Kerala Plus Two Political Science Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 7 Security in the Contemporary World
Security’ implies freedom from threats. There are two notions of security. Such as
a) Traditional notions
c) External notions
The elements of traditional security policies are given below. Identify the missing elements
c) Balance of power
Is terrorism a traditional or non traditional threat to security
The non-traditional security notions are divided into two. Identify them.
- Human security
- Global Security
The threats against security has undergone tremendous changes. Now a days we are facing new challenges. Identify them.
4. Global poverty
India has developed its own methods for dealing with the threats against our security. Identity and briefly list India’s Security strategy.
India’s security policy has 4 aspects:
A. Increase its military power.
B. Strengthen international institutions and systems to help India’s security interests.
C. Face the internal threats to security.
D. Develop economic power to face non-traditional threats to security.
Match the terms with their meaning.
1) Confidence Building Measures (CBMs)
2) Arms Control
(a) Giving up certain types of weapons.
(b) A process of exchanging information on defence matters between nations on a regular basis.
(c) A coalition of nations meant to deter or defend against military attacks.
(d) Regulate the acquisition or development of weapons.
1 – b
2 – d
3 – c
4 – a
Which among the following would you consider as a traditional security concern/nontraditional security concern/not a threat?
(a) Spread of chikungunya/dengue fever.
(b) Inflow of workers from a neighbouring nation.
(c) Emergence of a group demanding nation hood for their region.
(d) Emergence of a group demanding autonomy for their region.
(e) A newspaper that is critical of the armed forces in the country.
e. not a threat
Security is a major aspect as far as any state is concerned. Security issues are giving vital importance in modern times. So we have to define what security is . Explain different aspects of security
Security means “free from threat”. We face security challenges on a daily basis. All threats can’t be considered security threats. Normally “threat to the essentials” can be considered security threats. Security is connected with the overcoming of the biggest threats. Some security threats can adversely affect even our existence. If we fail to take timely action, things may get out of our control. At the same time we must concern ourselves with the security of the mankind. At different times it could be different.
There are different notions regarding security. These can be divided into two-traditional concept of security and Non-traditional concept of security. Explain the traditional concept of security with the help of the following hints.
Hints: Security against external threats.
Security against internal threats.
Traditional security and co-operation.
Security is of two kinds – internal and external. A country may face security threats from inside or outside the country. Traditionally we think threats from outside are the greater ones. It will affect the sovereignty of the nation. It will affect its freedom and border security. It will affect the lives of the people. Such a threat is external.
There are many ways for a government to face Such treats:
- Increase the defence expenditure and prevent others from attacking.
- Once the war starts, defend the country.
Some governments prefer the option of surrender when there is a war. But they will never declare it as a policy. For security there are 4 traditional ways:
- Prevent the war – this is the first factor.
- Defence control the war or end it.
- Balance of Power – This is a traditional way of ensuring security. Making alliances and counter-alliances, maintaining the country’s strength, intervening and not intervening, leaving a no man’s land between countries, dividing and ruling, etc. are of the traditional ways.
- Sign Treaties: Nations often form joint alliances. This is done to prevent any external attack and defend in case of attacks. Almost all alliances are formed by signing written agreements. The member countries will have a clear understanding as to who is the common enemy. Nations are more concerned with external threats than internal ones. Internal security is also essential. Priorto the World War, the internal security of many powerful nations was much less because they did not give it much importance.Because of the Cold War, nations gave preference to external threats. It was in the colonies that there were more internal security problems. It was because of the people’s desire for freedom. The newly formed Asian and African countries had to face a lot of internal and external threats. Military attacks by neighbouring countries, army revolts, moves for secession etc. were common. Whenever a nation desires for freedom, such things are common there.
Traditional Security and Cooperation:
For traditional security, cooperation is very important. Everybody knows that attacks can be prevented by cooperation. Some things are recommended to ensure cooperation. They are:
1. Armament and military supplies should be controlled or reduced:
There should be adequate reasons for nations to resort to wars. War is alright in self defence, to resist attacks or to save people from racial killings. Wars should be controlled or limited. People who are not engaged in wars should not be harmed or killed. Those who have surrendered must not be harmed. Only when all other doors are closed, nations should resort to war.
There are 3 ways for cooperation: disarmament, arms limitation and building confidence. Disarmament means not making and stockpiling arms and avoiding the use of biological, chemical and nuclear weapons.
3. Arms Limitation:
This involves controls for keeping arms like ballistic missiles and their development.
4. Building confidence:
A major step in building confidence is the exchange of ideas and information with enemy countries. Thus you tell your opponents that you are not going to make a surprise attack on them. The advantage is that no country will start the attack on some misunderstanding.
In this modem world we are facing threats not only from foreign states but also from many other new sources. Like terrorism, global poverty, epidemics like yellow fever, AIDS, swine flu etc. So our notion about security is also changed. Evaluate the non traditional notions regarding security?
Earlier ,security thread would mean thread to the boundaries, to the nation or to the government. There-fore their security was paramount. Now not only countries, but also individuals, societies and mankind itself are facing various threats. Non-traditional security has two factors:
- Human Security
- Global security
The security of people is more important than the security of countries. Nowadays the citizens are not safe in any country.- In the last 100 years, governments have killed more of their own people than the enemies of the country have killed. To face human security and to ensure security, there are two views.
- Narrow concept
- Broad concept
The narrow concept gives importance to attacks on individuals. According to the opinion of the ex-UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, narrow concept is the security of individuals and communities from internal violence. In Broad concept, the concept of security is extended to protection from poverty, disease and natural disasters. It is so because the people who die from terrorism, ethnic cleansing and war will be less than those who die from poverty, disease and natural disasters. The human security policy aims at protecting people’ from disasters and attacks.
This concept came because of the coming of global warming, terrorism, AIDS, bird fever, etc. No country can solve these problems alone. It is in these circumstances the necessity and importance of global security was recognized. Recently there was the outbreak of swine flu which once again pointed to the importance of global security.
Human Security is facing unprecedented threats from different sources. This changed the concept of human security as well. The spread of bird flu, swine flu, AIDS, yellow fever, terrorism, Global warming etc. needs different means for ensuring security. Try to identify the new sources of threats against human security.
Security threats are of a different kind now. They can be categorized as follows:
Political attacks make the life of ordinary citizens difficult. The terrorists want the political circumstances to change. They try to bring about changes by threats or armed attacks. By unleashing violence, they make the people restless. They try to make the dislike and discontentment of the people their weapon against governments. Their activities include hijacking planes and bombing trains and markets and other places where people assemble. They attacked arid destroyed the World Trade Centre in New York on 11 September 2001. The government and the people are more cautious now against terrorists.
We see that throughout the world there are human right violations. There is no unified thinking in any country about how to protect human rights. Recent incidents of human right violations are the annexation of Kuwait by Iraq, the ethnic cleansing in Ruanda and the mass killings of the people of Eastern Timor by the Indonesian army. All these prompted world leaders to have a talk. The talk was about whether the UN should interfere in such matters. The matter is still unresolved.
This is another factor of security threat. It is believed that the population in the underdeveloped countries will triple in 50 years. In countries where the population is low, the per capital income will be high. Therefore the economically advanced countries will prosper further whereas the poor countries will grow poorer. The gap between countries of the North and South will increase. People from the South countries immigrate to the North countries for better life and earning.
This also creates a threat for the security of mankind. Contagious Diseases: Contagious diseases are another threat to mankind. AIDS, bird flu, SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) etc. are dangerous contagious diseases. These spread quickly from one country to another. A country’s success or failure in controlling these diseases affects other countries also. Recently swine-flu spread all over the world. It is when a problem becomes a threat to a nation and its people that it becomes an international security threat.
India as a newly independent country which is facing traditional and non traditional threats against security has developed some strategy to ensure its security. Identify Indias’ security strategy?
India has security threats from within and without. So India has followed a policy to face them. It has 4 factors. Timely changes are made to the policy and it is being carried out.
- Increase our military strength so that we can increase our safety and solve our disputes with our neighbours.
- Protect and strengthen international laws and organizations.
- The third thing is facing internal challenges. Through democracy, we maintain the unity of the country and allow different communities to live according to their beliefs and share ideas with others.
- Efforts to free India from poverty by reducing the economic inequality here.
What is meant by ’internally displaced people’?
People often have to leave their homes because of some troubles or some development projects. But they continue living within the boundaries of the country. Such people are called internally displaced people. An example of these people is the Kashmiri Pundits who had to leave their homes following the Kashmir uprisings, in the early part of the 1990s.
……………… that fled the violence in the Kashmir vallery are an example of an
Kashmir Pundits internally displaced people.
Security implies …………… from threats
What are the choices available to a state when its security is threatened, according to the traditional security perspective?
There are three ways open before the government in case of a war threat:
- surrender to the attackers
- Resist the attack even at a heavy price
Is terrorism a traditional or non traditional threat to security?
Up Terrorist is a non-traditional threat. It is a threat to individuals as well as mankind. This started appearing with the advent of the 20th century.