axes X, Y and Z |

5. Chart floor | The chart floor is the lower area in 3D chart. |

6. Main Title/sub Title | It is the explanatory heading of the chart. It identifies the purpose of a chart. |

7. Data Marker | Individual values plotted in a chart are called data marker or data point |

8. Data Series | Data markers of the same colour or pattern is called data series. |

9. Legend | It is an identifier of a piece of information shown in the chart/ graph. The legends are assigned to the data series in a chart. |

10. Data Label | The value of the data series plotted in a chart is known as data label. |

11. Grid Lines | These are the vertical and Horizontal lines that appear in a chart. It increase the readability of a chart. |

Advantages in using Graph/Chart

- It summarises a large data set in visual form.
- Charts or graphs can clarify trends better than do tables.
- It helps to estimate key values at a glance.
- It shows each data category in a frequency distribution.
- It permits a visual check of the accuracy and reasonableness of calculations.
- The charts and graphs allow the investigator to draw a valid conclusion.