Kerala Plus Two Political Science Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 3 Politics of Planned Development
Which of these statements about the Bombay Plan is incorrect?
a) It was a blue print for India’s economic future.
b) It supported state-ownership of industry.
c) It was made by some leading industrialists.
d) It supported strongly the idea of planning.
a) It was a blue print for India’s economic future.
Which of the following ideas did not form part of the early phase of India’s development policy?
c) Cooperative Farming
d) Self sufficiency
The idea of planning in India was drawn from
a) The Bombay Plan
b) Experiences of the Soviet Union
c) Gandhian vision of society
d) Demand by peasant bloc union organizations.
i. b and d only
ii. d and c only
iii. a and b only
iv all the above
iii. a and b only
Fill in the blanks in the following table.
|Green Revolution||Dr. M.S. Swaminathan|
Identify the architect of second Five Year
Han.P.C. Mahalanobis, K.N. Raj, Varghese Kurian, M.S. Aluvaliya
Identify the Milkman of India.
M.S. Swaminathan, Varghese Kurian, K.N. Raj, P.C. Mahalanobis
Find out the-odd one from the 2nd Five year plan.
A) More importance to agriculture
B) More importance to industry
C) More importance to education
D) More importance of science and technology
A) More importance to agriculture
Match the following.
|Planning commission||Second five year plan||Varghese Kurian|
|Rapid Industrialisation||Bihar||Green Revolution|
|Food Crisis||Deputy Chairman||Montague Singh Ahluvalia|
|White Revolution||Gujarat||P.C. Mahaianobis|
|Planning commission||Deputy Chairman||Montague Singh Ahluvalia|
|Rapid Industrialisation||Second five year plan||P.C. Mahaianobis|
|Food Crisis||Bihar||Green Revolution|
|White Revolution||Gujarat||Varghese Kurian|
Match the following
In a democratic state efforts of development involve the problems of displacement, the livelihood of the people, pollution of environment etc. Can you suggest some measures for implementing developmental activities along with solving the above mentioned problems?
It is not easy to find solutions to the above mentioned problems. But the decisions we take to bring development should not be against the interest of the present or future generations or any particular group of people. In a democratic country this is very important. Priority should be given to the interests of the people in general. For example, for mining the advice of the Environmentalists and the Economic Experts should be taken. But the final decision comes from the representatives of the people who know the will of the people.
Such decisions were taken in India. They were taken based on the above principles. Each decision should be taken on its own merit and not based on another decision.When decisions are taken it must be broad based and for the general welfare of the people. The development of India is not mere economic development. It should be socially fair. It is not the industrialists or businessmen or farmers but the government that should come up with appropriate decisions.
Unlike the other two challenges, the economic development to ensure well being of all was tougher and more enduring. Explain the difficulties and the decisions.
Developmental ideas are always full of discussions, arguments and controversies. It is natural that the concept of development will be different to different people. The concept of an industrialist who wants to start a steel industry in a particular place and the concept of an Adivasi living in that area won’t be similar. Therefore, in the first twenty years of independence, a lot of discussions took place on the issue of development.
At this time both experts and ordinary people looked at the development of the Western countries as the model to emulate. They thought that India too should go forward as the Western countries on the path of development. They thought that it would then be necessary to bring about some changes in the social and cultural outlooks of the country. Capitalism and Liberalization would come. Growth, prosperity and technology were related to these things. Based on these criteria counties were categorized as developed, developing and undeveloped.
Our leaders thought that our developmental policies must be different from those of the colonial mindset. The priorities of the government were eradication of poverty and social and economic security. At the time of independence we had two models of development to choose from the capitalist model and the socialist model. In India, the Communist Party, Socialist Party and Nehru preferred the Russian model of development. But some wanted the American model. Therefore we chose a mixed model, amalgamating the two models.
‘Bombay Plan’ was the first initiative for planning in India. Explain the importance of Bombay Plan.
Normally private investers are against planning because they seek an open economy without any state control in the flow of capital. But in India the private investors proposed planning. Identify the proposal and give details.
Planning in India was quite different. Naturally, private sector would be against planning. Private sector welcomes an open economy where government should have no control. But in India the big industrialists decided that for our development there should be proper planning. This Plan is known as the Bombay Plan.
It recommended that heavy industries and huge economic enterprises should work under government. This plan was something that everybody could approve. Later, an independent Planning Commission with the Prime Minister as its Chairman was set up. It became an agency that would decide on the industrial development plan for India.
In most of the countries political parties are mainly classified as Left or Right. Identify the reason and find out some examples for these types of parties in India during 1960’s.
Parties are usually termed Left and Right depending on how they look at the social changes and economic equality of a country. The Left Parties represent the interests and progress of the ordinary people (masses), the poor, the low classes. The Right Parties believe in an open market policy. They believe that government should avoid interfering in the economic affairs and then only progress will come.In the 1960s, the Communist Party and the Socialist Party were Left Parties. The Swatantra Party was a Right Party. Congress was leaning towards the Left.
The Planning Commission of India was set up in March 1950 by a simple resolution of the government of India. Identify the three major goals of this advisory body.
The major goal of the Planning Commission is ensuring social, economic and political justice to people. The Administration gives the guarantee for this through the Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles. The Planning Commission works for the following things:
- A citizen has the right to get the necessary things for living.
- For the welfare of the people, the resources of the country should be controlled, ensuring that people get their rightful share. .
- The economic policy should be such that it does not allow the wealth and the means of production in the hands of a few people.
The following are the concepts developed during the implementation of Five Year Plans in India. Expand the concepts.
1. Plan and Non Plan.
2. Plan Holiday .
Plan and Non-Plan:
Through planning, the India Government worked out the income and expenditure accounts for the next two years. Normally the Central Budget and the State Budget include two parts Planned and Non-planned. The. expenditure that comes every year in a recurring manner comes under the Unplanned Section whereas the schemes and amounts to be spent on them in the coming five years, on a priority basis, come under the Planned Section.
In 1951 when the Plan was started, the country was full of doubts and anxieties. During the 2nd Five Year Plan that started in 1956, these doubts and anxieties further increased and they remained so until the 3rd FYP of 1961. Later Planning lost its thrill and there was an interval. This interval is known as Plan Holiday.
The First and Second Five Year Plans are basically different. Can you find out the basic differences between the two plans?
The main difference was in the styles of the Plans. The first Plan envisaged development at a slow pace . whereas the second plan wanted development to be fast. The first Plan gave priority to agricultural matters whereas the 2nd Plan gave preference to large scale heavy industries.
The first Plan envisaged at eradicating poverty. According to K.N. Raj, India needed a Quick, but also gradual, development. Fast actions would jeopardise democracy itself. Therefore the first half of the Plan devoted attention to dams and irrigation. The
inequality in the land distribution was harmful to agriculture. So it was thought necessary to make land reforms. The 2nd Plan stressed industrial development, it was under the leadership of P.C. Mahalanobis. The 2nd Plan wanted to implement schemes for the quick development of the industrial base.
The Resolution passed at the Avadi Conference of the Congress aimed at social justice. The 2nd Plan reflects this. By imposing import duties, Indian industries were protected from foreign competition. The savings and investments of the people increased. It made it possible to bring about development in the public sector areas like electricity, railway, steel, heavy instruments, and communication.
State the main arguments in the debate between industrialization and agricultural development at the time of second Five Year Plan?
The 1st FYP gave importance to the agricultural sector. But the 2nd one stressed industrial development. This raised a question for a country like India which is more important agriculture or industry?
Those who supported the agricultural sector said that the 2nd FYP had no definite plan about the agricultural sector and industries might make things more difficult for the villagers. J.C. Kumarappa, a Gandhian economist, prepared a plan about industrialization. Mr. Choudhary Charan Singh wanted greater stress to be given to the agricultural sector. He said that industrialization brings progress only to business and cities by preventing farmers and villagers from making progress.
Supporters of industrialization had a different view. They claimed that only through industries and greater production the eradication of poverty would be possible. They also claimed that there was a definite agricultural policy for the development of food crops. Through land reforms, poor villagers got land. Funds were made available for social welfare and irrigation. But these policies could not be carried out as planned. The main reason was the objection from big landowners who had political and social power. They felt that even if more money is spent on agriculture, it would not improve the lot of the villagers.
‘Indian policy makers made a mistake by emphasizing the role of state in the economy. India could have developed much better if private sector was allowed a free play right from the beginning’. Give arguments for and against this proposition.
At the time of independence, India had two developmental modes to choose from the capitalist model and the socialist model. The capitalist model gave importance to the private sector. The socialist model stressed the public sector. What we did was we followed .a model which was a blend of both the capitalist and socialist models.
Arguments against Public Sector:
- It did not allow the private sector to develop.
- Large Public Sector companies discouraged private capital. To start any industry, permit and license were needed. It was not easy to get them.
- Because of import restrictions, the public sector did not have any challenges and so is it could manufacture low quality goods and sell them at high prices.
- Unnecessary controls on the part of the government led to corruption and the working of the public sector was adversely affected.
Arguments against Private Sector:
- Government did not spend enough money on public education and health.
- Government does things only in areas where the Private Sector is reluctant to go.
- Government made private sector profitable.
- The interference of government resulted in the creation of middle class people who earned big salaries and other benefits. The policy did not help the poor people.
“After the implementation of the two Five Year Plans it was assumed that in this period the foundations of India’s future economic growth were laid”. List the major developments that took place during this period.
- It was during this period that some major developmental schemes were implemented. For example, there were Bhakranangal and Hirakud dams which helped in the production of electricity and irrigation.
- Under Public Sector heavy industries were started. There were steel plants, oil refineries, large-scale manufacturing units and the production of defence equipment.
- There was great progress in travel and communication facilities. All these proved beneficial in the future growth of India.
‘Land Reforms’ was a major development that happened during the early phase of development. Evaluate the merit and demerits of land reforms.
Green Revolution is the name given to the policies of the government which aimed at maximum production in the minimum period in the agricultural sector. In the 1960s, the agricultural sector was in a very bad shape. Between 1965 and 67 there were huge droughts in many parts of India. This reduced food production and in many areas there was famine like condition.
To overcome this crisis, India was forced to seek assistance from countries like America. Following the American policies, we too started sorrie new economic policies.The government wanted self-sufficiency in food and therefore a new agricultural policy was implemented. This policy included farming all lands where irrigation was available, using high yield varieties of seeds and fertilizing the land.
Subsidies were given for irrigation and insecticides. It was also decided that the government would purchase the produce at a minimum price. All these changes together paved the way for what is ‘known as the Green Revolution.
The Green Revolution brought some positive changes in agricultural growth. Food stuff was easily available. it was the rich. owners that were the prime beneficiaries. There was a polarization of the rich and poor. This helped the Left Parties to bring together the poor farmers and the masses. As a result, there arose a powerful Left leaning lobby of middle class farmers.
The White Revolution simply means increasing the availability of milk. The Gujarat Cooperative Milk and Marketing Federation Limited (AMUL) was formed. AMUL is a cooperative venture of some 2 lakh milk producers. This is a good area in which people below the poverty line (BPL) could be helped. This is known as the White Revolution. In 1970, the village development scheme Operation Flood’ began its operation.
This scheme avoided middle men and brought together the producers and the consumers, helping both the groups. Producers got good money for their products and consumers got their milk cheaper. It helped in increasing milk production, helping the producers to have regular fixed incomes, it showed this scheme helped in the over-all development of the country. It gives employment and income to the villagers, it was Varghese Kurian who played the major role in the formation of AMUL. He is therefore known as the “Milkman” of India.
Write a short note on Mixed economy
World Economy is generally divided into two capitalist and socialist. In the Mixed Economy, ownership of the means of production is between public sector and private sector. The goal of private sector is mainly profit. But the goal of the public sector is welfare of the people. In short in a mixed economy, both public and private sectors work hand in hand.
What is Planning?
Planning is the evaluation of resources and their proper utilization. In the opinion of the Planning Commission of India, planning is a method by which resources are channelized and utilized properly for the benefit of the citizens.
On which sector was the main emphasis was made in the First Five Year Plan?
The 1st FYP stressed the agricultural sector by investing money in huge dams and large scale irrigation projects.