Kerala State Syllabus 10th Standard Social Science Solutions Chapter 7 India: The Land of Diversities
The Himalayan ranges are described as a natural barrier. Justify this statement.
The Himalayan ranges influence the culture, economy and climate of India. The Himalayan ranges run at a distance of about 2400 km from Kashmir to Indian border in the east.
- The Himalayas, the world’s highest mountain system, separates Indian subcontinent from the Asian continent and helped India from , foreign aggression and the development of its own culture.
- Protects the North Indian states from severe cold by preventing the diy cold winds blowing from north during winter.
- Blocks the monsoon winds and causes rainfall throughout North India.
- The glaciers and ice fields in the Himalayan peaks are storehouse of fresh water. These are the sources of origin for the Himalayan rivers which help in the economic prosperity of India.
- Indo-Gangetic plains, formed by the alluvial deposits of these rivers, are the backbone of these plains are called the backbone of Indian agriculture and the granary of India.
- The Himalayas is the habitat of diverse flora and fauna.
- This region with cool climate and beautiful natural scenery is a tourist paradise.
In the absence of the Himalayas, all the above mentioned factors would not have been available to India.
List the differences between of Peninsular and Himalayan rivers.
Peninsulár rivers have:
- Small catchment area.
- Intensity of erosion ¡s less.
- Deep valleys are not formed because they flow through hard and resistant rocks.
- Less potential for inland navigation.
- Rain fedonly.
- Less irrigational potential.
Himalayan rivers have:
- Extensive catchment area.
- Intensive erosion.
- Creates gorges and meanders.
- High irrigational potential.
- Navigable along the plains.
The North Indian Plains are the backbone of Indian economy. Analyse this statement and write your inferences.
Northern Great Plains situated between Northern mountain system and Peninsular plateau play a decisive role in the economic development of India. This extensive plain took shape due to the continuous depositional activity of the Himalayan rivers for thousands of years. This plain extending over 7 lak1 sq.kms and with kilometres of thick sediments is one of the world’s most extensive alluvial plains. The plains are generally known as Indus-Ganga-Brahmaputra plain. Alluvial soils are the major type of soil in these plains.
These soils are highly fertile and are widely used for the cultivation of a variety of crops. So The Northern Plains are also known as the granary of India. Most of the food grains of India are produced from these fertile plains. The major crops cultivated here are wheat, maize, paddy, sugarcane, cotton and pulses. Fertile soils, flat land and the availability of water throughout the year attract people to these plains.
So it is the most densely populated region in India. A variety of food crops and cash crops which add to the economic prosperity of India are produced here.
Along with agriculture, many agro-based industries and mineral-based industries are located here. The growth of industries paved the way for the emergence of many cities. The major Indian cities are located in these plains. The plains have well-connected road and railway network which help to transport goods to different parts of the country.
The Great Plains are the birthplace of Indian culture. Many Hindu pilgrim centres are located here. Thus the Great Plains help in the cultural life of India also.
Compared to other places, Northern Great Plains are the most densely populated regions in India. Give reasons.
Alluvial soil, the most fertile soil is found in the Great Plains. The Great Plain is known as the granary of India. The Himalayan rivers flowing through the plains provide water throughout the year. Flatland enables the construction of good network of roads and railways.
India’s agriculture and industries are concentrated here. Road, rail and canal transport help to carry people and goods. .Due to these reasons, the Northern Great Plains are the most densely populated region in India.
Name the countries belonging to the in Indian subcontinent.
India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh.
Name the countries sharing land frontier with India:
- Pakistan and Afganistan in the north-west and west.
- China, Nepal and Bhutan in the north.
- Bangladesh and Myanmar in the east.
Name the countries sharing ocean frontier with India:
Sri Lanka, Maldives, Indonesia.
Name the neighbouring countries that share frontier with Indian states.
|No. of States||States||Neighbouring country|
|One||Jammu and Kashmir||Afghanistan|
|Four||Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir||Pakistan|
|Four||Sikkim, West Bengal, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh||Bhutan|
|Four||Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram||Myanmar|
|Five||Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Sikkim, Uttarakhand||Nepal|
|Five||West Bengal, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Tripura, Assam||Bangladesh|
|Five||Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh||China|
Which are the states in which Eastern Highlands are located?
|Khasi, Garo, Jaintia hills
|States in which Trans Himalayas located|
|Karakoram – Jammu-Kashmir
Ladak – Jammu-Kashmir
Zaskar – Jammu-Kashmir
|States in which Himalayan ranges located|
|Himadri: Jammu-Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh
Himachal: Jammu-Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal
Siwalik: Jammu-Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal.
Himalayan rivers, Tributaries and source:
Which are the states across which Northern Great Plains are spread?
Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam
Which are the regions of alluvial soil in India?
Northern Great Plains, Coastal plains, river banks.
In between which physiographic divisions is the Northern Great Plains located?
The Northern Great Plains are located between Northern mountains and Peninsular plateau.
The network of roads, rail and canals are largely concentrated in Northern plains. Why?
The Northern plains are extensive and flat.
Northern Great.Plains are formed by the alluvial deposits of Himalayan rivers for thousands of years.
This is one of the largest alluvial plains of the world. Since it has a flat topography, construction of roads, rails and canals is easy. This region is the backbone of Indian agriculture and many industries are also located here. So for transporting goods and people, a good network of road, rail and canal are constructed.
Peninsular rivers which are tributaries of Ganga and Yamuna.
Chambal, Betwa, Ken
Peninsular rivers – source, tributaries.
Population is sparse in the Marusthali – Bagar region of Rajasthan. Why? –
Marusthali-Bagar which constitutes the western part of Northern Great Plains receives very less rainfall. That is why most regions in Rajasthan are deserts. This is the Thar desert.
The hottest place in India, Jaisalmer, is in this desert. Dry and salty desert soil is found here. This soil is not suitable for agriculture. Thorns and bushes form the natural vegetation. Due to these, this region is least populated.
Prepare a seminar paper on the topic: The Influence of Northern Great Plains in India s Development.
Northern Great Plains situated between Northern mountain system and Peninsular plateau play a decisive role in the economic development of India.
This extensive plain took shape due to the continuous depositional activity of the Himalayan rivers. This plain, extending over 7 lakh sq. km. and with kilometres of thick sediments, is one of the world’s most extensive alluvial plains. The plain is generally known as Indus-Ganga-Brahmaputra plain.
Alluvial soils are the major type of soil in these plains. These soils are highly fertile and are widely used for the cultivation of a variety of crops. So these plains are called the backbone of Indian agriculture. The Northern Plains are also known as the granary of India. Most of the food grains of India are produced from these fertile plains. The major crops cultivated here are wheat, maize, paddy, sugarcane, cotton and pulses. Fertile soils, flat land and the availability of water throughout the year attract people to these plains.
So it is the most densely populated region in India. A variety of food crops and cash crops which add to the economic prosperity of India are produced here. Along with agriculture, many agro-based industries and mineral based industries are located here. The growth of industries paved the way for the emergence of many cities. The major Indian cities are located in these plains.
The plains have well connected road and railway network which help to transport goods to different parts of the country. The Great Plains are the birth place of Indian culture. Many Hindu pilgrim centres are located here. Thus the Great Plains help in the cultural life of India also.
Peninsular rivers and the direction of flow.
|West flowing||East flowing||North flowing|
Most of the Peninsular rivers enter the plains ( by forming waterfalls. Why?
Waterfalls are usually created along Peninsular rivers. Why?
Peninsular rivers originate from the hills of Peninsular plateau. They flow through hills and plateaus in the beginning. The edges of plateaus remain elevated from the surrounding regions. So the rivers entering the plains from comparatively high plateaus, create waterfalls along these edges.
Comparison of Himalayan rivers and Peninsular rivers.
Compare the characteristic features of Himalayan rivers and Peninsular rivers.
|Himalayan rivers||Peninsular rivers|
|Originate from the Himalayan mountain ranges||Originate from the mountain ranges of Peninsular plateau.|
|Extensive catchment area||Comparatively smaller catchment area.|
|Intensive erosion||Intensity, of erosion is less|
|Create gorges in the mountain region and meanders in plains||Deep valleys are not formed because they flow through hard and resistant rocks.|
|Large volume of water||Large volume of water|
|Inland navigation is possible in the plains||Less chances for inland navigation|
|Rain fed and snow fed||Rain fed only|
|High irrigational capacity||Low irrigational capacity|
Indian cities on river banks.
Cities on river banks marked in the map of Indià.
a. New Delhi
States located in Peninsular plateau.
States which are located in the coastal plains.
- West coast: Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala
- East coast: Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal
Deltas are commonly formed along the east coast plain of India and not along the west coast plain. Why?
Peninsular plateau slopes steeply towards the west coast and has a gentle slope towards east coast. Big east-flowing rivers like Mahanadi and Godavari flow through the gentle slope, carry a lot of sediments and deposit them along the mouth of rivers. Thus deltas are formed on the east coast.
West flowing rivers reaching Arabian sea are comparatively small. They are swift-flowing. They flow through hilly regions and deposit less sediments. Moreover, the currents of Arabian sea carry these deposits to the sea. As a result, deltas are not formed on the west coast. Instead, estuaries are formed on the west coast.
Seasons of India:
- Cold weather (Winter) season: December to February
- Hot weather (Summer) season: March to May
- Southwest monsoon season: June to September
- Northeast monsoon season: October to November
Coastal regions experience comparatively high temperature during winter season. Wiry?
Land gets heated up and cools quickly than ocean. Land experiences high pressure during winter season and ocean low pressure. The dense air from regions lying close to ocean move to less dense air area of ocean. This reduces the cold of coastal regions.
During south west monsoon period, rainfall is comparatively less along the eastern slopes of Western Ghats. Why?
The Western Ghats obstruct the rain-bearing Arabian sea branch of south-west monsoon winds and cause heavy rainfall on the western margins in the state of Kerala, Karnataka, Goa and Maharashtra. But the east of Western Ghats receive only less rainfall.
This is because by the time the monsoon winds cross the Western Ghats and reach the east, the moisture content in them will be lost. This is the reason why Tamil Nadu gets scanty rainfall during south-west monsoon period while Kerala receives heavy rainfall. The eastern part of Western Ghats is a rain shadow region.
The names of monsoon rain in Kerala.
- Southwest monsoon: Idavapathy / Kalavarsham
- Northeast monsoon: Thulavarsham.
What is the role of Eastern Highlands in the heavy rainfall in North Eastern States of India?
The Bay of Bengal branch of monsoon advances northward by absorbing more moisture from the Bay of Bengal. It passes through Sundarbans delta and enters West Bengal and bifurcates into two. One branch enters the Brahmaputra valley and gives heavy rainfall in the northeastern states of India.
The Khasi-Jaintia hills of Meghalaya obstruct these winds and cause heavy rainfall in these regions. Cherrapunji and Mawsynram, the places of heaviest rainfall in the world are here.
What is the reason for the deflection of monsoon winds?
When the sun is in the northern hemisphere, the south-east trade winds cross the equator and get deflected to right due to Coriolis force and blow as south-west monsoon.
When the sun is in the southern hemisphere, the northeast trade winds which blow from north to south get deflected to right due to Coriolis force and blow as northeast monsoon winds.
Reasons for the imbalance in the distribution of rainfall in India.
- Location of mountain ranges
- Nearness to oceans
- Distance from oceans
- Direction of wind
- Extent of land
How is India divided on the basis of the distribution of rainfall?
Heavy rainfall regions (above 200 cms): West coast plains, northeastern states and some parts in the Himalayan regions.
High rainfall regions (between 100 and 200 cms): Western Ghats regions, most parts of North Indian Plains, Northeastern parts of Peninsular India and northeastern regions.
Moderate rainfall regions (between 60 and 100 cms): Southwest of Kashmir, Malwa Plateau, Deccan Plateau’and central parts of Tamil Nadu.
Low rainfall regions (below 60 cms) :
Rajasthan, western parts of Gujarat, central parts of Deccan Plateau and for them parts of Kashmir.