Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Notes Chapter 6 Struggle and Freedom
The unit analyses the history of Indian freedom movement from 1917-1947 under the leadership of Gandhiji. The interaction of Gandhiji with the different sections of Indian j society was a feature of this period. The unit discusses the three mass movements under the leadership of Gandhiji namely the Non-Co-operation Movement, Civil Disobedience Movement and Quit India Movement, Total changes took place in the structure and agitation of the Congress with the coming of Gandhiji. He was able to make the freedom movement a mass and popular movement by including all sections of people. The unit also discusses the revolutionary organizations formed for the purpose of Indian independence.
→ Rowlatt Act : The Act passed by the British Parliament in 1919, by which any person could be arrested and imprisoned without trial.
→ Jallianwala Bagh Massacre: The massacre due to the police firing on armless and innocent people at Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar on 13 April, 1919.
→ Champaran Satyagraha : Gandhiji involved in the problems of the indigo farmers of Champaran in Bihar in 1917 and resorted to disobedience of British rules and satyagraha.
→ Kheda Satyagraha : The satyagraha started under the leadership of Gandhiji in 1918, protesting the decision of the authorities to collect tax from’ the poor villagers of Kheda.
→ Abhinav Bharat Society : A secret society founded by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar in 1903 in Nasik, Maharashtra. Aim was to overthrow the British rule through armed rebellion.
→ Anushilan Samiti: Revolutionary organisation started by Barindra Ghosh, the brother of Aurobindo Ghosh, in Bengal in 1902. Its aim was to end British rule through an armed rebellion.
→ Ghadar Party : Organisation started by the Sikhs in the United States and Canada with the aim of founders were Lala Har Dayal and Sohan Singh Bhakna.
→ Indian Republican Army : Revolutionary organisation started by Surya Sen, based in Chittagong.
→ Tebhaga movement : A struggle initiated in Bengal by the Kisan Sabha in 1946 – 47. The tenants had to give half of their harvest to landlords. The demand of the Tebhage (sharing . by thirds) movement was to reduce the share given to landlords as one third.
→ Telangana struggle : The struggle of the peasants of Telangana region against the feudal lords between 1946 and 1951.
→ Naval Mutiny : The revolt of the Indian sailors of the Royal Indian Navy at Bombay in 1946.
→ Non-Co-operation Movement : The first national level struggle by the Indian National Congress under the leadership of Gandhiji launched in 1921. The method of agitation was not to cooperate with the British in all fields.
→ Khilafat Movement : The world wide protest against the efforts of Britain after the First World War to limit the power of Khalifa, the ruler of Turkey and the spiritual leader of world Muslims.
→ Chauri Chaura incident : The killing of 22 policemen by setting fire to the police station at Chauri Chaura village in Uttar Pradesh.
→ Poorna Swaraj: Complete freedom
→ Civil Disobedience : To disobey all anti-popular and anti-democratic civil laws made by the British government.
→ Dandi March / Salt Satyagraha
Gandhiji and 78 followers marched on foot fro Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad to Dandi, a coastal village at a distance of240 miles, on March 12,1930 to break salt law. This is known as Dandi March.
On April 6, 1930, Gandhiji made salt at Dandi and broke the salt law. This was the Salt j Satyagraha.
→ Round Table Conferences : The conferences of Indian leaders convened by the British government in London in 1930,1931 and 1932 to discuss the administrative reforms to be implemented in India.
→ Quit India Movement: The last popular protest organized by INC under the leadership of Gandhiji, forcing the British to leave India offering complete freedom to Indians.
→ Hindustan Socialist Republican Association : The organisation formed by the revolutionaries from Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
→ Forward Bloc : The political party formed by Subhash Chandra Bose.
→ Indian National Army : The armed forces formed by Rash Behari Bose for Indian freedom.
→ Mountbatten Plan : The scheme of dividing India into India and Pakistan and giving independence.
Indian revolutionary. Reorganised Hindustan Republican Association. Bom at Bhavra village of Madhya Pradesh in 1906. His forefathers were from Badarka village near Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh. As a 15 year old student, he participated in Non – Co – operation movement and was arrested. On being produced before a magistrate, he gave his name as ‘Azad’ (The Free), his father’s name as ‘Swatantra’ (Independence) and his residence as ‘Jail’. From that day he came to be known as Chandra Shekhar \ Azad. Azad died in 1931, killing himself, when surrounded by police.
Struggle and Freedom – Important Years and Events
- 1917 – Champaran Satyagraha
- 1918 – Ahmedabad Cotton Mill Strike
- 1918 – Kheda Peasant Struggle
- 1919 – Rowlatt Act
- 1919 – Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
- 1920 – Khilafat Movement
- 1921 – Non-Co-operation Movement
- 1922 – Chauri Chaura Incident
- 1923 – Formation of Swaraj Party
- 1928 – Hindustan Socialist Republicaiciation
- 1929 – Lahore Congress Session
- 1930 – Civil Disobedience Movement
- 1942 – Quit India Movement
- 1946 – Naval Mutiny
- 1947 – India becomes independent