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Kerala Plus Two Sociology Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 7 Mass Media and Communications
Mass Media and Communications Questions and Answers
Soap Opera means:
a) talk show
b) Reality Show
c) Humorous Shows
d) The serial presentation of a story
The serial presentation of a story
When did Radio Broadcast begin in India?
The first mass medium was
The first printing press was established in Germany by ………..
All the early Indian popular newspapers propagated the idea of
It was the famous scholar………….. who argued that the print media helped in increasing national consciousness.
It was the famous scholar …………. who pointed out an imaginary community.
Match the following.
What were the important papers during the colonial rule?
Year — Newsoaoer — Founder/Place
1816 — Bengal Gazette — James Augustus Hickey (India’s fist newspaper)
1821 — Sampad Kaumudi Mirat-ul-Akbar — Rajaram Mohan Roy (first Indian papers with a democratic outlook.)
1822 — Bombay Samachar — Fardoonji Marzban (Gujarati)
1858 — Somana Prakasam — Iswara Chandra Vidyasagar (Bengali)
1868 — The Times of India — Bombay
1865 — The Pioneer — Allahabad
1868 — The Madras Mail — Madras Presidency
1875 — The Statesman — Calcutta
1876 — The Civil & Military Gazette — Lahore, Simla & Karachi
Which were the mass media in free India? What was the approach of Independent India to the media?
The first Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru, exhorted the media to be the watchdogs of democracy. Media were supposed to spread self-reliance and love for the nation. India at the beginning of independence gave stress to development. Media were seen as a means of letting the people know of the government’s development plans. Media were encouraged to fight against the ills of the society like untouchability, child marriage, isolating widows, witchcraft, faith healing and superstitions of all kinds.
Government wanted the media to help people develop rational and scientific thinking and help in the building of an industrialized society. The Films Division of India produced newsreels and documentaries. In every theatre, before the start of the regular film, these newsreels and documentaries were to be exhibited. Thus development plans of the government reached the people.
How did globalization affect the mass media?
Newspapers were trying their best to increase their readership and to reach the maximum number of people. There were changes in the reading habit of people. Readers have’ reading habits according to their age. Those who are old read the entire paper. The youth are interested in sports, entertainment and gossip columns. Newspapers make their contents to meet the demand of different kinds of readers. In other words, newspapers give what the readers want.. There is now the new concept of infotainment. In this, there is no place for media morality or traditional values. The newspapers are produced not to work for social justice or preserving values. They have become another item for consumption like any other consumer item.
In 1991, there was only one TV channel Doordarshan controlled by the government. In 1998, there were 70 channels. 20 of them were broadcast by Doordarshan. The remaining were satellite channels owned by private companies. Increase in satellite channels was a feature of globalization. Viewers of private TV channels increased drastically. The homes with satellite TV connections also increased. Today in most homes there is satellite TV connection.
The Gulf War was in 1991. In that year Star TV (Hongkong), Red FM (Living Media) ad Radio City (Star Network) started operations in India. This marked the entry of satellite channels. CNN which gave live coverage of the Gulf War became very popular. The programs of StarTV were much popular. In 1992 CTV also began its telecast here. In 2000, Forty private satellite cable channels were available. They included regional language channels like Sun TV, Eenadu TV, (udaya TV, Raj TV, Asianet and so on. In the meantime, CTV started many regional channels. There were telecasts in Marathi and Bengali.
In 2000, in nearly 70% of the homes of India, all India Radio Programmes could be heard. They were broadcast in 24 languages and 146 dialects. There were more than 120 million radio sets.
A main change in radio broadcast during globalization was the coming of FM Radio Stations. With this entertainment programmes multiplied. Private FM channels were competing among themselves to give maximum entertainment to their listeners.
Private FM Channels don’t have permission to broadcast political news. Most channels get listeners by broadcasting music programmes, especially film songs. Most famous FM channels are under the media houses. Radio Mirch is owned by Times of India. Radio Mango is owned by Manorama. With the onslaught of FM radio stations, independent stations like National Public Radio and BBC are slowly disappearing from the field.
Films like Rang de Basanti, Lage Raho Munnabhai, etc. used the radio as an active medium. The hero of Rang de Basanti, inspired by the example of Bhagat Singh, kills a minister and captures All India Radio and through it he sends his message to the people. In Lage Raho Munnabhai, the hero makes use of a radio station to save the life of a girl. The privatization of radio stations and the growth of radio stations in the ownership of communities resulted in the fast growth of radio. Demand for regional and local news is increasing. Regional radio stations are in greater demand now. Since they broadcast local and regional news, there are ready listeners in most homes.
Describe newspaper revolution in Indian languages.
During the last two decades of the 20th century, there were technological changes in the production of newspapers. Papers became fully automatic. PCs and software like Newsmaker brought revolutionary changes in this field. The change in technology brought changes in the functions and responsibilities of reporters. The shorthand notebooks which reporters carried with them, typewriters, old model telephones, etc. became outdated. Small tape recorder, laptop, mobiles, pen-drives, etc, became-the new tools of the trade.
With the changes in technology to gather news, it was possible to get the latest news and print it in the newspaper without any delay. Now there are district- wise editions for newspapers. Papers Ijke “Amar Ujala”, became very popular because of the technological changes. Many people thought that electronic media would reduce the importance of the print media. But nothing of that kind happened in India.
In fact, print media got better. But the newspapers had to make a lot of compromises. They were forced to reduce the prices and depend on advertisers. The advertisers started having some say in the content of the paper. Naturally, negative reports about the advertisers were not published in the’ newspaper for fear of losing their support.
As an important medium of communication, discuss the growth of the Indian language
An important thing that has been happening for the last few decades is the newspaper revolution. This change had started even before the liberalization policy of India. Two of India’s most popular newspapers are ‘Dainik Jagran’ and ‘Dainik Bhaskar’. Dainik Jagran had 21 lakh readers. Dainik Bhaskar had 17. Assamese Dailies grew their circulation in urban areas by 51.8% and the Bengali Dailies increased their circulation in rural areas by 129%. These growths were fast.
The Paper ‘Eenadu’ also has a success story. It was started in 1974 by Ramoji Rao. As it worked in close collaboration with the anti-arrack organizations, this Telugu Paper got wide acceptance in villages. This prompted its district editions in 1989. District news, classifieds from villages and small towns were the main feature of this Paper, In 1998, it was published from 10 cities of Andhra Pradesh. It captured 70% circulation of all Telugu papers.
There are many reasons for this growth in the local papers. The first reason is the migration of literate people from villages to urban areas. For example, in 2003 a Hindi Daily from Delhi “Hindustan” had only a circulation of 64,000 copies. In 2005, it reached 425,000. This happened because many people from UP and Bihar migrated to Delhi.
The needs of the readers from villages and small towns are different from those of the cities. The second reason for their growth is they realized the needs of the readers and changed their content accordingly. Important newspapers like Malayala Manorama, Mathrubhoomi and Eeenadu came out of with regional editions with more local news. Papers like “Dailythanthi” (Tamil) used simple and conversational language. It attracted the rural population.
Indian language papers were able to make use of the latest technologies in printing. They also gave supplements, special editions and copies of popular books free to people. All this helped in the growth of papers. Another factor is the marketing techniques. There are programmes of meeting with the readers, home surveys and research. Dainik Bhaskar made the best use of these techniques. To compete with electronic media, the newspapers reduced their prices and were published from different centers. The National English Newspapers also did the same thing. All these helped the growth in the . Indian newspaper industry.
Trace the growth of Radio
It was in the 1920s that radio broadcasting started in India. It was begun by some Clubs in Calcutta and Chennai. These clubs were interested in arts and they started radio broadcasting, not with any financial motive. In the 1940s, radio broadcasting became a government affair. In the Second World War, the Indian Radio became a means of propaganda for the Allied Powers (Britain, France, and America).
When India got freedom there were only 6 radio stations in India. They were broadcasting only for the people of cities. The 1950s, with the coming of transistors, radio became more popular. In those days a license was needed to keep a radio. By 1950, some 546,200 licenses were issued. Famous women like Amita Roy were working in the All India Radio.