Plus Two Political Science Previous Year Question Paper 2017

Kerala Plus Two Political Science Previous Year Question Paper 2017

Maximum Score: 80 Scores
Time: 2 1/2 Hours
Cool- Off Time : 15 Minutes

Question 1.
The collapse of the Soviet Union had profound consequences on world politics. Describe the factors responsible for the disintegration of the Soviet Union. (4)

  • The control exercised by the Soviet government on its citizens made their life difficult.
  • There was no freedom of expression or democracy.
  • Many institutions needed reforms. But the Communist Party strictly controlled them and reforms were not possible.
  • The Party refused to give people their rights. The Soviet Union was a Union of 15 Republics. They had their own cultures and problems.
  • Although on paper there were 15 Republics, only Russia was allowed to exercise control. Russia dominated the other republics and the people of the other republics were either ignored or suppressed.
  • Although the Soviet Union was able to maintain its equality with the US in an arms race, it was very costly for them. Western technology was better than the Russian technology. The political and economic needs of the Soviet people were not taken care of by the Soviet government.
  • The Soviet Union used most of its resources to develop atomic weapons, to make arms, to increase military facilities and to develop its satellite East European countries,
  • The go-slow policy, refusal to correct mistakes and the closed-door policy quickened the country’s downfall.

Question 2.
Name the political leader who captured the power in Cuba during 1959 and died in November 2016.
Fidel Castro

Question 3.
Names of some countries are given below. Arrange them properly in the given table.
Plus Two Political Science Previous Year Question Paper 2017 1
Plus Two Political Science Previous Year Question Paper 2017 2

Capitalist Block Movement Communist Block Non-Aligned
The USA The Soviet Union India
Britain China Bangladesh

Question 4.
Define the concept of Globalization. Discuss different arguments in its economic aspect. (4)
Globalization is the process by which the entire world 7 becomes one small village without any boundary restrictions and controls. The basic concept of globalization is the exchange of ideas, materials and human labour. Looked that way, it as political, economic, and cultural implications at different levels. in this sense, it has positive and negative results.

Question 5.
Alliance and counter alliance destructed the world security system in the past. Suggest two traditional conceptions of security and give a brief explanation on them. (4)
Security is of two kinds – internal and external. A country may face security threats from inside or ‘ outside the country. Traditionally we think threats from outside are the greater ones. It will affect the sovereignty of the nation. It will affect its freedom
and border security. It will affect the lives of the people.

Such a threat is external. There are many ways for a government to face such treats:

  • Surrender
  • Increase defence expenditure and prevent others from attacking.
  • Once the war starts, defend the country.

Some governments prefer the option of surrender when there is a war. But they will never declare it as a policy. For security there are 4 traditional ways:

  • Prevent the war-this is the first factor.
  • Defence – control the war or end it.
  • Balance of Power

This is a traditional way of ensuring security. Making alliances and counter-alliances, maintaining the country’s strength, intervening and not intervening, leaving a no man’s land between countries, dividing and ruling, etc. are of the traditional ways.

  • Sign Treaties: Nations often form joint alliances.

This is done to prevent any external attack and ’ defend in case of attacks. Almost all alliances are formed by signing written agreements. The member countries will have a clear understanding as to who is the common enemy. Nations are more concerned with external threats than internal ones. Internal security is also essential. Prior to the World War, the internal security of many powerful nations was much less because they did not give it much importance. Because of the Cold War, nations gave preference to external threats. It was in the colonies that there were more internal security problems. It was because of people’s desire for freedom. The newly formed Asian and African countries had to face a lot of internal and external threats. Military attacks by neighbouring countries, army revolts, moves for secession etc. were common. Whenever a nation desires for freedom, such things are common there.

Question 6.
Choose the first Secretary-General of UNO from the following: (1)
a) Kofi A. Annan
b) U Thant
c) Trygve Lie
d) Ban Ki-moon
Trygve Lie

Question 7.
UNO stands for International Peace and Security. Name the principal organs of UNO. (3)

  • General Assembly
  • Economic and Social Council
  • Secretariat
  • Trusteeship Council

Question 8.
Identify any two objectives of SAARC and list out any four member nations of SAARC. (4)

  • Ensure the welfare 0 the South Asian Nations/
  • Strengthen cooperation

Member Countries
India, Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Maldives

Question 9.
Define the concept ‘Global Commons’. Differentiate the approach of North and South on it. (3)
Some places or areas do not fall under the sovereignty of any country. In this condition, the UN had to come forward to protect them. These are collectively known as Global Commons. The earth’s atmosphere, Antarctica, the bottom of the seas, space, etc. come in this category.

Global North (Countries of the Northern Hemisphere) represents the developed nations. The Global South represents the developing nations. The approach of both these groups regarding the environment is very different. They are:

a) The Global North says that ail countries are equally responsible for the protection of the environment.
b) But the Global South has a different view. They say that it is the industrial development of the Global North that caused and is causing environmental damage.
c) Developing nations are, on the path of progress. Therefore the restrictions placed on the developed nations should not be made binding on the developing nations.

The developing nations say that keeping their needs in mind, there should be new laws and interpretations This argument was approved in the Earth Summit in 1992. This new principle is called “Common but different responsibility”.

Question 10.
The Indian Independent Act in 1947 divided India into two nations, but the division was very difficult to implement. Try to find out the difficulties of partition. (6)
The division of India was carried out on the basis of the Two-Nation Theory put forward by the Muslim League. According to that theory, in India there were two nations – the Hindus and Muslims. Therefore the Muslim League demanded a separate nation, Pakistan, for the Muslims. The formation of Pakistan was based on the majority of the population of an area. Thus the areas which had Muslim majority became Pakistan and the remaining areas remained as Indian Territory. It was not easy to implement such a division. There were three reasons forthat. First of all in British India, there was not a single area which had only Muslims. There were two areas in which the majority was Muslims, one in the West and the other in the East. Therefore Pakistan was formed consisting of two areas – West Pakistan and East Pakistan. Between them there were large areas of Indian Territory.

Secondly, not all areas with majority Muslim population wanted to become part of Pakistan. Khan Abdul Gaffer Khan, who was the leader of the North-Western Province, had objected to the Two-Nation Theory. But ignoring his objection, the North West Province was included in Pakistan.

The third problem was that British India’s Punjab and Bengal were areas with Muslim majority. But in these huge provinces there were very many non-Muslims. Therefore the Provinces were divided into Districts and Panchayats depending on the religious majority of the population there. The result was that on the day of Independence many people did not know to which country they belonged – India or Pakistan. It deeply wounded the people. The problem of the minorities in each country was the worst of all. The Hindus and Sikhs in the Pakistani areas and the Muslims in Punjab and Bengal were unfortunate preys to this division of the country. When the division was decided upon, there was large scale violence against the minorities in both the countries.

Question 11.
‘Second Five Year Plan was the turning point in the industrial history of India.’ Discuss the above statement. (4)
Following Independence, India embarked on Five Year Plans, following the model of the Soviet Union. In 1950, the Planning Commission was established. In 1951, the first Five Year Plan was started. The first Five Year Plan gave stress to the Agricultural sector. But the 2nd FYP stressed the industrial sector. The 2nd FYP period was from 1956 to 1961. During this period many industrial undertakings were started in India. Electricity, Railway, Steel Industry, Communication facilities etc. received special attention. The 2nd FYP was capable of letting India make a big fi&p in the industrial sector. The basis of this 2nd Plaiyyas the ideas of P.C. Mahala no b is.

Question 12.
Match the following. (4)
Plus Two Political Science Previous Year Question Paper 2017 3
a) Lai Bahadur Sastri-Jai Jawan Jai Kisan
b) Ram Manohar Lohia – Congress-Socialist Party
c) V.V. Giri – Former President of India
d) Indira Gandhi-GaribiHatao

Question 13.
The Mandal Commission report implemented by V.P. Singh Govt was an important landmark in the political rise of Other Backward Classes. Find out the important recommendations of the report. (3)
Since the 1960s, the South Indian States had made reservations for Other Backward Classes. But this was not done in the Northern Regions. In the 197779 periods, this demand became very strong throughout the country. In 1978, the Janta Party appointed Mr Bindeswari Mandal to find out the groups which are socially and educationally backward and study about their condition. This Commission is known as the Second Backward Commission. This Commission was appointed with the intention of solving the backwardness of certain sections of the society.

In 1980, this Commission presented its report. According to the Commission, the Backward Sections were to be Backward Classes. Apart from the Scheduled Tribes, there were many other classes which should be considered Backward. According to a survey conducted by this Commission, it was found out that their representation was very low in education and jobs. Therefore it recommended t give 27% reservation to these Backward Classes. With the coming of the land reforms, their condition has become much better.

Question 14.
Jawaharlal Nehru played a key role in making the Foreign Policy of India. Examine the basic principles of the Foreign Policy of India. (6)
The role of Nehru: Nehru was the Prime Minister and Foreign Minister of India from 1946 to 1964. He had a big role in the formulation of our foreign policies. He followed a policy which was conducive to the maintenance of our sovereignty, protection of our boundaries, our unity and our economic growth. It was with all these in his mind, he became one of the chief architects of the Non-Aligned Policy.

Keeping equidistance from both the superpowers. As the Cold War was going between the superpowers, we wanted world peace.

For that we:

  • continued with our non-aligned policy.
  • tried to reduce the tension of the Cold War.
  • supplied manpower for the peaceful missions of the United Nations.

As a newly independent country, India could not claim any big political power. Therefore India decided to keep away from the on-going Cold War between the superpowers. The Non-Aligned Policy helped us to do that. It was difficult for India to maintain this non-aligned stance always. When the British attacked Egypt and Russia attacked Hungary, we could not stick with our non-aligned stand. But in many . international problems India maintained an independent stand. India received help both from the „ USA and also Russia on different occasions.

Question 15.
Indian National Congress established its domination in the first three general elections in India. Evaluate the performance of Congress Party in 1952, 1957 and 1962 elections. (4)
In all the 3 general elections after independence, the Congress won brutal majorities. There were some reasons for that.
1) Congress had led the Independence to struggle.
2) Congress was the only party which had spread all across India.
3) The popularity of Jawaharlal Nehru Because of all these reasons, Congress had expected victory. When the final results came, the astounding success of the Congress Party surprised everyone. It made all other parties lag much behind. It won 364 out of the 489 seats. The same was the case in the States. The exceptions to this were Travancore-Cochin, Madras and Orissa.

In the later two elections (1957,1962) also Congress repeated its success. Some people thought the victory of the Congress Party was because of the system of our election. This system was progress. Although 3 out of 4 seats were won by the Congress, it did not have even the support of 50% of the voters. The votes polled by other parties were more than the votes polled by Congress. Now in this seminar, we examine how the votes and dominance of Congress became a landmark in the history of the country.

The dominant nature of Congress: The dominance of Congress in India was an unusual event in world history. In many other countries, democracy was not allowed to take roots. In countries like China, Cuba and Syria the Constitution envisaged a one-party rule. But in India, the Congress stood firm on the democratic principles and was able to form governments. Although different parties competed in the free and fair elections, Congress came out first. There were some reasons for the unusual success of Congress. It had the leadership in the freedom struggle. Secondly, it was the leaders who fought for freedom that stood as the candidates for election. Thirdly only Congress had a good organizational set up at that time. Only Congress had its presence in all the States of India and all this helped in Congress having the upper hand.

Question 16.
Regionalism is against the unity and integrity of a nation. Find out the factors responsible for the emergence of Regional Parties in India. (4)
a) Strengthening of regional demands.
b) Lack of faith in the National Parties.
c) The lack of enthusiasm of the Central Government to solve regional problems.
d) The charisma of the local leaders who led the regional parties.

Question 17.
Explain briefly about the beginning of U.S. hegemony. Analyze the three different notions of U.S.hegemony relate them to contemporary international policies. (6)
We know that no country today can match the power of America. But through certain policies we can overcome the hegemony of America, a) China, India and Russia should make a military pact.
b) To resist American hegemony, even as we acknowledge their superiority, get as many benefits from them as possible, c) Keep a safe distance from them. A kind of hide-and-seek will do us good.

Question 18.
First time in India a nor congress government came to power at the centre in 1977 election. Find out the reasons for the development of such a situation. (4)
The 1977 election was a referendum after the Emergency. Even before the Emergency, public opinion had turned against the Congress government. Emergency made the people turn against the Party. The people made a slogan asking the Opposition to save democracy. The Opposition Parties joined together and became the Janata Party. They rallied under the leadership of Jay Prakash Narayan.

The Janata Party made the 1977 election a referendum. Their propaganda focused on the violation of people’s fundamental rights, the arrest of thousands of people and censorship imposed on the media. Jay Prakash Narayan became the symbol of democracy. With the coming of the Janata Party, the opposition votes would not get scattered among different parties. Because of these reasons, Congress lost in the election.

Question 19.
Anti Arrack Movement is recognized as one of the women movement in the country identify the issues which led to Anti Arrack Movement. (3)
In the 1990s, many women in Nellur in Andhra became literate. In the class, women spoke about the drinking habits of their men-folk. Drinking alcohol causes both physical and mental harm. It also adversely affects the economic situation of the family. Men do not go to work. The manufacturers of various kinds of alcoholic beverages make money by using all sorts of illegal means. It is the women that suffer because of the drinking habit of men.

The women in Nellur protested against alcoholism and forced a wine shop to close down. This news spread like wildfire into some 5000 villages. They held meetings and passed resolutions and sent them to the Collectors. The arrack auction in Nellur had to be postponed 17 times. The protest in Nellur spread to the rest of the State.

Question 20.
ASEAN is one of the prominent regional organizations in South East Asia. Name the three pillars and main objectives of ASEAN. (4)
a) ASEAN Security Community.
b) ASEAN Economic Community
c) ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community

Question 21.
Match the following.
Plus Two Political Science Previous Year Question Paper 2017 4
a) Varghese Kurian
b) Anti Defection
c) Lai Denga
d) Nam Deo Dasal

Question 22.
Name the founder of Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) from the following: (1)
a) B.P. Mandal
b) V.P. Singh
c) Kanshi Ram
d) Mulayam Singh Yadav
c) Kanshi Ram

Plus Two Political Science Previous Year Question Papers and Answers