Kerala Plus Two Political Science Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 8 Regional Aspirations
Match the following.
|A||Socio religious identity leading to statehood||i. Nagaland/Mizoram|
|B||Lingustic identity and tensions with Centre||ii. jharkhand Chattisgarth|
|C||Regional imbalance leading to demand for statehood||iii. punjab|
|D||Secessionist demands on account of tribal identity||iv Tamil Nadu|
The North Eastern part of India comprises seven states. These states are generally known as ‘Seven Sisters’. Which are the states?
Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Mizoram, Nagaland, Manipur, Assam, Meghalaya.
Fill up the table given below. Match the column A with B and C
|T.D.P||Bal Thakare||Tamil Nadu|
|D.M.K||Sheikh Abdullah||Andra Pradesh|
|National Conference||N.T.Rama Rao||Jammu and Kashmir|
|T.D.P.||N.T. Rama Rao||Andhra|
|D.M.K.||C.N. Annadurai||Tamil Nadu|
|National Conference||Sheikh Abdullah||Jammu & Kashmir|
|Siva Sena||Bal Thackeray||Maharashtra|
At the time of independence Jammu and Kashmir was a princely state. Who was the ruler of Jammu and Kashmir?
One among the following is not included in the north eastern India. Find out.
c) Tamil Nadu
c) Tamil Nadu
Jammu and Kashmir is broadly classified into three regions. Identify them?
‘Operation Vijay’ is associated with the integration of a state in the Indian union. Identify the state,
c) Arunachal pradesh
Identify the year in which the following events occurred.
a) Rio Summit
b) Kyoto Protocol
c) Copenhagen conference
a. Rio Summit-1992
b. Kyoto Protocol -1997
c. Copenhagen Conference – 2009
Match the following.
|Lai Danga||Self respect movement|
|Master Thara Singh||Autonomy for Jammu andKashmir|
|Sheik Muhammed Abdullah||Akali Movement|
|E.V. Ramaswami Nalker||Him National front .|
Lai Danga – Mizo National Front
Master Thara Singh -Akali Movement
Sheikh Muhammed Abdullah – Autonomy for Jammu & Kashmir
E.V. Ramaswami Naicker-Self Respect Movement
Match the following A with B and C .
|Harchand Singh Longowal||National conference||Mizoram|
|E.V. Ramaswamy||Miso National||Jammu-|
|Shaikh Mohammed Abdulla||Akali Dal||Tamil Nadu|
|Lai Denga||Dravida Munnetta Kazhakam||Punjab|
|Harchand Singh Longowal||Akali Dal||Punjab|
|E.V. Ramaswami Naicker||Dravida
|Sheikh Muhammed Abdulla||National
|Lai Denga||Mizo National Front||Mizoram|
During 1980’s India faced a major threat due to the rise of regional aspirations for autonomy. Even though we had managed to resolve the problems the process of solutions was always difficult and often violent. As a student in political science can you explain the Indian approach to the regional demand for autonomy?
The attitude of India towards its various provinces is based on the idea of unity in diversity. Each State has the right to maintain its language and culture. As per the constitution, all have the right to live with their own individuality without breaching the unity of India. India believes in the principle of unity in diversity.
Maintaining the democratic principle, each political party can address its people with its regional individuality. The States and their needs are protected. Our thinking is different from the thinking of European countries. There, they think diversity is a threat to nationalism.
Jammu and Kashmir is the major challenge that remains unresolved in the unity of India. Prepare a report showing the different aspects of Jammu Kashmir issue.
When India got independence, Jammu-Kashmirwas a Princely State. Initially, the King Raja Hari Singh refused to join either India or Pakistan as he wanted to remain independent. The Pakistani leaders believed that since Jammu-Kashmir had a lot of Muslims, it would join Pakistan.
The people there were known as Kashmiris. Under the leadership of Sheikh Abdulla there was an agitation to remove the King from power. But he also did not want to join Pakistan. National Conference was a secular organization. It was also pro-Congress. In October 1947 Pakistan encouraged ,some tribal groups to capture Pakistan. Then the King sought assistance from India.
The King signed the “Instrument of Accession” and so the Indian army helped the Jammu-Kashmir King. There was also a condition that when things become normal there would be a referendum. For the welfare of the people Sheikh Abdulla became the Prime Minister. India granted J&K autonomy.
External and Internal Squabbles:
Because of external and internal problems, J&K is always in th^ttiidst of crises. On one side there is Pakistan, claiming the Kashmir Valley. After the 1947 War, a part of Kashmir came under Pakistani control. India calls it illegal occupation. Pakistan calls this area Azad Kashmir. Internally also the Kashmir problems is a headache for the Centre. According to Article 370, Kashmir is given greater autonomy than other States. This Article is applicable only to Jammu and Kashmir.
The special concession causes problems. Many believe that this autonomy given to Kashmir will adversely affect the unity and indivisibility of the country. They feel that Article 370 should be removed. But the Kashmiris feel that the autonomy they got by Article 370 is not enough. Some Kashmiris put forward 3 complaints.No referendum has taken place so far.
The status promised by Article 370 is only on paper, not in practice. They need more autonomy. They also say that the kind of democracy implemented in other States of India is not found in J&K.
Politics since 1948:
After Sheikh Abdulla became the Prime Minister of Kashmir, many land reforms and other welfare measures were taken to help the masses. But there was a difference of opinion between him and the Central Government. He wanted Kashmir to be completely free. So the Central Government dismissed him and kept him in jail for some time. His successors did not get popular support but they administered the region with Central support. The Kashmiris slowly started believing in democracy. According to the agreement between India Gandhi and Sheikh Abdullah, in 1974, he became the Prime Minister. He died in 1982.
Resistance And Later:
In the 1987 election the National Conference won with a huge majority. Farukh Abdulla became the Chief Minister. Many believed that he did some manipulations in the election. From 1980, there have been protests against weak governments there. Some people believed that it was the Centre which made this huge majority possible. It led to the Kashmiri crisis. There was resistance. In 1989, there was an armed struggle for making Kashmir independent.
The insurgents were assisted by Pakistan. For many years, J&K was under Presidential rule. Even as there was strong military presence there, from 1990 there have been frequent clashes between the army and the people who resisted Indian rule. Farooq Abdulla’s government also demanded greater autonomy. In 2002, there was another election. Instead of the National Conference, a PDP Coalition Government came to power.
Secession Movement And After:
The secessionist movement (1969) appeared in many shapes and it took different stances.
- Independent Kashmir without joining either India or Pakistan.
- A group demanding merger with Pakistan.
- A group demanding greater autonomy.
The demand for greater autonomy attracted the people of Jammu and Ladakh in different ways. Often there were complaints against neglect and backwardness.
- The Central Government discussed the issue with different groups. The secessionists now say that even as they stay with India, they should be given more autonomy.
The violence in Punjab exhibited a dark part of the Indian history. The Akali Dal played a critical role in creating disturbance in Punjab. Can you briefly explain the separatism in Punjab?
The Indo-Pakistan division and the formation of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh caused the social situation in Punjab change. Punjab State came into existence in 1966 on linguistic basis. Akali Dal propagated an idea called ‘Punjabi Suba’ and Indira Gandhi approved this demand. Thus Punjab was divided into Punjab and Haryana .
Haryana was for the Hindi speaking people and Punjab for the Punjabi speakers. Even in the 1967 election, Akali Dal came to power in Punjab by making agreements first with Jan Sangh and later with Janta Party. Because of certain reasons, the situation became bad for Akali Dal and before completing the term, the government was dismissed by the Centre. The Akali Dai could not get the support of the Hindus.
The Sikh Community itself was divided on tribal and caste lines. The Dalits supported the Congress. In 1970, a group of Akalis demanded political autonomy. They also said that there should be rethinking about Centre State relationship. In 1973, in Anandapur, they passed a resolution supporting this idea. They demanded a Sikh Kaum (Sikh Nation) through this resolution.
This resolution made only the Sikh community happy. In 1980 the Akali Government was dismissed. The Akali Dal leaders tried to prevent the sharing of river water. Some religious leaders also demanded freedom for the Sikh nation. The worst was the demand for an independent Khalistan.
Operation Blue Star’ was a critical incident in the history of India and in the history of Sikh community.Evaluate the reasons and consequences of ‘Operation Blue Star’.
After passing the Anandpur Sahib resolution, some religious leaders demanded autonomy. Slowly it became the demand for an independent Khalistan. Slowly power moved from the hands of the moderates to the radicals and they were ready for armed resistance. The Sikh fundamentalists made the Golden Temple itself their centre for operation. Through the Operation Blue Star, the Central Government was able to drive the armed extrem its out of the Golden Temple. But some damage was sustained by the Golden Temple during the operation and this wounded the religious sentiments of some Sikh people.
They looked at the Operation Blue Star as an attack on their faith. In retaliation, on 31 October 1984, Indira Gandhi was killed by her own Sikh guards. It was a moment of great shock for the country. In Delhi and some North Indian States there was violence against the Sikhs. This violence lasted a week. In Delhi itself some 2000 Sikhs were killed. It took a long time to establish normalcy in the country. The Sikhs felt that the murderers of their fellow, men were not appropriately punished. After 20 years of the incident, in 2005, the then Prime Minister, Man Mohan Singh, expressed regret at the mindless killing of the Sikh people.
Rajiv Gandhi- Longowal or Punjab Accord was a landmark towards bringing normalcy to Punjab. Explain Punjab Accord?
After the 1984 general election, Rajiv Gandhi be-came the PM. He started talks with the Akali Dal leaders. In 1985, he signed an accord with the Akali leader Harchand Singh Longowal. This is known as the Punjab Accord or the Rajiv Gandhi-Longowal Accord. This helped to bring about normalcy in Punjab. The conditions of the Accord:
- Handover Chandigarh to Punjab.
- Appoint a new Commission to solve the border disputes between Punjab and Haryana.
- Establish a Tribunal to share the waters of Ravi Beas with Haryana and Rajasthan.
- Compensation will be given for the daffies done during the Operation Blue Star and people suffering from its aftermath will be given assistance. Even with all these, normalcy did not return immediately. It took nearly ten years for things to become normal. By 1990, the.army was able to suppress the extremists. But both the Sikhs and Hindus suffered a lot for nothing.
The North Eastern States in India are referred to as the ‘Seven Sisters’. These states are formed on the basis of certain reasons. This region has only four percent of the country’s population. Explain briefly the reason behind the formation of these states.
Since 1947, the North Eastern region has witnessed a lot of changes. So many political changes took place. In 1960, Nagaland was created. In 1,972, Meghalaya, Manipur and Tripura came into being. Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became separate States.
The 1947 division of India made the North Eastern part of the country a region without any sea port. This resulted in its economic decline.
Since it was isolated from the rest of India, development was slow there. The politics of that region was also unique. Moreover, many refugees from the neighbouring countries and neighbouring States migrated to this region, thus bringing radical changes in the social and economic set up of the region.
The North East states expressed complicated sets of demands. This created complicated problems in this region. Through the active interference of the Indian government some of the problems are resolved,but some other problems persist even today. Gan you identify the major problems in the North East states?
The North-Eastern States have some geographical peculiarities, it was a region that was not Closely linked to the rest of the country. It has long international orders, but communications facilities were less there its development was neglected to be extent and the problem was made complex by the emigrants that came from other places. In this complex . situation, some complex demands were made:
- Demand for autonomy.
- Demand for independent nations.
- Enmity towards people from other places.
Demand for Autonomy:
At the time of independence, except Manipur and Tripura, the entire North-Eastern region was just one State. After independence, the non-Assamese felt that Assamese language was imposed on them. Therefore they demanded political self-rule. The Adivasi leaders wanted to keep away from Assam. They formed “Eastern India Tribal Union”. Later it was known as “All Party Hill Leaders Conference”. They demanded one Adivasi State, but more Adivasi States like Meghalaya and Mizoram were formed.
Even with this, their demand for self-rule did not end. The Bodos, Karbis and Dimasas etc. demanded their own States. The same area was demanded by more than one community. Because of that the only solution was forming tiny States. Some stayed in Assam and gained their right for self-rule. The Karbis and Dimasas were given self-rule at the District level. The Bodos were given their self-rule council very recently.
Secessionist Movement Mizoram:
India faced demands for secession from two North-Eastern States-Mizoram and Nagaland. After independence, Mizoram region within Assam itself was enjoying self-rule. But many of them . thought that they were not part of British India and so there was no reason for them to join India. In 1959 there was a serious famine in the Mizo hills. But the Assam government could not take appropriate measures to help the suffering people there. This caused the formation of Mizo National Front (MNF) under the leadership of Lai Denga. From 1966, they started an armed struggle to get freedom. Pakistan aided them and gave them refuge in Eastern ‘ Pakistan. In the conflict many ordinary people were killed. This made the local people very angry.
In spite of the 20-year long resistance, no party made any gain. Then they had a rethinking. The exiled Lai Denga returned from Pakistan and started talks with Indian authorities. In 1986, a peace accord was signed between and Rajiv Gandhi. Mizoram thus became a State some specie rights. ‘MNP gave – up their resistance.
The case of Nagaland was very similar’ to that of Mizoram was problem that began even before the Mizoram issue, but it still remains unsolved. In 195-1, under the leadership of Angami Zapu Phizo, Nagaland declared its independence. Phizo refused to accept suggestions Tor peace. The Naga National Council made an armed struggle. After some time it made an accord with the India Government. But some other revolutionaries were not agreeable to the terms of the accord. Even today it continues to be an unresolved issue.
Moves Against Outsiders:
There was another problem in the North-Eastern region which faced migration of people from other places. There was rivalry between the local people and the emigrants. The locals thought that lack of foodstuff, unemployment, shortage of land etc, were problems created by the outsiders who Came to the region in large numbers. In Assam, the moves against outsiders were very strong. If the outsiders were not controlled, the locals feared that they would become the minority.
in 1979, the Assam Students’ Union made move against the outsiders. It was against illegal emigrants. There were also many Bengalis in this illegal group. The Student Union protested against the voters’ list which’ included the names of the emigrants. Many unfortunate events took place. Many were killed. After 6 years, Rajiv Gandhi made an accord with the leaders of the Students’ Union. According to that, all the people who came to the region after the Bangladesh War were to be sent away.
The Indian democracy is’ strengthening slowly but steadily. The merger of Sikkim and Liberation of Goa can be cited as the extension of Indian democracy to the people of Sikkim and Goa. Explain the process of Sikkim merger and the liberation of Goa.
The integration of Sikkim arid the liberation of Goa show that even people outside India wanted to become part of India. India is the largest democracy in the world, geographically and population-wise.
At the time of our independence Sikkim was a protectorate of India. Its defence and foreign relations were managed by India. The Chogyal rule made Sikkim an autocracy. But the . desire of the people for democracy made ruling difficult for Chogyal
The first election in Sikkim was in 1974. The Sikkim 1 Congress won. The Assembly passed a resolution making Sikkim an Associated State and later In 1975 opted for integration with India. It was done as per the popular will. Thus Sikkim became India’s 22nd State.
The liberation of Goa from the Portuguese is another example of the success of Indian democracy. Although the British ended their rule in India in 1947, Portugal refused to quit from Goa, Daman and Diu. They were keeping the people . under their rule by suppressing them, refusing their rights and by forceful conversions.
The Indian Government patiently waited for the voluntary withdrawal of the Portuguese. The Goan people were clamouring for their freedom from Portugal. The Socialist Satyagrahis of Maharashtra also supported ’ them. Finally in 1961, the Indian Government sent an army and made the Portugal ruled areas part of Indian territory. The military operation lasted only a couple of days. In 1987 Goa became a State.
‘Vadakku Vaazhkirathu’Therkku Thaeikirathu”. This was the popular slogan raised by Dravidian movement. This Dravidian movement was one of the first regional movements in Indian Politics. Prepare a short note about Dravidian movement.
“Vadakku Vaazhkirathu, Thekku Thaeikirathu” was a slogan of the Dravidian Movement. This is first regional movement in India. Although the Movement wanted to establish a Dravidian Nation, it never resorted to any armed struggle. Using the democratic methods of propaganda and election, the Dravida Munnetta Kazhakam became a strong power.
Dravida Kazhakam (DK) was formed by E.V. Ramaswami, known as ‘Periyor’. This Organization was against Brahmin supremacy and the political and economic supremacy of the Northern States. It was split later and then DMK (Dravida Munneta Kazhakam) came into existence. In 1953 and 54 it made 3 big agitations and they made DMK an influential party in Indian politics.
- The first agitation was to change the name of a railway station. Kallakkudi railway station’s name was changed to Dalrpiapuram. The DMK wanted to retain the name Kallakkudi.
- The second agitation was to make Tamil Cultural history as an important part of the school curriculum.
- The 3rd ope was against the handicraft training in the schools. The DMKsaid that it had a Brahmin touch .The DMK made huge agitations against the plan of making Hindi as the sole official language. The 1965 anti-Hindi protests made DMK very famous. Now there are many Dravidian parties – DMK, AIDMK, Marumalarchi DMK, Pattali Makkal Kakshi, Desiya Moorpoku Dravida Kazhakam arrd so on. Some of them are known even outside Tamil Nadu.
“The period since 1980 faced challenges against national integration”. These challenges tested the capacity of democratic politics to accommodate the demand of diverse sections of the society. Can you point out the lessons that we learned from these problems?
We were able to learn the following things:
- Regional demands are part of the democratic system.
- In democracy, suppression is not the solution. We have to look for solutions to problems.
- It is not enough to have democratic structure within the State. There should be such a system in interstate matters. It is not right to demand complete self-rule or autonomy. The nation is made up of various States. Therefore the future fate of the nation is also the responsibility of each part.
- If regional representation is not equal in economic development, it will lead to regional discrimination. When some States remain backward and others go ahead fast, it will spoil the equilibrium. It is schemes with a broad vision that will bring unity in diversity in the Indian context.
How does regionalism come in the way of bringing about unity in diversity?
Regionalism creates obstacles on the path of finding unity in diversity. The reasons are given below
- In the society it brings about divisive tendencies. It badly affects the principle of unity in diversity
- Since people have regional loyalties, they can’t fulfill their national obligations and responsibilities
- Regionalism often degenerates into communalism and linguistic jingoism and this destroy unity.
Regionalism is the love and loyalty people feel to the small region in which they live. It becomes bad when their love for their region becomes greater than the love for their country.
What do you know about Master Tara Singh?
Master Thara Singh is a famous Sikh political leader. He was one of the early leaders of Siromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee. He was also a leader of Akali Movement.
Which region is known as ’Seven sisters’?
North Eastern Region
Question 5 .
Why did the Anandpur Sahib Resolution become controversial?
In the 1970s, a section of the Akali Dal, demanded greater autonomy for Punjab. They passed a resolution for political freedom in 1973 during the Conference conducted at Anandpur Sahib. This resolution summed up the policies, principles and schemes of the Akali Dal. It became controversial because it was written in Gurumukhi script. The resolution was not clear. Some words were ambiguous, capable of being interpreted in different ways. For the moderates the resolution demanded more autonomy for Punjab, but for the extremists it was full freedom and not mere autonomy.