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Kerala Plus Two History Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 15 Kerala: Towards Modernity
The region in Kerala which was under the direct rule of the British.
The first book printed entirely in Malayalam?
The person who prepared the first Malayalam Dictionary (Sabdakosam)?
The Founder of Samatwa Samajam?
The Founder of Sadhu Jana Paripalana Sangham?
The founder of Atmavidya Sangham?
The leader who led the ‘Savarna Jadha’?
Explain the growth in plantation crops in Kerala during the colonial period.
An important change that happened during the colonial period in the economic system of Kerala is the growth in plantation crops. Europeans took the initiative to start new plantations and invest capital in them. The main plantations crops were tea, coffee, rubber, and cardamom. Plantations crops proved more successful in Travancore than in Malabar. There were some reasons for that. The soil and high land of Travancore were better than those of Malabar. Therefore plantations crops developed fast in Travancore. This helped the British to earn a lot of wealth. The tax collection system in Malabar was not good enough.
Point out the role played by missionaries in the modernization of Kerala and in its education.
An important driving force behind the growth of Kerala Was its education. The contributions made by missionaries in this field are highly valuable. They played a big role in expanding education. In the first decade of the 19th century, the London Mission Society (LMS) and Church Mission Society (CMS) started working in Travancore.
Rev. Mead was a missionary of CMS, who devoted his entire life in expanding education here. In 1817 the CMS College and a seminary were founded at Kottayam. To encourage women’s education, the missionaries established a grammar school and other schools.
The first school in Kochi was established in 1818 in Mattanchery. A missionary named Rev. Dowson was its founder.
At the same time, Rev Twinkle Tab, a Spanish Missionary in the Salvation Army founded English schools in the southern parts, including Nagercoil.
It was Basil Evangelical Mission (BEM) that spread education in Malabar. In 1848, they established a primary school in Kallai and in 1856, another school at Thalassery.
The contributions made by the Christian missionaries encouraged the governments of Kerala to take up education more seriously. In 1817, the ruler of Travancore, Gauri Parvati Bai, started free, compulsory primary education. In many areas of Travancore, schools were established. In 1839, during the reign of Swathi Thirunal, the first English school was begun. Another school was started in Thalassery.
Make a list of reforms that were brought about in the three regions of Kerala.
- District and Provincial courts were established.
- A chain of roads was made.
- In Ancharakandi, a spice garden was established.
- Many cloth and tile factories were founded.
- Kozhikode, Thalassery, Kannur Municipalities came into existence.
- Railway link was established with other areas of the country.
- In Nilambur a teak grove was established.
- To bring timber, a canal was made (e.g. Kanoli Canal).
- Timber business was encouraged.
- Lower Courts and Huzur Courts were founded.
- All important Devaswoms were brought under the government.
- In 1845, slavery was banned.
- The survey of the land was made and taxes were fixed.
- Railway lines were made.
- Established Health, Agriculture and Fisheries departments.
- Kochi Tenant (Leasing) Law was passed.
- A Staff Selection Board was established.
- Owners of land were given ‘pattayams’ showing details of the land.
- Slavery was banned in 1812.
- Renewed judiciary by founding 5 district courts and 1 Appeal Court.
- In 1811, the administration of Dewaswoms was taken over by the Government.
- Improved coinage, communication, agriculture and trade.
- Banned feudal conventions like “talavari” and “Uzhiyam”.
- In 1888, a Law-Making Council with 8 members was formed.
- Founded, many factories, electrification schemes, canals and post office?
The British brought some changes in the laws of Kerala. Find them out.
In the system of law that the British brought, there were Western legal thoughts and concepts. They founded a chain of civil and criminal courts. They made sure that principles like the Rule of Law and Equality before Law were enforced. They also made a united legal code that included the laws of the land.
What made Pazhassiraja fight against the British? Write about the various stages of the Pazhassi Revolt.
The Pazhassi Revolt was one of the most significant revolts in South India against the British. The British had established their authority over Malabar. Their wrong attitude to justice caused the Revolt. Keralavarma Pazhassiraja was a member of the Kottayam Dynasty of Malabar. In the beginning, he was in friendly terms with the British. In the Mysore wars, he even helped them. As a reward for his help, the British granted him the right to collect taxes from people.
But when Malabar came under their authority, the British forgot this promise. The right to collect taxes was given to an uncle of Pazhassi, the King of Kurumbanad. This King charged the people heavy taxes and used very cruel methods to get the money from them. It was in this context that Pazhassi rebelled against the British.
There were two stages in the Pazhassi Revolt. The 1st stage is from 1793 to 1797. Pazhassi started his revolt by preventing the tax collection for the British. Pazhasi’s army consisted of Muslim and Nair farmers and members of Kurichi tribe. It strongly withstood the attacks by the Company’s army. Pazhassi ‘ requested the help of Mysore to drive away the British from Wayanad. The British army was continuously defeated and in 1797, it withdrew from Wayanad, making an agreement with Pazhassi. With this, the first stage ended. The 2nd stage of the Revolt started in 1800.
The reason was the move of the British to take over Wayanad. With the help of the Kurichis and Kurumbars in his army, Pazhassi withstood the attacks. Finally, Wellesley defeated Pazhassi in a bitter battle. Pazhassi still continued his resistance. But an army under Thomas Harvey Bebar, a sub-collector of Thalassery, defeated Pazhassi on 30 November 1805, In the battle, Pazhassi lost his life.
There were strong uprisings against the British in Travancore and Kochi. In the context of this statement, describe the anti-colonial activities of Veluthampi Dalava and Paliathacchan.
After occupying Malabar, the attention of the British turned to Kochi and Travancore. They tried to establish their political and commercial interests in these places. In 1800, the Company appointed Col. Macaulay as the Resident of Travancore and Kochi. Macaulay started controlling the internal affairs of these native states. By this, the rulers lost their sovereignty.
Veluthampi was the chief minister (Dalawa) of Travancore. In 1805, the British signed a friendship treaty with Travancore. Through this, the Resident got the power to interfere in the internal affairs of the state, which lost its political freedom. He insisted that the tribute which the state owed to the Company should be paid within a certain time, without giving any consideration to the financial difficulties facing the state. One man named Mathu Tharakan owed a lot of money to the state as tax arrears. Velu Thampi Dalawa ordered to confiscate his property. But Macaulay interfered and canceled the order of the Dalawa. All these incidents prompted the Dalawa to embark on an armed conflict against the Company.
Paliathacchan was the Prime Minister of Kochi. He had enmity with Macaulay. Veluthampi Dalawa made a secret agreement with Paliathacchan. They also secretly contacted the French in Mauritius and the Zamorin of Kozhikode and requested them to give their support in their fight against the Company. In 1808 the combined armies of Travancore and Kochi attacked the residence of Macaulay in Kochi. The Resident escaped in a British ship.
As the revolt was in progress the Dalawa reached Kundara. He issued a proclamation on 11 January 1809 asking the people to join him against the British. This is called ‘Kundara Proclamation’ (Kundara Vilambaram). It is considered as an important document showing the fight of South India against colonization.
The British hit back. They attacked Kochi. Paliathacchan withdrew from the revolt by signing a treaty with the British. The British persuaded the Travancore King to remove Velu Thampi from his post. Unnini Thampi became the new Dalawa. The new Dalawa asked the police, to arrest Velu Thampi. A reward was declared for catching him. Velu Thampi took refuge in a house at Mannadi. When the combined forces of the British and Travancore surrounded the house, Velu Thampi committed suicide. He did not want to be caught alive and insulted. With this, the heroic resistance against the British ended in Travancore.
Kerala witnessed a silent but comprehensive social revolution in the 19th and 20th centuries. Evaluate the Social Reformation Movements in Kerala in the context of this statement.
In the 19th century, in Kerala, there were many religious superstitions, rituals, and conventions. There were also social injustices and economic injustices.
The Feudal lords suppressed the farmers. The Upper Castes ill-treated the lower castes. This made the life of poor people miserable. There were so many illogical and even foolish practices related to menstruation, marriage, pregnancy, and death. Slavery also existed here.
- The Kerala Brahmins received a lot of privileges.
- The lower caste people did not have a good position
in society. The Upper Caste people controlled their modes of dress, freedom to travel and entry into temples.
- There were untouchability and pollution rules. In Travancore and Kochi, government jobs were not given to people of lower classes.
It is in this social background that the Social Reformers started their fight against the ills of society. Although all-India Movements like Arya Samajam and Theosophical Society had their branches in Kerala, their influence was very little here. Here the social revolution was the result of local Movements. Here are some Social Reformists that worked in Kerala in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Vaikunda Swamikal: He was bom in 1808, in the . village called Sastamkotta Vila near Kanyakumari. He started Samatwa Samajam’.
He published: ‘AkilattirattuAmmanai’and ‘Arul Nool’.
- For the first time, he started ‘Kannadi Prathishta’ in South India.
- His faith was called the way of the father (“Ayyavazhi”).
- He objected to all kinds of discrimination and stood for social equality.
- He objected to priesthood, idol worship, and animal sacrifice. He worked for the freedom of the lower castes and the welfare of women.
Sri Narayana Guru: Hewas born in the village of Chempazhanthi in Thiruvananthapuram district, in 1854. He founded the Sri Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam.
He published: “Atmopadesa Sathakam”, “Daiva Sathakam”. “Darsanamala”, “ Siva Sathakam” and “Navamanjari”.
Worked for the ending of superstitions and caste discriminations. He encouraged people to take up Western education, trade, and business enterprises.
He made the famous slogan “One Jati, One Religion, One God, for Man”.
He raised his voice against the control by Upper Castes. Shocking the conservatives, he did ‘Siva Pratishta’andAruvipuram.
Chattambi Swamikal: He was born in 1853 at the village of Kollur in Trivandum district. He published ‘Prachina Malayalam’, ‘Adibhasha’ and ‘Vedadikara Nirupanam’.
- He objected Jati and other illogical social rituals.
- He challenged the monopoly of Brahmins to study Vedas.
- Objected to the animal sacrifices in temples.
- He contributed a lot to Malayalam Literature and language.
Ayyankali : He was bdrn in 1863 at Venganur in Trivandum. His Organization was Sadhu Jana Paripalana Sangham. ‘
- He fought for freedom to travel and education for the lower classes.
- He opposed the Jati System. He organized labour protests and agriculture boycotts to get lower-class students admission in public schools.
- Against the restrictions placed on the mode of dress by lower-class people, he organized the ‘Kallumala Protest’. He asked people to break and throw away the. Kallumala’.
Vakkom Abulkhader Moulavi: He was born in 1873, at Vakkom in Chirayinkeezhu.taluk. He made the Travancore Muslim Mahajana Sabha.
He published: Swadesabhimani (edited by K. Ramakrishna Pillai), Al-Islam (An Arabic-Malayalam Magazine).
- He is the architect of the modernization of Kerala Muslims. He asked the Muslims to give up all anti- Islamic rituals.
- He asked the Muslims to get a Western education and to take part in Movements for development.
- He was the founder and owner of Swadeshabhimani Newspaper.
Vagbhatanandan: Hewas born at Patyam in 1885. He founded ‘Atmavidya Sangham’. He published Abhinava Keralam (Magazine), Atmavidya Kahalam (Journal), Sivayogavilasam (Magazine).
- Acknowledged the right of the lower classes to enter temples.
- Showed interest in the economic progress of the lower classes,
- He took active interest in Agricultural Movements.
- He opposed Jati and idol worship. He encouraged Yuktichintha and critical thinking. He was interested in prohibition (of alcohol).
Mar Kuriakose Elias Chavara : He was born in 1805, in the village Kainakari in Kuttanad.
He published: ‘Atmanuthapam’, “Idayariatakangal’, ‘Dhyanasallapangal’ and ‘Nalagamangal’.
- He founded many schools in Central Kerala. He encouraged Sanskrit education. He opened a Sanskrit school at Mannanam, in 1846.
- The founded orphanages for the poor and old people.
- He encouraged the education of dalits. He funded two schools for them.
- He started St. Joseph’s Printing press at Mannanam.
It was the first indigenous printing press in Kerala.
V.T. Bhattathirippad: He was born in 1896 at Mezhathur.
He published: “Adukkalayil Ninnum Arangathekku” and “Kannirum Kinavum”.
- He fought against the discrimination against the Namboodiri women and widows who had to suffer a lot because of insults and ostracism.
- He opposed dowry and the marrying of young girls to old men.
Women also made a lot of contributions to the Social Reformation Movements of Kerala. Explain with examples.
Women have given priceless contributions to the Social Reformation Movements of Kerala. Parvati Nenminimangalam, Arya Pallam, Sarada Amrnal, K.C. Narayani Amma Kalikkutty Asatty etc. did a lot to awaken women and raise their social status. They also worked hard for the removal of social evils that plagued the Kerala society. They helped in the removal of the Jati system, increased women’s education, did a lot for women empowerment and social justice, the prosperity of labourers and farmers, thinking with reason, use of public space and the uplifting of the Dalit community.
Describe the fight for a democratic society in Kerala and how the Shanar Agitation (Channar Lahala), Vaikom Satyagraha and Guruvayur Satyagraha helped in that fight.
There were many social evils in Kerala. There was control based on taste. Even basic human rights were denied to some castes. Human dignity did not mean anything to the Upper Classes. Against such injustice, some popular movements worked hard. Here are some of the most important movements.
Shanar Agitation: This was one of the early fights against social injustice. This took place in Southern Travancore. This is also called ‘Melmundu samara’. Women of the Channar Community were not allowed to cover the upper part of their bodies with any doth or dress. Then, when Col. Monroe was the Diwan, he issued an order allowing the Channar women (Nadar) to wear a dress if they became Christians.
The Channar women were not satisfied with this. They started appearing in the public wearing shawls like women of the Upper Classes. The Upper-Class Hindus did not like it. They attacked the Channar women, who retaliated. Finally on 26 July 1859, the government issued a royal edict removing restrictions on the dressing.
Vaikom Satyagraha: This is the first famous public protest against untouchability. This protest was organized forgetting the right to use the paths near the. Vaikom Temple by lower caste Hindus. The leaders of this Satyagraha were T.K. Madhavan, Mannath Padmanabhan, C.V. Kunjuraman, K. Kelappan, and K.P. Kesava Menon.
An important event connected with the Vaikom Satyagraha is a procession of High Caste Hindus organized by Mannath Padmanabhan. The Procession wenttoTrivandum and met Maharani Sethulaxmi Bai and presented their request to her.
The Vaikom Satyagraha and the Savama Procession (Jatha) helped in forming positive public opinion regarding Temple Entry to all Castes. Finally, Gandhi interfered and the protest was successfully concluded. All the paths, except two, around the Vaikom Temple, were opened for use by all kinds of people.
Guruvayur Satyagraha: This was a milestone in the social reform movement of Kerala. It was a great event against untouchability. This protest was begun with the demand that all Hindus should be allowed to worship in the temple. The Guruvayur temple was under the control of the Kozhikode Zamorin and only Upper Caste Hindus could worship there.
The Satyagraha started on 1 November 1931. K. Kelappan and Mannath Padmanabhan led the protest. Kelappan started a fast unto death in front of the temple.
Some fanatic Upper-Class Hindus attacked volunteers like A.K. Gopalan and P. Krishna Pillai. On 2 October 1932, on the advice of Gandhi, the Satyagraha was ended. An opinion poll was conducted in Ponnani Taluk to find out public opinion about the issue. Most of the people supported temple entry by lower caste Hindus also. Although results did not come immediately, the Satyagraha helped in forming public opinion in favour of Temple Entry by all manners of Hindus.
Agitation against untouchability continued in Kerala even after independence. Explain with examples.
Agitation against untouchability had to continue in ‘ Kerala even after independence. Paliyam Satyagraha ‘ was one such agitation:
In Kochi, there were many temples in front of the houses of the Upper Caste Hindus. Lower Caste Hindus were denied entry there. Paliathacchan was the Prime Minister of Kochi. His, house was in Chennamangalam. Lower Caste Hindus tried to walk on the road in front of his house and this; brought about big clashes. It was in these circumstances the Paliam Satyagraha was started. This was done jointly by the organizations like State Praja Mandalam, Communist Party, and S.N.D.P. Yogam.
They started to agitate in front of the Paliam Family to get the street open for all. On 4 December 1947, C. Kesavan inaugurated the Satyagraha. The government used force to suppress the agitation. One of the leaders of the agitation, A.G. Velayudhan, was killed and the Satyagraha was suspended for some time, in March 1948. In April 1948, the government issued orders regarding Temple Entry for all. With this, all could use the public streets.
Discuss the formation of Malayali Being and the United (Aikya) Kerala Movement.
The Malayalam language played a big role in the cultural unity of people from Travancore, Kochi, and Malabar. The roots of the Malayan Being based on language and region could be traced to “Leelathilakam”, a grammar book of the 14th century. It talks about a community that speaks Malayalam.
In fact, the concept of ‘Malayali Being’ (Individuality or Personality) was formed at the end of the 19th ‘ century. The spread of modern education was the reason for that. It gave the idea of a region where people spoke the same language.
The Printing technology and the founding of local language newspapers also helped in this concept. There was a practice of appointing outsiders to do the work in Government offices of Kerala. In 1891, a mass petition (memorandum) signed by 10,028 persons was submitted against this practice. It was called the Malayali Memorial. This was a sign of new awareness.
The National Movement gained momentum at the beginning of the 20ttl century. The concept of Malayali Being also grew with this. This concept spread beyond the boundaries of native states of Travancore, Kochi and Malabar and the need for a unified region was felt, In 1921, Kerala Pradesh Congress Committee (KPCC) was formed on the basis of language. It represented people from Travancore, Kochi, and Malabar.
The all-Kerala political meeting under Congress was summoned at Ottappalam in 1921. It was the first meeting in which representatives from Travancore, Kochi, and Malabar jointly participated. The desire for the Malayali Being was expressed in the book titled “Onnekal Kodi Malayalikal” by EMS Namboodiripad.
In April 1947, there was a United Kerala Meeting at Thrissur under the chairmanship of K. Kelappan. It passed a resolution demanding a United Kerala. On 1 July 1949, the State called “Thiru-Kochi” was formed combining Travancore and Kochi. It was an important step for the formation of United Kerala. The dream of a State of Kerala was fulfilled by the State Re-Organizing Committee under Sayed Fasal Ali. It recommended the formation of Kerala State uniting Travancore, Kochi, and Malabar. On 1 November 1956, Kerala State officially came into being.