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Kerala Plus One Chemistry Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 14 Environmental Chemistry
Plus One Chemistry Environmental Chemistry One Mark Questions and Answers
The greatest affinity for haemoglobin is shown by
London smog is ___________ in nature.
Addition of phosphate fertilizers into water leads to
a) Increased growth of decomposers
b) Reduced algal growth
c) Increased algal growth
d) Nutrient enrichment
d) Nutrient enrichment
Which of the following is a viable particulate?
Which of the following is not a greenhouse gas?
d) Water vapour
Methyl isocyanate is prepared by the action of ___________ on methyl amine
In a photo chemical smog the gas that causes eye irritation is ___________ .
e) both (c) and (d)
Super sonic jet planes can contribute to zone depletion by introduction of the gas straight to the stratosphere
The difference between the amounts of dissolved oxygen in a sample of water saturated with oxygen and that after incubation for a period of 5 days is known as.
Excess of nitrate ions in drinking water causes.
Plus One Chemistry Environmental Chemistry Two Mark Questions and Answers
Write the equation for the combustion of ethane.
a) Complete combustion
b) Incomplete combustion
a) 2C2H6(g) +7O2 → 4CO2(g) + 6H2O(v)
b) 2C2H6(g)+5O2 → 4CO(g) + 6H2O(v)
Write the three common pollutants.
1. Gases such as CO and SO2
2. Compounds of metals like lead, mercury, zinc.
3. Radioactive substance
Three equations are given below. After studying it, write about Acid rain.
(1) CO2(g) + H2O(l) → 2H+ (aq) + CO32-(aq)
(2) 2SO2(g) + O2(g) +2H2O(l) → 2H2SO4(aq)
(3) 4NO2(g) + O2(g) + 2H2O(l) → 2HNO3 (aq)
Oxides of Sulphur and Nitrogen, mist of HCI and Phosphoric acid, etc. present in polluted airdissolve in rain water making it more acidic. This is known as acidic rain. SO2 and NO2 present in polluted air are the major contributors of acid rain.
2SO2(g) +O2(g) + 2H2O(l) → 2H2SO4(aq)
4NO2(g) +O2(g) + 2H2O(l) → 2HNO3(aq)
Marble of Taj Mahal reacts with acid rain. What is its result?
The marble with which Taj Mahal is made is continuously eaten away by acid rain. It is due to the presence of chemical factories in Agra. The acids present in acid rain react with marble and making the marble dull and rough.
CaCO3 + H2SO4 → CaSO4 +H2O + CO2
Why usage of chlorofluorocarbons being discouraged? or Explain ozone layer depletion?
The decomposition of CFC’s destroying ozone. CF2Cl2(g) + hv → Cl(h) + CF2Cl(g)
The reactive Cl atom reacts with O3 to form ClO radical. Cl(g) + O3 → ClO(g) + O2(g)
Thus each Cl atom produced, can destroy many O3 molecules. This leads to ozone depletion.
What is meant by BOD?
It is biochemical oxygen demand. It is the amount of dissolved oxygen required by micro-organisms to oxidise organic and inorganic matter present in polluted water.
1. How we can control air pollution?
2. How does the soil pollution occur?
1. Air pollution can be controlled by the following ways.
• Exhaust to oxidize CO to CO2.
• CO2 level can be maintained by planting trees.
• Hydrogen gas is looked upon as pollution less future fuel.
• The large amount of nitrogen oxides emitted from power plant can be removed by scrubbing it with H2SO4.
2. It occurs due to
• Indiscriminate use of fertilizers, pesticides etc.
• Dumping of waste materials.
What do you mean by greenhouse effect?
Global warming is caused by the excess amount of CO2 in the atmosphere. When CO2 accumulate due to the decrease of trees it will increase the temperature of earth. This leads to melting of ice. So the sea level rises.
What do you mean by global warming?
As more and more infrared radiations are trapped, the atmosphere becomes hotter and the global temperature rises up. This is known as global warming. There has been a marked increase in the levels of CO2 in the atmosphere due to severe deforestation and burning of fossil fuels.
Give two examples in which green chemistry has been applied.
1) Oxidative cracking process in the formation of ethylene is a significant step.
2) Fuel cells for cellular phones have been developed. This cell last for the full life time of the phone.
Oxygen play a key role in the troposphere while ozone in the stratosphere.
i) How is ozone formed in the atmosphere?
ii) What are the causes of depletion of ozone layer?
i) By electric discharge of O2 during lightning.
ii) UV radiations enter to the earth surface and it causes skin diseases.
No new industries are allowed in thickly populated cities by Government order. Why such an order is issued?
The city will be destroyed due to acid rain caused by industrial pollution. The Govt, order was to protect the environment (orthe city).
Discuss the importance of dissolved oxygen in water.
It helps living organisms in water. They inhale dissolved oxygen in water.
Define environmental chemistry.
Environmental chemistry is defined as the branch of science which deals with the chemical processes occurring in the environment. It involves the study of origin, transport, reactions, effects and the fates of chemical species in the environment.
Explain tropospheric pollution.
Tropospheric pollution occurs due to the presence of gaseous and the particulate pollutants.
• Gaseous air pollutants. These include mainly oxides of sulphur (SO2, SO3), oxides of nitrogen (NO, NO2) and oxides of carbon (CO, CO2) in addition , to hydrogen sulphide (H2S), Hydrocarbons, ozone and other oxidants.
• Particulate pollutants. These include dust, mist, fumes, smoke, smog, etc.
Which gases are responsible for greenhouse effect? List some of them.
The main gas responsible for greenhouse effect is CO2. Other greenhouse gases are methane, nitrous oxide, water vapours, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) and ozone.
A large number of fish are suddenly found floating dead on a lake. There is no evidence of toxic dumping but you find an abundance of phytoplankton. Suggest a reason for the fish kill.
Excessive phytoplankton (organic pollutants such as leaves, grass, trash, etc) present in water is biodegradable. A large population of bacteria decomposes this organic matter in water. During this process they consume the oxygen dissolved in water. Water has already limited dissolved oxygen (≈10 ppm) which gets is further depleted. When the level of dissolved oxygen falls below 6 ppm, the fish cannot survive. Hence, they die and float dead in water.
How can domestic waste be used as mannure?
Domestic waste comprises two types of materials, biodegradable such as leaves, rotten food, etc, and non-biodegradable such as plastics, glass, metal scrap, etc. The non-biodegradable waste is sent to industry for recycling. The biodegradable waste should be deposited in the land fills. With the passage of time, it is converted into compost manure.
For your agricultural field or garden, you have developed a compost producing pit. Discuss the process in the light of bad odour, flies and recycling of wastes for a good produce.
The compost producing pit should be set up at a suitable place or in a tin to protect ourselves from bad odour and flies. It should be kept covered so that flies cannot make entry into it and the bad odour is minimized. The recyclable material like plastics, glass, newspapers, etc., should be sold to the vendor who further sells it to the dealer. The dealer further supplies it to the industry involved in recycling process.
Plus One Chemistry Environmental Chemistry Three Mark Questions and Answers
Fish grow in cold water as well as in warm water.
1. Do you agree? What is the reason?
2. pH of rain water is 5.6. Is it true? What is the reason?
1. No. Fish grow in cold water. Warm water contains less dissolved O2 than cold water,
2. Normally rain water contains dissolved CO2 and hence it shows acidic pH of 5.6.
H2O + CO2 \(\rightleftarrows \) H2CO3 or 2H+ + CO2
When pH of rain water became below 5.6, it becomes acid rain.
Write the mechanism of formation of photochemical smog.
At high temp, the petrol and diesel engines, N2 & O2 combine to form NO which is emitted into atmosphere. NO is then oxidised in airto form NO2 which absorbs sunlight and form NO and free O atom.
The O atoms being reactive and combine with O2 to form O3.
O2 (g) + O(g) → O3(g)
The O3 react with NO formed by the photochemical decomposition of NO2.
NO(g) + O3(g) → NO2(g) + O2(g)
NO2 and O3 are good oxidising agents and they react with unburnt hydrocarbons in the polluted airto form substances such as acrolein and formaldehyde. These are the main substances of photochemical smog.
1. What are the major pollutants of water?
2. What is meant by eutrophication?
1. Micro-organism present in domestic sewages, organic wastes, plant nutrients, toxic metals, sediments, pesticides and radioactive substances,
2. Addition of P to water as PO43- ion encourages the formation of algae which reduces the dissolved oxygen content of water. This is called eutrophication.
1. Acid rain causes extensive damage to vegetation and aquatic life. )
i) What do you mean by acid rain?
ii) Name the chemicals responsible for acid rain.
2. List gases which are responsible for greenhouse effect.
1. i) When the pH of the rain water drops below 5.6, it is called acid rain.
ii) Oxides of nitrogen and sulphur mist of hydrochloric acid and phosphoric acid etc.
2. Such as carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, chlorofluorocarbon compounds (CFC).
Statues and monuments in India such as Tajmahal are affected by acid rain. How?
The statues of monuments in India are affected by acid rain. For example, the air in the vicinity of Taj Mahal contains very high levels of oxides of sulphur and nitrogen. This results in acid rain which reacts with marble of Taj Mahal causing pitting.
CaCO3 + H2SO4 → CaSO4 + H2O + CO2
CaCO3 + 2HNO3 → Ca(NO3)2 +H2O + CO3.
As a result, the monument is being slowly eaten away and the marble is getting decolourised and lustreless. Thus, acid rain is considered as a threat to Taj Mahal.
1. Writethree major consequences of air pollution.
2. Write any two suitable methods to control air pollution.
1. We cannot get pure oxygen for inspire.
Air pollution causes global warming.
It leads to acid rain.
It leads to diseases.
2. Plant trees.
Reduce the use of motor vehicles.
Do not burn plastics.
Carbon monoxide gas is more dangerous than carbon dioxide gas. Why?
CO combines with haemoglobin to forms a complex entity, carboxyhaemoglobin which is about 300 times more stable than oxy-haemoglobin. In blood, when the concentration of carboxyhaemoglobin reaches 3 -4%, the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is significantly reduced. In other words, the body becomes oxygen-starved. This results into headache, nervousness, cardiovascular disorder, weak eyesight etc.
Plus One Chemistry Environmental Chemistry Four Mark Questions and Answers
Classify the following pollutants:
(a) Carbon monoxide (CO)
(f) Cigarette smoke
|Type of Pollution|
As a result of stratospheric pollution, the ozone layer is destructed.
a) What is ozone layer?
b) How is it useful to us?
c) Write a harmful effect of ozone layer depletion.
a) The layer of ozone seen in stratosphere is called ozone layer.
b) Ozone layer plays a significant role in protecting earth from UV rays.
c) Due to ozone layer depletion agricultural crops were found to give reduced yields. Small aquatic organisms which are very sensitive are destroyed due to the increase in the level of UV radiation.
a) What is smog?
b) What are the adverse effects of photochemical smog?
c) Write any two methods to control photochemical smog.
a) Smog is a mixture of smoke and fog. This is the most common example of air pollution that occurs in many cities throughout the world. There are two types of smog:
1) Classical smog
2) Photochemical smog
b) Adverse effects of photochemical smog:
• Eye irritants
• Nose irritation
• Head ache
• Chest pain
• Dryness of throat
• Difficulty in breathing
c) 1) Use catalytic converters in automobiles.
2) Plant certain plants (e.g. Pinus) which can metabolise nitrogen oxide.