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Kerala Plus One History Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 5 Nomadic Empires
“The term ‘Nomadic Empires’ might look paradoxical.” Examine the validity of this statement.
Nomads are wanderers. They are organized as family groups. There is hardly any difference in their; economic life. Their political system is very ancient and uncivilized. But Empires have physical territories . and boundaries. Politically they are stable. The stability of an empire comes from its complex social and economic structures. It rules a vast region. Naturally, an empire should have an administrative system.
The History of Mongols is written by foreign scholars. Explain.
It was Russian scholars who made the most valuable researches about Mongols in the 18th arid 19th centuries. The history of Mongols comes in the form of extensive notes prepared by travelers, merchants, warriors, and collectors of antiquity.
The goal of Genghis Khan was not merely a fellowship of the Mongol tribes. What were his other aims?
Genghis. Khan unified the Mongol people. He reorganized them into a disciplined military power. It helped him in future conquests. His primary aim was to attack China.
The Mongols did not do any agriculture. On the basis of this statement explain what the means of livelihood of the Mongols were.
Many Mongols were shepherds whereas others were hunters and gatherers of food. Shepherds had. domesticated horses and sheep. They also tamed cattle, goats, and camels. In the grassy plains of Central Asia (the modem Mongolia), they lived a nomadic life. It was a beautiful region with snow-capped mountains, plains, rivers and a desert (Gobi). The hunters and the gatherers of food lived in the Northern Siberian forests. Compared to the shepherds they were very humble. During the summer they lived by selling animal hides. The climate in their region was harsh. They had (Orig winter and brief, dry summer.
The Mongols did not do any farming. Their economic system was not capable of maintaining places with high or dense population. Therefore they did not have r any cities.
The Mongols lived in tents. They went on roaming the grassy plains with their flocks and herds both in the winter and also summer.
There were some links that kept the various sections and tribes of the Mongols together. Explain.
The Mongols included various sections and tribes. There were Tatars, Khitans, Manchus, and Turkish tribes among them. The main link among them was their common language.
The Great Wall of China was built to protect the agricultural communities of North China from the attacks of the nomads, Based on this statement, describe the relations between the Mongolian nomads and the Chinese agricultural communities.
China experienced a lot of problems because of the constant attacks by the nomads and therefore China built fortresses to protect her citizens from these attacks. Connecting these fortresses, China made defensive wall-chain. This is the famous Great Wall of China. This is one of the wonders of the world.
The life of Genghis Khan was full of misery and backlashes. Comment.
The real name of Genghis khan is Temujin. He was born in 1162, in a region of the bank of River On on in the Northern side of the present Mongolia. When he was 12, his father was killed. Then it was his mother Hoelun who brought him and brothers up taking a lot of trouble. Temujin faced a lot of problems during the next 12 years. He was caught and was made a slave. Soon after his marriage his wife Borte was kidnapped by some people. Temujin had to fight hard to get his wife back.
By 1209 Genghis Khan defeated the Xi Xia people, in 1213 he crossed the Great Wall and defeated the Chin dynasty. He looted Peking. His fights with the Chin dynasty continued until 1234, Genghis Khan also attacked places like Amu Darya, Transoxiana, and Khwaresmia.
The major part of Genghis Khan’s life was spent on the battlefront. Do you agree with this view? Explain.
It is true that the major part of Genghis Khan’s life was spent on the battlefront. His military successes are quite wonderful.
He used new strategies. He also changed traditional strategies that were used in the warfare in the grassy plains. The expertise of the Mongols and Turks in horse-riding gave his army speed and dynamism. These warriors could shoot even as they were riding their horses.
The cavalry in the plains was ready to move with great speed and face any type of weather. The rivers that were frozen during the winter were like highways for the warriors of Genghis Khan and they could easily enter the cities and camps of the enemies.
For the nomads, the fortressed camps of the enemies were hard to conquer. There they suffered huge losses. But Genghis Khan did not mind these obstacles. His engineers made machines to capture the fortresses. They also made firebombs which could be easily carried and used when needed. By using these technically advanced things Genghis Khan was able to defeat his enemies.
Under the successors of Genghis Khan, the Mongol lost their Western world. Give reasons for this.
In the decades after 1203, the Mongolian army faced many defeats. In the 1260s, the Mongols lost their desire to maintain their Western regions. Vienna, Western Europe, and Egypt were once with the Mongols. But their withdrawal from the Hungariari Steppes and their defeat from the Egyptian army caused some new political ideas to emerge in their minds. The internal strife among the Mongols themselves and their over-enthusiasm in conquering China made them lose their Western world.
Prepare a seminar paper on the social-political and military arrangements of the Mongols.
Areas to be considered: Military structure, Courier system, Mongols and the Permanent Settlers, Formation of special hereditary system, Yassa.
All the healthy males among the Mongols carried arms. In times of need, they served as an army. In short, the Mongolian army was small and uni-tribal. But with the unification of the different Mongolian tribes and with the wars with different peoples, there were changes in the nature and structure of Genghis Khan’s army. The army became big and multi-tribal. In the army, there were soldiers who accepted the authority of Genghis Khan willingly, like the Turkic Uyghurs and defeated the people like the Keraits. Genghis Khan unified the different tribes of Mongols and made them into a confederacy. He tried to destroy the earlier tribal identities of these tribes.
Genghis Khan organized his army on a decimal basis. The units were in multiples of 10. (10,100, 1000,10000, etc.)
The greatest contribution of Genghis Khan was the courier system called Yam he introduced. This Yam system was a relay system that linked different administrative units of his vast empire. At fixed distances, there were horsemen and messengers for carrying messages. To maintain this communication system, the nomadic Mongols had to give one-tenth of their animals (horses or other animals) to the authorities. This was known as Qubkar (kar means tax-likeour’karam’inMalayalam).
After the death of Genghis Khan, the courier system became more efficient. Its speed and reliance had surprised visitors. The great Khans used this relay system to effectively control their far-flung regions. The defeated people were not happy with the new nomadic rulers. After the attacks that took place in the first half of the 13th century, cities were destroyed, farms were left uncultivated and trade and handloom industries were reduced.
Thousands of people were. killed and many more were made prisoners. Right from the top to the bottom, people suffered different kinds of misery and pain. Since the canals in the internal region of the Iranian plateau were not repaired, the desert expanded. This caused environmental min. A good portion of the Khurasan Region never. recovered from this damage.
Once the attacks were over Europe and China were regionally connected. The trade relations between the two were also better. The trade and travel through the silk route reached their height under the Mongols, But the trade routes did not end with China. They extended to Mongolia, the heart of the Empire and Karakoram. Travel and communication were essential for the stability of the Mongol rule. The travelers were given a pass for their easy travel. Merchants had to give a tax (called Baj tax) for this.
In the 13th century, the contradictions that existed between the nomads and the permanent settlers began to lessen.
The memories of Genghis Khan were cherished by his successors. It was his Yassa (Law) that helped him to be remembered by posterity. In the Assembly of Chiefs (Quriltai) in 1206 Genghis Khan declared his Yassa. It contained administrative controls and laws regarding the organization of hunting, army and postal system. By the middle of the 13th century, the Mongols began to use the word Yassa to mean the “Laws of Genghis Khan”. Thus the Yassa of Genghis Khan helped him in keeping memory alive.
Sagi: Genghis Khan was an uncivilized attacker.
Usha: He was a great leader.
With whose opinion do you agree? Why?
When we think of Genghis khan now, in our imagination, we imagine him to be a violent destroyer of cities and a brute who caused the death of thousands of people. In the 13th century, the city dwellers of China, Iran, and Eastern Europe looked at the Mongols with anger and hatred. But for the Mongols Genghis Khan was their greatest leader. He unified them.
He liberated them from the constant Tribal wars and the exploitation of the Chinese. To the Mongols, he was a great man who brought them prosperity, who formed an intercontinental empire, who recovered the trade routes and markets and who attracted travelers like Marco Polo.
The Mongols have given valuable contributions to world culture. Critically evaluate this statement.
The Mongol Khans belonged to different. religious faiths. There were Believers of Shamanism, Buddhists, Christians, and Muslims among them. They did not impose their personal beliefs on others. The Mongol rulers employed members of all races and faiths in their administration and army. Theirs was a multi-racial, multi-lingual and multi-religious rule. Such a rule was quite unusual in those days. The Mongols followed an administrative system that could be imitated by the rulers like the Mughals in India