Kerala Plus Two Political Science Previous Year Question Paper 2016
Which among the following is a Bangaladesh political party?
a) Seven Party Alliance
b) Awami League
c) Muslim League
d) Republican Party
Nation-building was a real challenge to the rulers of India immediately after independence. Find out the major challenges and prepare a note on it.
independent India faced three kinds of challenges.
a. Integrating India
b. Ensuring the welfare of the people and development
c. Establish the democratic system
a. Integrating India: When India got freedom, it had more than 500 Princely States, The rulers of these places wanted to get back their sovereignty when the British left. The government approached the Princely States keeping three things in mind
a. The majority of people of the Princely States wanted to join Indian Union.
b. Giving some kind of self-rule to some Princely States.
c. In the background of the division, we needed States with precision.
Integration: Except Junagarh, Hyderabad. Kashmir and Manipur, all the Princely States signed in the Instrument of Accession and joined the Indian Union. Then through a referendum, Junagarh joined Indian Union. Because of popular uprising in Hyderabad against the Nizam, the Indian army took some action and got Hyderabad also into the Union. The Congress Group in Manipurwanted to join the Union, but other parties objected. However, the Manipur king was persuaded and he too joined the Union. Kashmir King also signed the Instruction of Accession to save himself from the attacks of Pakistan and thus Kashmirtoo became part of India.
The division of the country into States on linguistic basis showed that it could accommodate all the diversities. The people can accept the diversities and live in unity. This is the strength of a country. The Telungana protest and the martyrdom of Potti Sriramulu should be remembered here.
Ensuring the welfare of people: India was a poor country. The country has included provisions in the Constitution to ensure protection to the socially backward people, to religious and cultural minorities and to give all the people equality. Through Directive Principles, the Constitution shows us the way to eradicate poverty and to make the marginalized people come into mainstream society.
Five Year Plans: The country has a development model based on socialist principles. We have adopted a mixed economy accommodating both public and private sector enterprises.
Establishing democratic system: Democracy was a discovery of foreigners. But the big thing was that we chose democracy in spite of the fact that India is a poor country and there are many illiterates here. The first election was called the greatest gamble in history by foreign media. A British member of the Civil Service said that the future generations would condemn this democratic process as a foolish enterprise. The first Election Commission was formed with Dr. Sukumar Sen as the Commissioner. Illiterate Indians were supposed to think in terms of caste and creed. But by making a voters’ list based on our secular system and equality, we succeeded in conducting a fair election and we were successful in our democratic experiment Even after 70 years of Independence, we still face some challenges to our democracy. There are new demands for regional autonomy. There is the Maoist threat. There is intolerance, following the integration of Manipur. There is the Kashmir problem. In spite of all these we have been able to maintain our democratic tradition. After the 1975 Emergency, our rulers have been able to maintain the democratic order without any interruption.
The Cold War was not simply a matter of the balance of power between the superpowers. These were accompanied by a real ideological conflict.’ Examine the ideological conflict. (4)
Cold War was not merely mattered of balance of power struggle between the Super Powers. It was also a clear conflict of ideologies.
After WW II, America and Russia became the world’s two super powers. Their ideologies were different. Russia supported Communist Socialist ideology whereas America backed Liberalism and Capitalism. Both had stockpiled destructive nuclear weapons. They could have shown their power anywhere in the world. But their rivalry was limited to the Cold War. Without actually going into any active war, they both tried to extend their spheres of influence. After WWII they became bitter rivals and were poles apart.
Name the first Election Commission of Independent India. (1)
The first General Election in India was the first big test of democracy.’ Why is it said so? Identify any three major reasons behind this. (4)
a) The first election on the basis of Constituencies, after the Constitution came into effect, was the first experiment in a country which had different regions, language, and religions.
b) It was the election after India’s division and the Hindu Muslim riots.
c) It was an election that would determine the relevance and validity of parliamentary democracy. Because of all this, the first election was really a test of Indian democracy.
The disintegration of Soviet Union had profound con-sequences over world politics. Make a summary of the consequences. (4)
The failure of the Soviet Union made many of its constituent countries abandon Communism and follow democratic ways. Russia, Asian countries, Easer European countries etc were attracted to wards organizations like the World Bank and IMF.
- The main purpose was to make communist countries follow the capitalist model.
- Private capital would be very important.
- Cooperative farming will give way to private farming.
- Foreign investment, open market system, and currency exchange would be possible,
- The countries of the erstwhile Soviet Union will have the facility to have contact with Western countries and trade with them.
- Using all these, the Western countries made the member countries of the erstwhile Soviet Union come close to them.
- Many big industries under government control collapsed.
- 90% industries were sold to individuals or private companies.
- The Russian Currency Rouble was devalued.
- Because of inflation people lost the value of their savings.
- In Cooperative farming, people had food security. But now it was not there. Russia had to import food grains,
- In Russia, the GDP in 1999 was less than that of 1989.
- The social welfare schemes were abandoned.
- As subsidies were withdrawn, many people experienced poverty.
- Educational and intellectual human resources were scattered and many people emigrated.
- Privatization made economic’inequality among people.
The opposition parties in India criticize “our Prime Minister is a frequent visitor of America and is making friendship with America. It is a strong deviation of India’s independent foreign policy”. What do you feel about the criticism? Do you accept it or not? Express your views.
India had always followed an independent, neutral foreign policy. It was such a stand that Nehru started by giving leadership to the Non-Aligned Group of Nations. But slowly this attitude got changed, and our foreign policy began to lean in favour of America. There yvere also instances of criticism against this. Showing preference to a particular Nation is against our neutral stand. The best policy is to keep equidistance from all.
Name the following:
a) The new name of Planning Commission in India,
b) The strategy adopted by the Government of India to ensure food sufficiency. (1)
a. Niti Ayog
b. Food Safety Scheme
China has been the fastest-growing economy and is the driver of the East Asian growth’. Analyse the statement and find out the policies adopted for this. (8)
China became the fastest growing economy in the world. It is the development model in China’s planning that helped it to succeed. Heavy investment in the area of production made China grow. The biggest consumer market in the world today is China. In 2001, China became a member of the WTO. China has independent trade treaties with Australia, South Korea, ASEAN, Switzerland and Pakistan.
Do you think that land reforms are essential in Indian conditions? Why or why not? Express your views. (4)
I think so. Although India tried to introduce land reforms, only in very States like Kerala, they became successful. In the North Indian States, the ownership of the land is still with the rich landlords. This condition must change. The agriculturist and those who actually work on the land should own the land. The landlord-tenant system must go. The land of those who have excess beyond a certain limit should be taken away from them and distributed among the poor for agriculture. To make this happen, land reforms are a must.
Recently our Prime Minister Sri. Narendra Modi de-manded the restructuring of UN and India’s permanent membership in the Security Council. Based on this demand examine India’sstrengh and weakness for the membership. (5)
The demand of India to be a Permanent Member of the Security Council is quite a logical and legitimate one. India fulfills all the criteria to be a permanent member. It demands permanent membership on the following grounds:
- It has the world’s second-largest population.
- It is the largest democracy in the world.
- India has participated in the UN activities since its inception.
- It has long relations with the UN Peacekeeping force.
- India’s economic situation is improving.
- India gives regularly to the UN budget. It has never defaulted cn any payment.
The above reasons are good enough for India to get a permanent membership in the UN Security Council. Permanent membership has its own significance. India’s importance will increase in world matters. Our foreign policy will influence others.
Nehru has been treated as the ‘Architect of Modern India’. Examine his vision in the formation of India’s foreign policy. (4)
The world was going through very difficult circumstances when India got her freedom. This situation has influenced our foreign policy. Five factors have influenced our foreign policy in a greater measure.
- The II World War and the rebuilding after that.
- The efforts to form an international organization.
- The emergence of many small nations at the end of colonialism.
- The challenges the new Nations faced for democracy and welfare.
- The Cold War between America and Russia because of ideological differences.
Contemporary world faces new sources of security threats in diversified forms. Identify any two of them and describe the features. (2)
Security threats are of a different kind now. They can be categorized as follows:
1. Terrorism: Political attacks make the life of ordinary citizens difficult. The terrorists want the political circumstances to change. They try to bring about changes by threats or armed attacks. By unleashing violence, they make the people restless. They try to make the dislike and discontentment of the people their weapon against governments. Their activities include hijacking planes and bombing trains and markets and other places where people assemble. They attacked and destroyed the World Trade Centre in New York on 11 September 2001. The government and the people are more cautious now against terrorists.
Human Rights: We see that throughout the world there are human right violations. There is no unified thinking in any country about how to protect human rights. Recent incidents of human right violations are the annexation of Kuwait by Iraq, the ethnic cleansing in Ruanda and the mass killings of the people of Eastern Timor by the Indonesian army. All these prompted world leaders to have a talk. The talk was about whether the UN should interfere in such matters. The matter is still unresolved.
3. Global Poverty: This is another factor of security threat. It is believed that the population in the underdeveloped countries will triple in 50 years In countries where the population is low, the per capita income will be high. Therefore the economically advanced countries will prosper further whereas the poor countries will grow poorer. The gap between countries of the North and South will increase. People from the South countries immigrate to the North countries for better life and earning. This also creates a threat for the security of mankind.
4. Contagious Diseases: Contagious diseases are another threat to mankind. AIDS, bird flu, SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) etc. are dangerous contagious diseases. These spread quickly from one country to another. A country’s success or failure in controlling these diseases affects other countries also. Recently swine-flu spread all over the world. It is when a problem becomes a threat to a nation and its people that it becomes an international security threat.
Some of the political leaders and their ideas are given below. Match them correctly;
a) Lai Bahadur Sasthri – Non – Congress
b) Ram Manohar Lohia – Syndicate
c) Indira Gandhi – Jai Jawan Jai Kissan Garibi Hatao (3)
a. Lai Bahadur Sastri – Jai Jawan Jai Kisan
b. Ram Manohar Lohia -Non-Congressism
c. Indira Gandhi – Garibi Hatao
The last decade of 2CF Century witnessed some developments that were to make a long-lasting impact on Indian Politics Locate any two of them and examine its impact. (4)
Babri Masjid was demolished. This caused religious riots and division. There was administrative instability in the country.
Nuclear Test and the bickering with Pakistan.
The national emergency at once brought out both the strength and weakness of Indian democracy.’ Narrate the strength and weaknesses that you noticed. (4)
The following things will show the strength of Indian democracy. First, it was proved that democracy can’t be destroyed in India. Second, the vagueness or ambiguity of this article in the Constitution was removed. Internal Emergency could be declared by the President with the approval of the Cabinet only when there was an armed revolution in the country. Third, it evaluated the freedom of a citizen. After the Emergency, the Court took measures to ensure the fundamental rights of the citizens. Finally many citizens’ right groups were formed.
The Emergency also shows some weaknesses of our Constitution. First, the tensions that happen between the vested interests of the political parties and the running of the government. It was the police and the bureaucrats that implemented the Emergency. They were not able to function independently. Often they had to function as the yes-men of the ruling parties. Even now this problem is persisting.
Now-a days globalisation affected almost all spheres of our daily life. Do you think that it affected the ‘welfare state concept and state sovereignty’? Substantiate your views. (3)
The concept of globalization is the exchange of ideas, materials and human resources. Now this exchange is possible among nations without much control. Looked at this way, it assumes different levels of political, economic and cultural meanings. In his sense it has merits and demerits. Some societies may be affected only very little, but some may be affected much more. Let us see how it works: Political results: Politically speaking, the authority of the government gets weaker. It will have to reduce its welfare schemes, instead of social welfare, the stress is on the market. With the coming MNCs (Multi-National Corporations), it becomes difficult for the governments to take independent decisions. According to the advocates of globalization, no political power of the government is lost. The essential things will remain under the authority of the government. Since technology has advanced so much, governments can do a lot. Technology helps governments to know the details of their citizens and make the administration efficient.
Economic Results: Globalization has influenced the economic sphere greatly. World Bank, IMF, WTO etc. play big roles. All these are controlled mainly by America and its allies. The world economy itself has come under their influence. In this, a re-thinking is necessary. It is high time that we found out who the beneficiaries of globalization are.
As a result of globalization, import controls are reduced or removed. The developed nations can now invest their capital in the developing nations. Investing in developing nations is more profitable. Technologies develop without any limits of borders. But regarding the movement of people, the developed nations have made certain rules. Their countries are kept safe from foreign workers through the policy of Visa. Because of the visa rules, the jobs of their citizens are not taken away by emigrants.
There are arguments in favor and against economic globalization. Although the policy is the same, different places get different results. Those who think of social justice can look at the limitations on government only as a demerit of globalization. Those who economically backward need some special security not to suffer from the demerits of globalization. Some people believe that globalization makes poor people poorer and so it must be stopped. But globalization brings about huge economic growth and the social welfare of many. Large scale commerce makes the economy better. It is not easy to prevent globalization in the forward march of history.
Globalization is the exchange of ideas, materials and human resources. Now this exchange is possible among nations without much control. Looked at this way, it assumes different levels of political, economic and cultural meanings. In his sense it has merits and demerits. Some societies may be affected only very little, but some may be affected much more. Let us see how it works. Politically speaking, the authority of the government gets weaker. It will have to reduce its welfare schemes. Instead of social welfare, the stress is on the market. With the coming MNCs (Multi-National Corporations), it becomes difficult for the governments to take independent decisions.
Globalization has influenced the economic sphere greatly. World Bank, IMF, WTO etc. play big roles. All these are controlled mainly by America and its allies. The world economy itself has come under their influence. In this, a re-thinking is necessary. It is high time that we found out Who the beneficiaries of globalization are.
The effects of globalization are not limited to political and economic spheres. It affects our home, food, dress and even thoughts. There is a fear that it would lead to a single world culture. There is the dominance of Western Culture in globalization. There is a danger to traditional cultures. But some people say that culture is not something that stands still. Every culture accepts things from other cultures.
Some of the popular movements in India are given below, Pick out the suitable places from the bracket and match them correctly.
- Chipko Movement
- Anti-arrack Movement
- Bharathiya Kissan Union (Meerut, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Uttarkhand, Madhya Pradesh)
- Andhra Pradesh
Kashmir issue is not just a dispute between lndia& Pakistan. The issue has external and internal dimensions. Identify these dimensions and analyse its role.
When India got independence, Jammu-Kashmir was a Princely State. Initially, King Raja Hari Singh refused to join either India or Pakistan as he wanted to remain independent. The Pakistani leaders believed that since Jammu-Kashmir had a lot of Muslims, it would join Pakistan. The people there were known as Kashmiris. Under the leadership of Sheikh Abdulla there was an agitation to remove the King from power. •But he also did not want to join Pakistan. National Conference was a secular organization. It was also pro-Congress. In October 1947 Pakistan encouraged some tribal groups to capture Pakistan. Then the King sought assistance from India.
The King signed the “Instrument of Accession” and so the Indian army helped the Jammu-Kashmir King. There was also a condition that when things become normal there would be a referendum. For the welfare of the people Sheikh Abdulla became the Prime Minister. India granted J&K autonomy.
External and Internal Squabbles: Because of external and internal problems, J&K is always in the midst of crises. On one side there is Pakistan claiming the Kashmir Valley. After the 1947 War, a part of Kashmir came under Pakistani control. India calls it illegal occupation. Pakistan calls this area Azad Kashmir. Internally also the Kashmir problems . is a headache for the Centre. According to Article 370, Kashmir is given greater autonomy than other States. This Article is applicable only to Jammu and Kashmir. The special congestion causes problems.
Many believe that this autonomy given to Kashmir will adversely affect the unity and indivisibility of the country. They feel that Article 370 should be removed. But the Kashmiris feel that the autonomy they got by Article 370 is not enough. Some Kashmiris put forward 3 complaints.
- No referendum has taken place so far.
- The status promised by Article 370 is only on paper, not in practice. They need more autonomy.
- They also say that the kind of democracy implemented in other States of India is not found in J&K.
Politics since 1948: After Sheikh Abdulla became the Prime Minister of Kashmir, many land reforms and other welfare measures were taken to help the masses. But there was a difference of opinion between him and the Central Government. He wanted Kashmir to be completely free. So the Central Government dismissed him and kept him in jail for some time. His successors did not get popular support but they administered the region with Central support. The Kashmiris slowly started believing in democracy. According to the agreement between India Gandhi and Sheikh Abdullah, in 1974, he became the Prime Minister. He died in 1982.
RESISTANCE AND LATER: In the 1987 election the National Conference won with a huge majority. Farukh Abdulla became the Chief Minister. Many believed that he did some manipulations in the election. From 1980, there have been protests against weak governments there. Some people believed that it was the Centre which made this huge majority possible. It led to the Kashmiri crisis. There was resistance. In 1989, there was an armed struggle for making Kashmir independent. The insurgents were assisted by Pakistan. For many years, J&K was under Presidential rule. Even as there was strong military presence there, from 1990 there have been frequent clashes between the army and the people who resisted Indian rule. Farooq Abdulla’s government also demanded greater autonomy. In 2002, there was another election. Instead of the National Conference, a PDP Coalition Government came to power. Secession Movement And After:
The secessionist movement (1969) appeared in many shapes and it took different stances. Independent Kashmir without joining either India or Pakistan. A group demanding merger with Pakistan. A group demanding greater autonomy.
The demand for greater autonomy attracted the people of Jammu and Ladakh in different ways. Often there were complaints against neglect and backwardness. The Central Government discussed the issue with different groups. The secessionists now say that even as they stay with India, they should be given more autonomy.
Both India and Pakistan became independent nations in the same year. But Pakistan failed to build a stable democracy like India. Describe any three major factors for such failure. (3)
Until 1971, Pakistan and Bangf^desh were one country and their experiences were the same. When Pakistan made its first constitution, General Ayub Khan assumed power and through election he became the President. As the people were unhappy, he had to leave office. Again there was military rule under Yahya Khan. It was during his rule that Pakistan faced the Bangladesh crisis. In 1971, after Pakistan’s war with India, Bangladesh was separated and it became an independent country. After the independence of Bangladesh, democracy was restored in Pakistan and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto became the PM. Democracy continued until 1977 when Bhutto was overthrown by Zia-ul-Haq.
In 1988, under Benazir Bhutto democracy came back. Until 1999, democracy existed in Pakistan under the Pakistan People’s Party. Then there was Muslim league rule under Nawaz Sheriff. Again the military under General Musharaf removed Sheriff and Musharaf became the President. He continued until 2008. In 2008, Sheriff and Benazir Bhutto returned to Pakistan. During an election rally, Benazir Bhutto was killed by an extremist. Then a Ministry was formed by a coalition of the Muslim League and PPP. Yusuf Raza Gilani was the PM. Soon they elected Asif Ali Zardari as the President. Now Pakistan has a democratic government.
It is because of the following reasons that Pakistan does not have a stable democracy:
- Interference by the army, priests and landlords in the administration.
- Because of the dispute between India and Pakistan, the Pakistani army acquired great power.
- Lack of international support for the democratic governments often helped the military to come to power.
- America and some other Western countries prefer a military government in Pakistan. They are afraid that democracy there would make Muslim extremism grow and the extremists might get control over the nuclear weapons in the possession of Pakistan. They think military rule is better for the safety of the Western and Southern Asian regions.
Experience of Bangladesh in Democracy: Until 1971, it was part of Pakistan. During the British rule, Bangladesh was part of Bengal and Assam. Because of the following reasons, they were dissatisfied with West Pakistan:
- Supremacy of West Pakistan and imposing Urdu ‘ on them.
- Neglect of Bengali culture and looking at it as inferior.
- East Pakistan was not given proper representation in the administration and politics.
All these things caused Sheikh Mujibur Rehman to lead a protest against Pakistan. His Party was the Awami League. It won all the seats in East Pakistan. It won majority in the whole of Pakistan’s Constituent Assembly, but West Pakistan was not willing to approve it. Mujibur Rehman was arrested. West Pakistan sowed fear in the minds of East Pakistanis. But in 1971, with the help of India, Bangladesh was freed.
Bangladesh accepted a secular, democratic, socialist constitution. In 1975, Mujibur Rehman brought Presidential rule. He banned all political parties except the Awami League. This caused many disputes and tensions. As a result the army gained power and Mujibur Rehman was assassinated. Under the new army commander Zia-ur-Rehman, a national party was formed. In 1979 that party won the election. But Zia-ur-Rehman was killed. Then military rule came under Lt. General H.M. Ershad. Because of students’ protests, he had to allow some politics. Then he was elected as the President for 5 years. In 1990, because of the opposition of the people, Ershad had to quit office. In 1991, there was election. From then democracy is continuing there in a multi-party system.
Match the following:
a) Global commons – First World
b) Rio Summit – Atlantic Treaty
c) Global South – Agenda 21
a. Global Commons-Atlantic Treaty
b. Rio Summit-Agenda 21
c. Global South – Third World