Kerala Plus Two Political Science Previous Year Question Paper 2012
Find the one which is not going along with others.
General Abdul Nassar
Josip Broz Tito (1)
After the Second World War, USA & USSR became Super Powers. Even in such position, both wanted small States to be their allies. Find three reasons for that. (3)
- To become a global power
- To get political and economic strength
- To ensure their influence in other countries and thus to be ready for another war.
‘Shock Therapy’ was a treatment for former Communist States to make them liberal, democratic and capitalist’. Examine the consequences of Shock Therapy. (2)
The disintegration of the USSR led many of its member countries to accept democracy. Russia, Asia and Eastern European countries were attracted to the World Bank and IMF. This change is known as the shock treatment.
- Many large scale industries under government control were closed.
- 90% industries were ready to be sold to individuals and companies.
- Rouble, the Russian currency, lost its value. Inflation reduced the value of the saving of people.
- In collective farming, people had food security. USSR had to import foodstuff.
- The GDP of 1999 was less that of 1989.
- The social welfare schemes had to be abandoned. As the subsidies were withdrawn, people became poor.
- Educational and intellectual manpower was reduced and people left the country looking for jobs.
- Privatization brought inequality among people.
Observe the following indicators.
(i) The US accounts for 15% of the world trade.
(ii) The presence of US is a reality in all sectors of world economy.
By examining the above said indicators explain the hegemony of US as a structural power. (3)
This dominance is based on the economic structure. The global economic system relies on America. If America helps the global economic system, it is mainly for their benefits and profits. But America does a lot of good things for the world. For example, communication channels through the oceans. Merchant ships travel through sea routes and America has much authority on the water transport system. It is the American navy that keeps the sea- routes safe for ships.
The next is the Internet. In fact it was an American military project. It was started in 1950. Today the global network functions using satellites. Most of them belong to America. 28% of the world economy is controlled by America. 15% of the international trade is also done by them. In any economic sector, at least one of out of three biggest companies will be American. The world economic structure follows the Breton Woods style of America. The World Bank,I.M.F. and World Trade Organization etc. are examples of American supremacy in world business and finance.
Now comes another example – the MBA degree. It was America that made this course and the degree so popular. It was Americans who discovered that business is a profession that could be taught. The first Business School was established in Pennsylvania in 1881. Its name was Wharton School. Today in all countries MBA has become a prestigious degree.
India had a cordial relationship with the former USSR.
After the collapse of the USSR there is a shift in the Indo-US relationship.
Give a brief note on the Indo-US relationship. (3)
The relations between India and America passed through a number of ups and downs. America thought that after independence India would join the American Bloc. But India, under Nehru, formulated the policy of NAM. This made America angry with India. India always opposed imperialism. Indian nuclear schemes, its refusal to sign the NPT, and the friendly relations between India and USSR were severely criticised by the US. On the other hand, India strongly condemned the military and economic help America was giving to Pakistan, which played a big role in spreading terrorism in India. Thus both countries criticised each other. This situation changed when Indira Gandhi visited the US President Ronald Reagan in October 1981. Then there was a rethinking about the relations between the two countries.
With the disintegration of the USSR, India became a friendless nation. It was around this time, India embarked on its Liberalization plan. The good progress India was making in the economic field prompted many countries to become India’s ally in the economic area. America also wants good relations with India. It is hoped that in the future there will be cordial relations between the two biggest democracies in the world.
Listen the following conversation.
Anu : After the collapse of USSR, many countries had given up their communist ideology.
Aron : But the largest populated State, China, still follow the Communist ideology.
Anu : In China, Communism is only in the colour of the flag. Chinese economy shows a clear lean towards capitalism.
From the above conversation, give a note on the rise of Chinese economy. Is it against the Communist ideals? Substantiate.(2)
The new economic policy has helped China a lot to bring it out of the moribund economic state. Privatization in the agricultural sector made crop production increase considerably and the rural economic sector improved. Thus there was considerable increase in the rural industrial sector. Chinese economy became better as a result of the increase in industry and rural growth. In 2001, China entered the WTO and thus it was able to trade with outside countries. Its decision to work jointly with the world economic system will definitely affect its economic model. Although some of these things are against Communist ideologies, the Chinese development model has become the cornerstone of its development.
Match the following
1. European Union – Deng Xiao Ping
2. ASEAN Security Community – 1988 December
3. Rajiv Gandhi visited China – Euro
4. Open Door Policy – Prevention of war
- European Union – Euro
- ASEAN Security Community – prevent war
- Rajiv Gandhi’s Chinese visit-December 1988
- Open Door Policy – Deng Xiaoping
In 1971, the war between India and Pakistan resulted the rise of a new State, namely Bangladesh. Analyse the things that led to the formation of Bangladesh. Write briefly the benefits of India from this incident.(3)
From 1947 to 1971 Bangladesh was a part of Pakistan. Bangladesh was formed by taking sections of Bengal and Assam. The people of Bangladesh (before East Pakistan) did not like the West Pakistan government because of its dominating attitude. Pakistan also used force to impose Urdu on the Bangladeshis. Under Sheikh MujiburRehman, the people of Bangladesh protested against Pakistan and it policies. General Yahya Khan, the ruler of Pakistan, tried to suppress the democratic demands of the Bangladeshis. As a result thousands of people were killed.
There was a huge flood of refugees coming to India. This created a refugee problem here. India helped East Pakistan with money, man and material in its struggle for freedom. All this ended in a war with Pakistan in 1971. In the war, the Pakistani army was utterly defeated and Bangladesh became an independent country.
Find the odd one from the following :
Z.A. Bhutto, Zia-UI-Haq, Navaz Sharif, Banazir Bhuto (1)
India is continuously raising the demand that we must be included in the permanent membership of the Security Council of the UN. Critically examine on what grounds we should be included as a permanent member of the UN Security Council. (4)
The demand of India to be a Permanent Member of the Security Council is quite a logical and legitimate one. India fulfills all the criteria to be a permanent member. It demands permanent membership on the following grounds:
- It has the world’s second largest population.
- It is the largest democracy in the world.
- India has participated in the UN activities since its inception.
- It has long relations with the UN Peacekeeping force.
- India’s economic situation is improving.
- India gives regularly to the UN budget. It has never defaulted on any payment.
The Present Secretary of UN Banki-Moon is from Asia. Name the other Asian who was in this position earlier. (1)
……………. is an international organization which sets the rules for global trade. (1)
Traditionally military threats were considered as the main security problem faced by a country. But nowadays there are new sources of threats that endanger the human survival. Find four such sources and explain about them briefly. (4)
Political attacks make the life of ordinary citizens difficult. The terrorists want the political circumstances to change. They try to bring about changes by threats and armed attacks. By unleashing violence, they make the people restless. They try to make the dislike and discontentment of the people their weapon against governments. Their activities include hijacking planes and bombing trains and markets arid other places where people assemble. They attacked and destroyed the World Trade Centre in New York on 11 September 2001. The government and the people are more cautious now against terrorists.
We see that throughout the world there are human right violations. There is no unified thinking in any country about how to protect human rights. Recent incidents of human right violations are the annexation of Kuwait by Iraq, the ethnic cleansing in Ruanda and the mass killings of the people of Eastern Timor by the Indonesian army. All these prompted world leaders to have a talk. The talk was about whether the UN should interfere in such matters. The matter is still unresolved.
This is another factor of security threat. It is believed that the population in the under¬developed countries will triple in 50 years. In countries where the population is low, the per capital income will be high. Therefore the economically advanced countries will prosper further whereas the poor countries will grow poorer. The gap between countries of the North and South will increase. People from the South countries immigrate to the North countries for better life and earning. This also creates a threat forthe security of mankind.
Contagious diseases are another threat to mankind, AIDS, bird flu, SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) etc. are dangerous contagious diseases. These spread quickly from one country to another. A country’s success or failure in controlling these diseases affects other countries also. Recently swineflu spread all over the world. It is when a problem becomes a threat to a nation and its people that it becomes an international security threat. Diseases spread from one place to another because of tourism, military activities and immigration.
You may have heard about the following movements:
i. Struggle in Plachimada against Ground Water exploitation. .
ii. Struggle in Silent Valley to protect the Bio-diversity.
iii. Struggle in Philippines against the Western Mining Company.
These struggles show that the environmental movemerits are the most vibrant, diverse and powerful social movements across the world. Enumerate your stand on the necessity of the environmental movements today. (3)
Environmental damage is problem faced by all the countries of the world. Many organizations have come up all over the world to prevent the damage to our environment. In one sense, the environmental organizations are a necessity of the times. If the organizations working for bio-diversities are sincere, the threats to the environment could be prevented to a certain extent.
“Globalization affects us in our home, in what we eat, drink, wear and indeed in what we think.”The above statement reflects the cultural consequences of globalization. In what way does globalization affect in our daily life? (3)
The concept of globalization is the exchange of ideas, materials and human resources. Now this exchange is possible among nations without much, control, Looked at this way it assumes different levels of political, economic and cultural meanings. In his sense it has merits and demerits. Some societies may be affected only very little, but some may be affected much more.
Let us see how it works:
Politically speaking, the authority of the government gets weaker. It will have to reduce its welfare schemes. Instead of social welfare, the stress is on the market. With the coming MNCs (Multi National Corporations), it becomes difficult for the governments to take independent decisions. According to the advocates of globalization, no political power of the government is lost. The essential things will remain under the authority of the government. Since technology has advanced so much, governments can do a lot. Technology helps governments to know the details of their citizens and make the administration efficient.
Globalization has influenced the economic sphere greatly. World Bank, IMF, WTO etc. play big roles. All these are controlled mainly by America and its allies. The world economy itself has come under their influence. In this, a re-thinking is necessary. It is high time that we found out who the beneficiaries of globalization are.There are arguments in favour and against economic globalization. Although the policy is the same, different places get different results. Those who think of social justice can look at the limitations on government only as a demerit of globalization. Those who are economically backward need some special security not to suffer from the demerits of globalization.
Some people believe that globalization makes the poor people poorer and so it must be stopped. But globalization brings about huge economic growth and the social welfare of many. Large scale commerce makes the economy better. Moreover, culture is not something that sands still. Every culture accepts things from other cultures. It is not easy to prevent globalization in the forward march of history.
In 1956 Act was passed. This led to the creation of 14 States and 6 Union Territories in India. (1)
State Re-Organization Law
Match the Following :
Sardar Patel – India’s Iron Man – Integrated the Princely States.
Potti Sriramulu – Congress Leader-Telugu State Bodha Chandrs Singh – King of Manipur – signed Instruction of Accession
“For the last few years the Congress Party is the leader of ruling coalition in India.” But in the first three general elections, India witnessed the dominance of the Congress Party. This domination never affected the democratic nature of our country.
Dominance of the Congress Party in Indian Politics: The experience of the dominance of Congress in all the first s general elections after independence was a unique one in the world. In many other countries,(democracy was toppled. In China. Cuba and Syria only one party was allowed to exist. But in India there was multi party democracy and many parties contested the election. But Congress won with huge majority. It made the other parties lag much behind.
There were some reasons for the unusual success of Congress. It had.the leadership in the freedom struggle. Secondly, it was the leaders who fought for freedom that stood as the candidates for election. Thirdly only Congress had a good organizational set up at that time. Only Congress had its presence in all the States of India and all this helped in Congress having the upper hand.
The Five Year Plans in India laid the foundation stone of the nation’s development. Distinguish between the first and second five year ‘ plans in India. (3)
The main difference was in the styles of thePlans, The first Plan envisaged development at a slow pace whereas the second plan wanted development to be fast. The first Plan gave priority to agricultural matters whereas the 2nd Plan gave preference to large scale heavy industries. The first Plan envisaged at eradicating poverty.
According to K.N. Raj, India needed a quick, but also gradual, development. Fast actions would jeopardise democracy itself. Therefore the first half of the Plan devoted attention to dams and irrigation. The inequality in the land distribution was harmful to agriculture. So it was thought necessary to make land reforms. The 2nd Plan stressed industrial development. It was under the leadership of PC. Mahalanobis.
The 2nd Plan wanted to implement schemes for the quick development of the industrial base. The Resolution passed at the Avadi Conference of the Congress aimed at social justice. The 2nd Plan reflects this. By imposing import duties, Indian industries were protected from foreign competition. The savings and investments of the people increased. It made it possible to bring about development in the public sector areas like electricity, railway, steel, heavy instruments, and communication.
Examine the circumstances which led to the split in the Congress Party in 1969.
Look the following hints;
i. Conflict between Indira Gandhi and the Syndicate.
ii. President Election in 1969. (3)
Jawaharlal Nehru had great influence in the party because of his dynamic personality. His death created a vacuum in the party. Gradually the central, group known as the Syndicate established itself in the Congress. In 1969 there arose a difference between Indira Gandhi and the Syndicate. When Dr. Zakir Hussain died, the Presidential post was vacant, the Syndicate nominated Indira Gandhi’s long time rival and the then speaker Sanjiva Reddy to the post.
But Indira Gandhi preferred the then Vice-President V. V. Giri to be the next President. V.V. Giri was elected. The failure of the official candidate of the Syndicate caused the formal division of the Congress. The Congress President suspended Indira Gandhi from the Party. Indira claimed that her group was the real Congress. In 1969. the Congress led by the Syndicate was known as Congress (O) and the one led by Indira Gandhi was calied Congress (R).
Identify the person who is known as the ‘milk man’ of India. (2)
Write a short note on the‘Operation Flood.’ (2)
From 1970, there was the rural development scheme called White Revolution. Through this milk producers’ cooperatives came into existence and they tried to increase the production of milk nationwide. They tried to avoid middlemen, connecting the producers and the consumers. They made it possible for the producers to have a regular income throughout the year. This was seen as a path of development, it also gave the village people work and removed their poverty.
India and China maintained a better relation till the . Chinese attack in 1962. Explain the situation which led to the Sino-lndian war in 1962. Analyse how the war affected India internally and externally. (7)
In the beginning India and China had cordial relations. Our relations have a historical and cultural background. Nehru played a crucial role in making the relations better. India was the first country to recognize China after the Revolution. Nehru tried to help China in international matters. Because of these good relations, on the India-China border there were only paramilitary forces arid not regular armymen.
The Panchshee Agreement was a big landmark out India-China relations, it was signed on April 29 by the PMs of both countries. Nehru of India and Chou- en-Lai of China. Nehru visited China and Chou-en-Lai visited India getting the love and respect of people. Nehru had an open-hearted approach to China. But people like Patel thought China was not a country ‘ to be believed. Nehru never expected any attack from China. But in 1962. China did attack India.
Two things spoiled the relations between India and China. One was the Tibetan Issue and the other was border disputes. Even in the 1950s when they were friends, India and China had border disputes. China was not ready to accept our suggestions regarding the border. China claimed Ladakh in Kashmir and some areas of Arunachai Pradesh to be theirs. During the period of 1957-59, they also took Aksai Chin sector and built the Karakoram Highway.
The second issue was Tibet, in 1950, China annexed Tibet. It was a breach of faith, in the beginning India kept – quiet. But the Chinese started imposing their culture on the Tibetans. In 1959, the Tibetan Spiritual leader, Dalai Lama, sought refuge in India. China then accused India saying that India was acting against Qn. Paper March -2012 the interest of China. In October 1962 China infiltrated into Indian territories which she claimed to be hers. The first attack lasted a week. Chinese army occupied some places in Arunachai Pradesh. The next attack came a month later. But the Indian army stopped the Chinese in the western part of Ladakh. China declared a unilateral ceasefire and retreated from the places it had taken.
Results of the India-China War:
During the war, Russia kept her neutrality. India had to seek support from America and Britain. The war was shameful to the country. But it strengthened national feeling. Nehru’s close friend and the then defence minister V.K. Krishna Menon had to resign. Nehru was criticised for blindly believing China and for his lack of military preparation to prevent the attack. A non confidence confidence motion was brought against his government. In Lok Sabha there were a lot of discussions. In many bye-elections Congress lost. The Opposition was also affected by the war. In 1964 Communist Party split into two – Pro-Chinese and Pro-Russia. One was CPI (M) and the other was CPI.The War awakened the nation. The North Eastern region was backward. The Chinese war prompted the nation to keep its unity and to embark upon developmental projects.
On 25 June 1971 the Government of India declared Emergency throughout the country.
a. Do you think the Emergency was necessary at that time? Justify your argument. (7)
b. What are the lessons taught by the Emergency to Our democratic system? (3)
On 25 June 1975, the President, on the advice of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, declared Emergency in India. It affected the working of the political parties in many ways. They are as follows:
a. Many of the opposition leaders were arrested and kept in jail. This adversely affected the functioning of the parties. The controls imposed on the media also affected their working. As a result the public opinion was turned against Congress. Jay Prakash Narayan became the symbol of democracy.
b. The Emergency and things that were done to implement it made the opposition leaders feel that the autocratic rule of Indira Gandhi would make them disappear one by one. Because of that the leaders of different parties kept in touch with one another and were ready to form a new political party. The result was Janta Party.
c. With the formation of the new party, it was strongly believed that the anti-Congress votes won’t get divided. The 1977 election was a referendum on the Emergency. Congress was badly defeated.
……… was associated with the concept of Total Revolution. (1)
Jay Prakash Narayan
Anti Arrack Movement initiated by women in the Nelloor District in Andhra Pradesh addressed the social, economic and political issues affected by the poor women – Explain. (4)
In the 1990s, many women in Nellur in Andhra became literate. In the class, women spoke about the drinking habits of their men-folk. Drinking alcohol causes both physical and mental harm. It also adversely affects the economio situation of the family. Men do not go to work. The manufacturers of various kinds of alcoholic beverages make money by using all sorts of illegal means. It is the women that suffer because of the drinking habit of men.
The women in Nellur protested against alcoholism and forced a wine shop to close down. This news spread like wild fire into some 5000 villages. They heid meetings and passed resolutions and sent them to the Collectors. The arrack auction in Nellur had to be postponed 17 times. The protest in Nellur spread to the rest of the State.In short, where government s and political parties failed, such social movements won.
Identify the organizations associated with the following leaders:
Sant Harchand Singh Longowall –
Lai Danga –
Khangsarpa – (3)
Sant Harchand Singh Longoval – Akali Dal
Lai Denga – Mizo National Front
Kazi Lhendup Khangsarpa – Sikkim
i. Indira Gandhi was assassinated on 31st Oct 1984 by her Sikh body guards.
ii. This incident was a response to her ‘Operation
Blue Star’, army operation in the Golden Temple.
Give a brief explanation to the Punjab problem.
How the issue settled peacefully? (3)
In the 1980s, many things happened in Punjab. With the division of India there were a lot of change in the social structure of Punjab, From Punjab later Haryana and Himachal Pradesh were created there were again problems. Punjab had to wait until 1966 to become a fully Punjabi speaking State. In 1967 and 1977 Akali Dal came to power. Then they started asking for greater political freedom. They passed the Anandpur Sahib resolution, and some leaders demanded autonomy.
Slowly it became the demand for an independent Khalistan. Slowly power moved from the hands of the moderates to the radicals and they were ready for armed resistance. The Sikh fundamentalists made the Golden Temple itself their centre for operation. Through the Operation Blue Star, the Central Government was able to drive the armed extremists out of the Golden Temple. But some damage was sustained by the Golden Temple during the operation and this wounded the religious sentiments of some Sikh people.
They looked at the Operation Blue Star as an attack on their faith. In retaliation, on 31 October 1984, Indira Gandhi was killed by her own Sikh guards, it was a moment of great shock for the country. In Delhi and some North Indian States there was violence against the Sikhs. This violence lasted a week. In Delhi itself some 2000 Sikhs were killed. It took a long time to establish hormalcy in the country. The Sikhs felt that the murderers of their fellowmen were not appropriately punished. After 20 years of the incident, in 2005, the then Prime Minister, Man Mohan Singh, expressed regret at the mindless killing of the Sikh people
From 1989 General Election onwards, India witnessed a coalition rule at the Centre. Prepare a Seminar Paper on the working of coalition politics in India. (6)
With the 1989 election, the Congress dominance ended here. Another problem was the Mandal Issue. The National Democratic Front tried to carry out the recommendations of the Mandal Commission. This led to protests and anti-Mandal agitations in many parts of the country.Another issue was change of economic policy which was different from the traditional policy India had followed. This was called ‘Structural Adjustment’ or ‘New Economic Reform’.
Rajiv Gandhi started it. In 1991, its result was obvious in India. After independence, there was considerable change in the Indian economic system. Another important issue was the demolition of Babri Masjid in December 1992. Then later, Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated. This led to a change in the Congress leadership.