Kerala Plus Two Political Science Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 3 US Hegemony in World Politics
Which among the following statements about hegemony is incorrect?
a. The word implies the leadership or predominance of one state.
b. It was used to denote the predominance of Athens in ancient Greece.
c. The country having hegemonic position will possess unchallenged military power.
d. Hegemonic position is fixed. Once a hegemon, always a hegemon.
Hegemonic position is fixed. Once a hegemon, always a hegemon.
Which among the following statements is wrong about the contemporary world order?
a. There is an absence of world government, which could regulate the states’ behaviour.
b. The US is the predominant player in world affairs,
c. States are using force against one another.
d. States, which violate international law, are severely punished by the UN.
d. States, which violate international law, are severely punished by the UN.
Which among the following statements is wrong with regard to ‘Operation Iraqi Freedom’?
a. More than forty countries joined in the US-led coalition to invade Iraq.
b. The reason given for invading Iraq was to prevent it from developing weapons of mass destruction.
c. The action was taken with the prior approval of the UN.
d. The U.S.led coalition did not face major resistance from Iraqi forces.
d. The U.S. – led coalition did not face major resistance from Iraqi forces.
Match the following.
1 – c , 2 – a, 3 – d, 4 – b
- Operation desert storm
- Operation Infinite Reach
- Operation Enduring Freedom.
Prepare brief notes about the above mentioned operations performed by USA as a part of their power hegemony.
In 1990. Iraq invaded Kuwait and annexed it. After a lot of discussions, the Liberation Army led by America forcefully freed Kuwait from Iraq. In this liberation army there were 660,000 soldiers. They came from 34 nations. This operation was known as “Operation Desert Storm”. This shows the disparity between America and other countries in technology. In the UN allied forces, more than 75% of the soldiers were Americans. Some people call this war as a computer war. Since it was telecast everywhere in the world, it is also called video game war. One could watch on TV how Iraq was defeated by sitting in ; one’s room.
In 1998, there were bomb attacks in the American embassies in Nairobi (Kenya), Dar-e-salaam and Tanzania. The attacks were carried by the Muslim terrorist organization Al-Qaida. After these attacks, American President Bill Clinton started his “Operation Infinite Reach”. He attacked the terrorist camps in Sudan and Afghanistan by dropping missiles there. These attacks were not carried out with the permission of the UN or according to the International Laws. On 11 September 2001,19 terrorists . hijacked 4 American planes and made them fly against some strategic buildings in America. Two of them hit the twin-towers of the World
One crash-landed on the Pentagon, which is the headquarters of American defence. The 4th one had to land in field in Pennsylvania. The American Congress Headquarters is nearby there. This attack is known as 9/11 (which menns. September .1 f). Some 3000 people died in the attacks. It was the biggest attack America ever faced after its formation in 1776. After this, America started its operation “Enduring Freedom”. It is aimed against the terrorists like the Al-Qaida and the Taliban of Afghanistan.
With the attack on World Trade Centre, USA openly started measures to wipe out the terrorism from the entire world.
Prepare a brief explanation about the different steps taken by USA.
After the terrorist attack on the World Trade Centre, America started making plans to eliminate terrorism from the’entire world. This is the goal behind “Operation Enduring Freedom”. It was against the people who destroyed the World Trade Centre, mainly Al-Qaida and Taliban. Americans arrested the suspects even without the knowledge of the governments of the countries.of which they were citizens.
They were brought to America and kept in secret jails. Some were taken to the American Naval Base near the Bay of Guantanamo. Neither the American laws nor international laws came to the rescue of these suspects. Even members of the UN were not allowed to visit these prisoners.
In this unipolar world USA exerts its supremacy upon the rest of the world as world police, as controlling factor of UNO. controls Global economy etc. This does not mean that the USA is free from all sorts of restrictions. Identify the different constraints upon USA.
Their restrictions come in three ways:
- Division of Authority
- Mass Media
Division of Authority:
In America, authority is divided. There the Executive, Legislature and Judiciary have powers. The President can’t use the military power the way he feels.
Mass media frequently try to find out the views of the people. They try to evaluate the style of government and the politics of the country. American military actions also will be an important subject for discussion and evaluation. It is the mass media that plays a big role in the opinion formation.
To an extent, it is NATO that keeps America under some control. America tries to maintain good relations with democratic countries. It also wants to do well in the market. So we can say that NATO exercises some sort of control over the policies of America.
In the bipolar world India adopted more or less a pro USSR attitude .But in this unipolar world India adopted a pro-USA attitude.
Identify the benefits achieved from this shift.
Recently two factors played big roles in the Indo- American relations. One is technology and the other is the contribution made by Indians in the American job market.
- 65% of India’s software export is bought by America.
- 35% of the technical experts in the Boeing Company are Indians.
- Some 300,000 Indians work in the Silicon Valley.
- In the higher technical industrial field, it is Indian Americans that have started 15% of the US companies.
Recently the world witnessed the hegemony of USA. This does not mean that all the states particularly the 3rd world countries willing fully recognize the hegemony. These countries are adopting different strategies to overcome US hegemony. Identify them.
We know that no country today can match the power of America. But through certain policies we can over come the hegemony of America.
- China, India and Russia should make a military pact.
- To resist American hegemony, even as we acknowledge their superiority, get as many benefits from them as possible.
- Keep a safe distance from them. A kind of hide-and- seek will do us good.
The concept hegemony was originated in ancient Greek city state Athens. In this modern period USA exhibits its hegemony through the following ways.
Hegemony as Hard power
Hegemony as structural power
Hegemony as soft power.
Prepare an essay about the hegemony of USA.
World nations try to gain and maintain dominance over others by using military, economic and cultural power. During the Cold War the fight was between the Soviet Union and America. With the disintegration of the Soviet, Union America remains the only Superpower. Dominance or hegemony is attained through three things:
- Hard Power
- Structural Power
- Soft Power
This includes military power and the relations between nations. Today America is in the forefront of military power. There is nobody to challenge its military might. It has the capacity to reach any corner of the world any moment. They spend a major part of their budget to maintain this position. They spend huge sums of money for research and technological developments. It is technology that keeps America in the forefront. With their military might they are even ready to police the world, and punish the culprits.
This dominance is based on the economic structure. The global economic system relies on America. If America helps the global economic system, it is mainly for their benefits and profits. But America does a lot of good things for the world. For example, communication channels through the oceans. Merchant ships travel through sea routes and America has much authority on the water transport system. It is the American navy that keeps the sea-routes safe for ships.
What is meant by Operation Desert Storm?
In 1990 Iraq attacked Kuwait and annexed it. The UN judged that Kuwait should be freed using military action against Iraq. As a result soldiers numbering 660,000, under American command, attacked Iraq and freed Kuwait. This operation is known as the Operation Desert Storm.
Al-Qfsritfa is terrorist organization. Muslim extreme this organization. In 1998, it bombed the American embassies in Nairobi (Kenya), Tanzania and Dar-e-salaam. Osama bin Laden was the leader of Al-Qaida.
Which American President launched Operation Enduring Freedom?
George W. Bush
What are the constraints on American hegemony today? Which one of these do you expect to get . more important in the future?
By the beginning of the 21st century, America be-came a huge Superpower. But American dominance is controlled within America itself. There are three controls that keep America in check.
- The first control comes from the Constitution. It is based on the division of powers. Powers are divided among the Executive, Legislature and Judiciary. This provision is capable of preventing America embarking on a military adventure.
- The second control comes from the openness seen in the American system. Public opinion is very strong in America. The mass media keeps a close watch on the government and its activities.
- The third control comes from NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization