Kerala Plus Two Political Science Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 6 International Organisations
The following are the names of UN Secretary Generals, Identify the first Secretary General of UNO. Hints U Thant, Kofi A. Annan, Kurt Waldhemin Trygve Lie.
The following diagram shows the principal organs of UNO. Try to fill up the blank columns.
- Economic and Social Council
- International Court of Justice
- Trusteeship Council
The following are the names of some UN Secretary Generals. Identity the first person who had served as the secretary General of UNO from Asia.
Hints : Javier Perez de Cuellane, Trygve Lie, U Thant, Boutros Boutros- Ghali
Mark correct or wrong against each of the following statements below about the veto power.
a. Only the permanent members of the Security Council possess the Veto power.
b. It’s a kind of negative power.
c. The Secretary General uses this power when not satisfied with any decision.
d. One veto can stall a Security Council resolution.
Mark correct or wrong against each of the following statements below that describe the way the UN functions.
a. All Security and peace related issues are dealt with the Security Council.
b. Humanitarian policies are implemented by the main organs and specialized agencies spread across the globe.
c. Having consensus among the five permanent members on Security issues is vital for its implementation.
Maximum Cpu Wisfters
d. The members of the General Assembly are automatically the members of all other principal organs and specialized agencies of the UN.
Which among the following would give more weight age to India’s proposal for permanent membership in the Security Council?
a. Nuclear Capability
b. It has been a member of the UN since its inception.
c. It is located in Asia.
d. India’s growing economic power and stable political system
d. India’s growing economic power and stable political system
The UN agency concerned with the safety and peace¬ful use of nuclear technology is.
a. The UN committee on Disarmament
b. International Atomic Energy Agency
c. UN International safeguard Committee.
d. None of the above
b. International Atomic Energy Agency
WTO is serving as the successor to which of the. following organizations, a General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs.
b. General Arrangement on Trade and Tariffs.
c. World Health Organisation.
d. UN Development programme
General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs.
In June 1975 the Prime Minister Indira Gandhi recommended the imposition of emergency to the President of India. Who was the President at the time of declaration of Emergency in India ?
Find the odd one out.
Ban Ki Moon, Butros Butros Khali, APJ Abdul Kalam
Trygve Lie was the first Secretary General of UNO. Name the present Secretary General of UNO.
Ban Ki Moon
Identify the leader who is associated with Glasnost and Peristroika.
Write the expansion of the following term:
International Monetary Fund
Identify the organisation set up in 1995 as the successor of GATT ?
The UN Security Council has permanent and Non permanent members.
Fill in the blanks.
a. The Prime objective of the UN is ……….
b. The highest functionary of the UN is called ……..
c. The UN Security Council has permanent and non permanent members…….
d. ……….. is the present UN Secretary General.
a. to settle disputes and to promote mutual co-operation among nations.
b. Secretary General
d. Ban Ki Moon
Link Column A with appropriate items from B and C.
Match the principal organs and agencies of the UN with their functions.
- Economic and social council.
- International Court of Justice
- International Atomic Energy Agency
- Security Council
- UN High Commission for Refugees.
- World Trade Organization.
- International Monetary Fund
- General Assembly
- World Health Organization
a. Oversees the global financial system.
b. Preservation of international peace and security
c. Looks into the economic and social welfare of the member countries
d. Safety and peaceful use of nuclear technology.
e. Resolves disputes between and among member countries.
f. provides shelter and medical help during emergencies
g. Debates and discusses global issues.
h. Administration and co-ordination of UN affairs.
i. Provides good health for all.
j. Facilitates free trade among member countries.
1-c, 2-e, 3-d, 4-b, 5-f, 6-j, 7-a, 8-g, 9-i, 10-h.
According to Dag Hammarskjold, “The United Nations was not created to take humanity to heaven, but to save it from hell”.
In the word of Shashi Tharoor, “Countries in the world can get together, bore each other some times with their words rather than bore holes into each others on the battle fields”. To Churchill, “Jaw-Jaw is better than war war”. These are the comments of some international personalities about the importance of international organization. Carefully examine the opinions and explain the relevance of international organization (UNO).
After WWII, the necessity for an international organization was recognized. Its purpose was to prevent wars, to settle international disputes amicably, and to bring about cooperation among nations. Therefore the UN can assist in times of war as well as peace. By improving the standard of living it can assist nations.There are disputes and differences of opinion among nations. War is not the solution to all problems. There are problems like controlling and eradicating diseases or global warming. Although each nation can find solutions to such problems, a collective action would produce much better results. But often nations are not willing to work together. The reasons might be the following:
- How to share the expenses for cooperating in* a project?
- Can the profit from the cooperation be equitably divided?
- How to ensure that the other party won’t breach the contract?
An international organization can formulate new ideas, cooperate and exchange information. It can help member countries by using its expertise and its vast facilities. It can make formulas to share expenses for some cooperative projects and divide profits equitably. It can exert pressure to make the members carry out their obligations.
‘League of Nations’ was the first international organization formed to avoid war. It could not prevent the second world war. The second world war further proved the relevance of an international organization to prevent wars. This gave birth to UNO. Explain the developments through which UNO was formed?
a. In August 1941 American President Franklin D. Roosevelt and the British Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill signed the Atlantic Chart. A,,
b. In January 1942, the nations that fought against the Axis Powers met in Washington DC and signed the “Declaration by United Nations”. This was to support the Atlantic Charter.
- In December 1943, America, Britain, Soviet Union etc. declared the Tehran Conference.
- In February 1945, in the Yalta Conference, 3 leaders – Roosevejt, Churchill and Stalin decided to call a United Nations Conference and agreed to put forward a suggestion fora world organization.
- In April-May 1945, a two months-long United Nations Conference took place in San Francisco.
- On 26 June 1945 the UN Charter was signed by 50 countries, Poland signed it 15 october .Thus there were 52 founding nations at the beginning of the UN. On 24 October 1945 the UN was officiaily founded. India joined it on 30 October 1945.
The end of cold war marked certain fundamental changes in the international politics. The UNO has also undergone certain changes. Carefully evaluate the reforms of the UN after the cold war.
Recently there nave been demands to change the structure of the UN. Reforms are demanded in two spheres:
1. Changes in the structure and its functioning.
2. A rethinking of the problems that can come, should come, under the jurisdiction of the UN.A big demand is that there should be changes in the structure and functions of the Security Council. There is demand for the increase of the Permanent and Non-Permanent members in the Security Council. Then contemporary political realities will be more reflected in its working. There is a demand to increase the number of Asian, African and Latin American countries. There is also a demand from America and many Western countries to rethink about the budget and its management.
Some experts and nations say that there should be some reforms in the areas of jurisdiction of the UNO. They think the UN should play more active roles to bring about peace and security. But others say UN must pay more attention to humanitarian and welfare schemes like health, education, environment, birth control, human rights, social justice etc.
Veto power “is a special power granted to the permanent members of the UN. It is generally regarded as undemocratic and discriminatory. As a student in political science, can you explain the ‘veto power’ and express your opinion about granting veto power to the permanent members of UN Security Council?
Veto Power is a special right the Permanent Members of the UN Security Council enjoy. To make decisions in the Security Council, voting is done. Each Permanent Member has one vote. Any Permanent Member can give a negative vote against any proposal. Even of all members except one vote for a particular decision, it won’t be carried out because of the one negative vote. This negative vote is the veto. There is a move to abolish veto orto amend it. But the Permanent Members do not agree for any reform in this matter. They don’t want the veto power to be abolished, even though the Cold War is over. If the Veto is removed, the big powers will lose their interest in the UN and they will do things the way they like, causing harm to the UN.
On the basis of the resolution adopted by the General Assembly in 1992 the UN secretary General Kofi Annan initiated an enquiry into how the UN should be reformed on 1st January 1997. Identify the proposals submitted for new permanent and non-permanent members of the Security Council.
For the new permanent members and non-permanent members, the criteria for the membership in the Security Council are as follows:
- It must be a big economic power.
- it should be a big military power.
- It should be a nation that contributes substantially to the UN Budget.
- It should be a country with a large population.
- It must a country that has faith in democracy and human rights.
- It should be a nation that should be abie to show the varieties of the world in its geography, economy and culture.
As the UN Completed 60 years of its existence, the heads of all the member states met in September 2005 to celebrate the anniversary and review the present world situation. The leaders in this meeting proposed some proposals to make the UN more relevant in the changing context. List the proposals framed in this meeting.
Some suggestions regarding matters that come under the jurisdiction of the UNO:
- Appoint a commission for the establishment of peace.
- If the people can’t be protected from persecutions by the government of a country, the UN must take the responsibility of protecting them.
- Establish a Human Rights Commission. (It started working from 19 June 2006).
- Agreements for the Millennium development objectives.
- Condemn terrorism and its various aspects.
- Form a Democracy Fund.
- Make a decision to stop Trusteeship Council.
We, Indians have a desire to be a permanent member of the Security Council. For this purpose India has strongly supported the restructuring of the UN Security Council. Can you carefully analyze the logic behind this claim?
The demand of India to be a Permanent Member of the Security Council is quite a logical and legitimate one. India fulfills all the criteria to be a permanent member. It demands permanent membership on the following grounds:
- It has the world’s second largest population.
- It is the largest democracy in the world.
- India has participated in the UN activities since its inception.
- It has long relations with the UN Peacekeeping force.
- India’s economic situation is improving.
- India gives regularly to the UN budget. It has never defaulted on any payment.
The above reasons are good enough for India to get a permanent membership in the UN Security Council. Permanent membership has its own significance. India’s importance will increase in world matters. Our foreign policy will influence others.
We know that India’s claim for permanent membership in the UN Security Council is just and reasonable. There are enough reasons for this. But we also know that it is not easy to materialize this claim. Identify the difficulties before us for attaining the permanent membership.
Some nations question India’s claim for permanent membership in the UN Security Council. They have their own reasons. Pakistan, our neighbour, does not want India to have the veto power. Some say that if India is given permanent membership, many other countries like Brazil, Germany, Japan and South Africa also will come with such demands. Africa and South America are huge landmasses that deserve representation. According to the present structure, this won’t be possible. Therefore it is not easy for any country, including India, to get permanent membership.
The end of cold war created a unipolar world controlled by the U.S.A. Do you think UN serves as a balance against US dominance? UNO came into existence during the period of Cold War. The disintegration of the USSR made the USA the sole Superpower in the world. Many nations feel that only if they work in cooperation with this Superpower, the restructuring of the UN will be possible. We know that it is not easy to control America. Many things make America have great influence over the UN.
The following are main reasons:
- It is the greatest power. It has the economic and military capacity even to challenge the UN.
- UN is located in American soil. That itself enables the US to influence it.
- Many American citizens work in the UN bureaucracy.
- America can stop any move against it by using its veto power.
- America can even decide who the next UN Secretary General should be.
- Using this power USA can make other countries divided in their views.
Because of all these the UN has not been able to counter America. Even though America is a Superpower, UN is the venue where world issues can be discussed by other countries. Although not equal to her, UN can criticise any act or activity of the USA if it goes against its interest.
Match the following:
a – 5
b – 3
c – 4
d – 1
e – 2
‘After the old war, the world faces drastic changes’.In your opinion what are the charges occurred in the world after cold war.
The changes that happened in the world after the Cold War are as follows:
- The disintegration of the Soviet Union.
- America became the sole Superpower.
- The relation between Russia, the heir to the USSR, and the USA became based on cooperation.
- China grew into a big power. India too grew fast.
- Many new countries joined the UN.
(Most of them were members of the disintegrated USSR.)
The world faces new challenges like internal conflicts, racial conflicts, terrorism, proliferation of nuclear weapons, climate change, destruction of the eco system, contagious diseases, etc.
Mark correct or wrong against each of the following statements about the veto power.
Which among the following would give more weightage to India’s proposal for permanent membership in the security council.
The United Nations was established in .
24 October, 1945
…………. is UN’s day.