Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Notes Chapter 9 The State and Political Science
State is an assemblage of human beings, living in a definite territory, under an organised government without any external control. Statehood is, the highest stage in social evolution. The essential constituents of state are people, territory, government and sovereignty. The functions of the government can be classified into obligatory functions and discretionary functions. According to Aristotle, Political Science is the study of state and government. The scope of Political Science is continuously expanding.
→ State : A group of people residing permanently within a particular territory withja sovereign government is called state.
→ Population : The total number of people residing in a country at a specified period of time.
→ Demography : It is the scientific study of growth and development of population based on statistics.
→ Saptanga Theory
Saptanga theory of state refers to the seven factors or limbs of the state according to Chanakya. The seven limbs are:
- The Ruler(Swami)
- The Minister (Amatya)
- The Population and land area (Janapada)
- The Fortified Capital (Durga)
- The Treasury (Kosha)
- The Army (Danda)
- Allies (Mitra)
→ Territory : Territory is the area of land, permanently occupied by a group of people, whose dominance is not questioned or opened to dispute.
→ Government : The system by which a state is governed. It is the centre of authority that governs a state.
→ Sovereignty : The supreme or ultimate authority of the state to take decisions ca national and international affairs independently ’ without any external control.
→ Discretionary functions of govt: Functions which have to be implemented as per the economic condition of a state.
→ Obligatory functions of government : The functions that the government will have to implement at all times at any cost.
→ Citizenship : The full and equal membership in a nation.
→ Natural Citizenship: The citizenship one gets by birth.
→ Acquired Citizenship : The citizenship acquired by a person on the basis of legal procedure of a nation.
→ Political Science : The study of state and government.
→ Divine Right Theory : This theory states that state is the creation of God and king is the representative of God.
→ Evolutionary Theory: This theory states that the state was formed by social evolution.
→ Power Theory : This theory proposes that state came into being as a result of the establishment of power by the strong over the weak.
→ Social Contract Theory : This theory states that the state came into being as a result of a contract by the people.