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Kerala Plus One History Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 1 From the Beginning of Time
As people began to produce food, there were great changes in their lives. What were these changes?
During the long history of mankind, until people learned to produce food, they found their food by collecting the flesh of dead animals, hunting animals and collecting roots or fruits from plants. They had learned to make stone weapons and communicate with one another. Later man began to get food by means of agriculture, and domesticating and growing animals. But they continued hunting and gathering food. Even today we find hunter-gatherer communities in some parts of the world.
“The fossils of man, stone weapons and cave drawings or pictures help us to understand the history of man. On the basis of this statement, find out the sources that throw light on the history of early men.
The fossils of man, stone weapons and cave drawings or pictures help us to understand the history of man. But in the beginning, many scholars were not willing . to understand or acknowledge the importance of these discoveries. They even refused to acknowledge that they were the fossils of early people. They were doubtful about the capacity of the early people to make stone weapons and to draw pictures, it was after a long time that the scholars recognized the importance of the discoveries.
It is from the fossils that we get the evidence for the evolution of man. The time of the fossil can be determined through chemical testing. Otherwise by examining the remnants of the stone in which the. fossils are found their time can be established. Once the time of the fossils is determined, the order of the human evolution can be found out.
“There are different categories in the Homo Genus Explain.
The origin of this species was 1.8 million years ago. Homo Erectus, which means upright man, is the direct predecessor of modem man. It was Homo Erectus that discovered the use of fire and started using clothes. This human race, which appeared in Africa, was interested in migration. From Africa they spread to Europe and Asia.
This humankind appeared on earth after the homo erectus. Their origin was in Africa some 8 lakh years ago. Just like the homo erectus, the homo sapiens also moved to Europe and Asia. They were known as “Wise or Thinking Man”.
Hominids originated in Africa. Do you agree with this opinion? Explain with examples.
Hominids originated in Africa. There are two evidences for this.
- The apes in Africa are very close to Hominids.
- Early hominid fossils were discovered from East Africa. The fossils discovered outside Africa are not as old as the ones found in East Africa.
In a classroom discussion, Sheeba opined that there are differences between hominoids and hominids. Do you agree with her opinion? If yes, describe them.
Hominoids are apes. All apes which include Gorillas, chimps, humans, orangs gibbons, etc. are hominoids. But Hominids are great apes and exclude gibbons (lesser apes). All hominids are hominoids, but not all hominoids are hominids. Hominids belong to the family called Hominidae. All people come in this group. There are 4 features that make hominids different from others:
- Bigger brain
- Upright posture
- Walkirig.on two legs
- Special ability in the use of hands.
Hominids are divided into different genus (branches). Mention two important genus.
Hominids are divided into different genus (branches) and the ‘two most important of them are Australopithecus and Homo.
Arrange chronologically (in the order of time):
- homo habilis
- homo erectus
- homo sapiens
- homo sapiens sapiens
- homo sapiens
- homo erectus
- homo sapiens sapiens
- homo habilis
Match the items in column A & B.
|Handy man||Homo erectus|
|Upright man||Homo sapiens|
|Intelligent man||Homo sapiens sapiens|
|Modem man||Homo habilis|
|Handy man||Homo habilis|
|Upright man||Homo erectus|
|Intelligent man||Homo sapiens|
|Modem man||Homo sapiens sapiens|
Babu: “Modern man originated in different places.”
Reena: “No. Modern man originated in one place.”
This is a part of a classroom discussion. With which opinion do you agree? Why?
The place of origin of the modem man has been a much-discussed topic. Scholars have put forward two contradictory views on this issue. They are Regional Continuity Model and Replacement Model. Regional Continuity Modeh This model says that modem people originated in different places.
The early homo sapiens in many places slowly evolved as modem people and that is why the modem people in various parts of the world look different from one another at first sight. The regional differences in the features of people are the basis for such a view.
This model says that modem man originated in Africa. The spokesmen of this model say that modem people appeared in place of (the old species of people everywhere. As evidence to their claim, they put forward the hereditary and anatomical similarity of modem people.
This model points out that modem people are quite similar everywhere because they originated in the same place – Africa. The first fossils of modem people were discovered from Omo in Ethiopia. This evidence substantiates the Replacement Model.
For procuring food, the early people had used different ways. Explain.
The early people got their food by gathering.huriting, taking the flesh from dead animals and fishing. They gathered vegetarian products like seeds, kernel of nuts, fruits arid roots. Some people believe that they stored food but for this, there is ho dear proof.
Although there are many fossils of bones, the fossils of vegetarian stuff have been rare. Remnants of plants and trees that have been burned down by sudden fire last for quite a long time, but archaeologists have not yet found such fossils.
It is natural that the early people collected the flesh of dead animals or the remnants of animals killed by carnivorous beasts. Early hominids ate mammals like rats and squirrels, birds and their eggs, crawling creatures and even insects like termites.
Fire was useful to the early man in many ways. Discuss how they used fire.
It gave heat and light in the caves. It was used for cooking. It was used to harden timber. It was helpful in the making of tools. It was also used to drive away dangerous beasts.
“Early man used to make working tools.” Examine the relevance in this statement.
The first proofs of man’s making and using working stone tools were got from Ethiopia and Kenya. We don’t know if these tools were made by man, woman or both. Most likely both men and women made such tools. Women must have made these tools to earn their food and also food their children after they had stopped breastfeeding them.
“Among all creatures only man has language.” On the basis of this statement write about the various views regarding the development of language.
There are many views regarding the development of language.
- Scholars say that hominids use first used gestures.
- Another group argues that sounds (words) of emotional interjections preceded language.
- There are others who believe that language developed from the calls (sounds) that primates made to one another. In the beginning, there were different sounds. Slowly they developed into a language.
What is anthropology?
It is a branch of knowledge that studies human culture and the evolutionary levels of humans/ Anthropos in Greek means man and logos means study. Anthropology is the study of various aspects of humans within past and present societies.
What is the Glacial Age?
Once the earth surface was covered with thick ice sheets. This phenomenon is known as the Glacial Age. In the history of the earth there were 4 Such glacial ages. The last glacial age ended some 13,000 years ago. The period between two Glacial Ages is called Inter Glacial Period.