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Kerala Plus Two Sociology Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 6 Globalization and Social Change
Globalization and Social Change Questions and Answers
The year in which WTO came into existence: WTO
The results of Globalization are:
a) increased job opportunities
b) international trade
c) growing inequality in income
d) all of the above
d) all of the above
India’s financial capital?
When did the new Telecom policy come into effect?
Mobile service was first available in India in ..?
In the past, in one centre large scale production as done. It is called …..
Production is done in different places according to the availability of workers. This is called ……….
The agency that controls and supervises the trade relations of the world?
WTO (World Trade Organization)
Match the following
Explain the concept of “Electronic economic system”.
This is a factor of economic globalization. It is the revolution in communication that made this development possible. As computer and the internet chains became widespread, it was possible for banks, corporations, fund managers and depositors to send money to any part of the world within seconds. Of course, there is the possibility of loss of ‘electronic money’ as the transaction happens with a click of the mouse. The rise of fall of share market is an example. We often see heavy losses in the share market. As changing money from one person to another or from one source to another has become very easy, the probability of losses also has increased.
What is knowledge economy?
In the past, the basis of economy was agriculture and industry. But globalization has changed it. Today’s economic system is a burden-less or knowledge economy. Knowledge economy is the economy based on computer software, media and entertainment products, and internet services based on information.
It includes planning of materials, development-, technology, marketing, selling and services and the workers and professionals involved in them. Their work is not limited to producing and distributing things. This economy includes catering services, event management like marriages, conferences and other big functions. New professions about which we hadn’t even heard a few years ago are coming up. Event Management is an example.
Describe the various aspects of globalization.
Some of the aspects are:
a) Electronic economic system.
b) Liberalized economic policy
c) Trans-national corporations (TNC’s).
d) Globalized economic policy
Globalization has different aspects. In India, we often use the words liberalization and globalization. They are closely related, but they are different in meaning. India brought changes in its economic policy in 1991. Then the government declared a new economic package. The most important point there was liberalization. Liberalized economic policy, Transnational corporations, knowledge economy, and globalized economy are the main economic factors of globalization.
In the liberalization policy, Indian economy was open to world market. This marked the end of our past economic policies. Until then, the government had followed a policy of protecting public sector and controlling private sector. There were many laws and regulations that protected Indian markets and businesses from foreign competition. It was believed that the government has a big role to play in the welfare of the people.
The government had never given a thought to free market. Liberalization changed everything. It stressed free market. It removed all laws and regulations controlling imports. The policy was called ‘economic reforms’. Liberalization brought changes in all spheres of Indian economy. Changes happened in agriculture, industry, commerce, foreign investment, technology, public sector, and financial institutions. Import regulations were withdrawn. Licensing was ended. It was thought , that liberalization would help our economy.
Taking loans from institutions like International Monetary Fund was an aspect of liberalization. Such loans were given with certain conditions. The .main, condition is that we have to carry out the economic policies suggested by IMF. Then we have to reduce spending in social spheres like health, education, social security and so on.
Subsidies had to be reduced. The country is forced to accept these conditions.
A driving force behind globalization is transnational corporations (TNCs). They are companies that manufacture and sell things or give marketing services in different countries. There are some 70,000 TNCs working in the world now. There are also small companies in this, as they have business only in 2 or 3 countries. But there are giants like Coca Cola, General Motors, Colgate, Palmolive, Kodak and Mitsubishi. Their main aim is profit. Some Indian companies are also becoming TNCs.
Electronic economic system is another aspect of globalization. It is the revolution in communication that made this development possible. As computer and the internet chains became widespread, it was possible for banks, corporations, fund managers and depositors to send money to any part of the world within seconds. Of course there is the possibility of the loss of ‘electronic money’ as the transaction happens with a click of the mouse. The rise of fall of share market is an example. We often see heavy losses in the share market. As changing money from one person to another or from one source to another has become very easy, the probability of losses also has increased.
In the past, the basis of economy was agriculture and industry. But globalization has changed it. Today’s economic system is burden-less or knowledge economy.
Knowledge economy is the economy based on computer software, media and entertainment products, and internet services based on information. It includes planning of materials, development, technology, marketing, selling and services and the workers and professionals involved in them. Their work is not limited to producing and distributing things.
This economy includes catering services event management like marriages, conferences, and other big functions: New professions about which we hadn’t even heard a few years ago are coming up. Event Management is an example.
Progress in technology has caused the globalization of world economy. In a matter of seconds, millions of dollars can be moved from one location to another. Capital and Security markets are open 24 hours. The main centers of money market are New York, Tokyo, and London. Mumbai is known as the financial capital of India.
How did globalization affect the communication field?
The leap in technology and telecommunication has brought revolutionary changes in the communication field. Today we can communicate with the whole world sitting at home or in our offices. Telephones, mobiles, fax, e-mail, internet etc. have made the world one village.
Digital facilities may not be available in all parts of the country. But in some places, all kinds of facilities exist. This difference is called digital divide. The new means of communication overcome limitations of time and place. A person in India can speak, send documents and pictures to somebody . in America through satellite communication.
Describe the relation of work (profession) with globalization.
With globalization, there came a professional divide. Let us take the example of the company Nike. This company as established in the 1960s. Its growth was phenomenal. The founder of the company Phil Knight imported shoes from Japan and sold them to Athletes and made huge profits. Slowly it became an international company and then a TNC. Its headquarters is in Beaverton in Oregon, USA. The production units of the company were in Japan. When the production cost increased in Japan, the units were moved to South Korea. Later they were moved to Thailand and then to Indonesia. In 1990 production units started in India also. In short, the production units are moved to places where cheap labor is available.
This process affects the workers most. When units are moved to another location they lose their jobs. It means workers have no job security in such units. It is advantageous to the employers. The change from ‘Fordism’ to post-Fordism helped them to make huge profits.
What are the changes that happened in the political field because of globalization?
The most significant political change was the disintegration of the socialist world. The Soviet Union and the Socialist countries of Eastern Europe crumbled one by one. This speeded up the globalization process. There was a new approach to economic policies. this is called the new liberalism. Activities undertaken with this approach are called new liberal economic activities.
The liberalization policy in India had a political view. It gave prominence to private enterprise. The basis for this belief was that a free market would be more efficient and better. This political view opposes government interference and subsidies. Globalization includes all kinds of different people without any discrimination of any kind, Another political result of globalization is the formation of regional and international organizations. Countries formed different organizations with the view of political cooperation. Some of the important ones are:
a) European Union
b) ASEAN (Association of southeast Asian Nations)
c) SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation)
d) SAFTA (South Asian Free Trade Area)
An International Economic Organization has the power to supervise the economic activities of its member countries. An example is World Trade Organization. As the name indicates trade is its area of interest. It controls the trade matters across the globe.
International organizations like the above are not related to the government of any country. They are independent organizations. They give attention to international matters and decide on policies. Green Peace, Red Cross, Amnesty International, Medicines sans Frontiers, etc. are famous non-government International Organizations.
“Globalization paves the way for the globalization of culture.” Explain.
From time immemorial India had an open mind to cultural influences. We always welcomed different cultures that came to our land. We did not want to be like the frog in the well which does not see, hear, know or understand anything beyond the well. We could receive and absorb many good things from other cultures.
This open-mindedness to cultures is still maintained in India. Therefore we have open discussions regarding our dress, lifestyle, music, cinema, languages, body language, and all such things.
The Reformists in the 19th century and the early nationalist leaders frequently talked about culture and tradition. Today also we discuss the same things. The only difference is that now there is greater intensity and breadth in the discussions and debates. It is true that globalization paves the way for the globalization of culture. We can see that from the behavior of the youths of today who copy foreign culture.
What is the meaning of corporate culture?
With the purpose of increasing productivity and competence among the workers, a company deliberately tries to bring a special culture and this. is called corporate culture. The activities of the company, its rules, and conventions are part of this culture. It is believed that an energetic corporate culture will increase the efficiency and loyalty of the workers and it enhances their sincerity and dedication . and cooperation. The behavior of the workers, their style of work, manner of dress, working hours, promotion, product package, etc. are part of the corporate culture.
The spread of the TNCs, the revolutionary progress in communication, job opportunities, etc. created a class of professionals in the Indian metropolises. They worked mainly in software companies, international banks, chartered accountancy. institutions, share market, travel, designing, entertainment, and media. Their working hours were such that they had a lot of pressure and tension. But they were paid big salaries. They were also big consumers.