Kerala Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Notes Chapter 8 Kerala towards Modernity

Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Notes Chapter 8 Kerala towards Modernity

The Portuguese, the Dutch and the English established their rule in Kerala. Our predecessors had suffered the brutalities perpetrated by foreign rule. They fought for the freedom of the country by suffering this torture and adversities. By the Treaty of Sree- rangapattanam of 1792, the British got Malabar and they began to rule it directly. Kochi and Travancore also accepted the suzeranity of the British. The first part of the unit deals with the early resistance to British rule by Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja, Velu Thampi and Paliath Achan. The impact of British rule affected the agriculture, industry and the cultural fields of Kerala. Renaissance leaders played a key role in the social transformation of Kerala. This was followed by National Movement in Kerala. Kerala State was formed on November 1,1956 by incorporating Malabar, Kochi and Travancore.

→ Kundara Proclamation : The proclamation issued by Velu Thampi, the Dewan of Travancore on 11 January 1809, appealing the people to fight against the British taking up arms. The proclamation was able to infuse anti-British feelings and patriotism and loyalty among the people.

→ Battle of Colachel : The battle of Colachel was fought between the Dutch and Marthanda Varma of Travancore in 1741. The Dutch were defeated, they had to leave Kerala and ended their desire to capture Kerala.

→ Attingal Revolt : The first organised revolt against the British in Kerala.

→ Pazhassi Revolt : The revolt organised by Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja of Kottayam royal family against the British.

→ Malabar Tenant’s Act : The Act passed in 1929 on the recommendations of Logan Commission set up to enquire about the Mappila revolts. Accordingly the peasants got limited right over the land.

→ Pandarapattam Proclamation: The proclamation issued by the government of Travancore in 1865 granting tenants ownership of the land they cultivated.

→ Jenmi-Kudiyan Act of 1896 : The Act passed by the government of Travancore granted ownership to the peasants.

→ Samkshepavedartham: The first book printed in Malayalam. :

→ Rajya Samacharam, Paschimodayam : The first newspapers in Malayalam published by Dr.Herman Gundert.

→ Channar Revolt: The struggle staged by the Channar women of South Travancore for the right to wear upper clothes.

→ Vaikom Satyagraha : The struggle organised for the right of lower caste people for permission
to walk around the road of Vaikom temple.

→ Guruvayoor Satyagraha : The struggle that started with the demand that all Hindus should be allowed to enter the Guruvayoor temple.

→ Malayali Memorial : The mammoth – memorandum submitted to the Maharaja of Travancore under the leadership of GP.Pillai in 1891, seeking proportionate representation for the people of Travancore in government jobs.

→ Ezhava Memorial :The memorandum signed by the members of Ezhava community and submitted to the Maharaja of Travancore under the leadership of Dr.Palpu, raising the problems faced by the Ezhava community.

→ Nivarthana Prakshobham (Abstention Movement): The agitation started by Christians, Muslims and Ezhavas in 1932 in Travancore, seeking reservation in legislature and government jobs in proportion to their population.

→ Punnapra Vayalar Revolt : The agitation organised by workers at Punnapra and Vayalar in Alappuzha for civil rights and popular rule.

→ Electricity Agitation: The agitation that started in Kochi against Dewan Shanmugam Shetty’s decision to hand over the changes of electricity supply in Kochi to a private company.

→ Aikya Kerala Movement: The movement to integrate the Malayalam speaking areas and people into one state.

Kerala towards Modernity – Important Years and Events

1498 – Vasco da Gama, the Portuguese navigator reached Kappad
1663 – The Dutch expelled the Portuguese from Kerala
1741 – Battle of ColacheL Marthanda Varma defeated the Dutch 1721 – Attingal Revolt
1792 – Treaty of Sreerangapattanam
1800-1805 – Pazhassi Revolt
1809 – Kundara Proclamation
1865 – Pandarapattam proclamation
1891 – Malayali Memorial
1896 – Ezhava Memorial
1921 – Malabar Rebellion
1924 – Vaikom Satyagraha
1929 – Malabar Kudiyanma Act
1931 – Guruvayoor Satyagraha
1932 – Nivarthana Prakshobham
1936 – Temple Entry Proclamation
1936 – Electricity Agitation
1946 – Punnapra-Vayalar Agitation
1947 – Aikya Kerala Convention
1949 – Merging of Travancore and Kochi