Kerala Plus Two Political Science Previous Year Question Paper 2015
Write a short note on Green Revolution. How this contributed to food security in India? (3)
Green Revolution: Green Revolution is the name given to the policies of the government which aimed at maximum production in the minimum period in the agricultural sector. In the 1960s, the agricultural sector was in very bad shape. Between 1965 and 67 there were huge droughts in many parts of India. This reduced food production and in many areas there was famine-like condition.
To overcome this crisis, India was forced to seek assistance from countries like America. Following the American policies, we too started some new economic policies. The government wanted self- sufficiency in food and therefore a new agricultural policy was implemented. This policy included fanning all lands where irrigation was available, using high yield varieties of seeds and fertilizing the land. Subsidies were given for irrigation and insecticides, it was also decided that the government would purchase the product at a minimum price. All these changes together paved the way for what is known as the Green Revolution.
The Green Revolution brought some positive changes in agricultural growth. Food stuff was easily available. Of course, it was the rich merchants and large farm- owners that were the prime beneficiaries. There was a polarization of the rich and poor. This helped the Left Parties to bring together the poor farmers and the masses. As a result, there arose a powerful Left-leaning lobby of middle-class farmers.
Match the following : (4)
- Shyama Prasad Mukherjee – Founder of BJS – Minister, Nehru Ministry.
- Pattom Thanu Piliai – Socialist Leader – Chief Minister of Kerala.
- A.K. Gopalan – Opposition Leader in the Lok Sabha – Communist Leader.
- BR Ambedkar- Stood for Dalit Justice -Architect of Indian Constitution.
The failure of N. Sanjeeva Reddy, official Presidential candidate of the Congress Party, completed the split in the Congress Party. Expalin the circumstances that led to the split in the Congress Party in 1969. (3)
The biggest challenge Indira Gandhi had to face after the 1967 election was not from the Opposition but from her own party. She had to a face a powerful Syndicate in the party itself working against her But soon she was able to take control and took strong measures. She did certain things showing her leaning towards the Left. In 1967, she formed a 10- point action plan. Banks were controlled, insurance was nationalized, and ceiling was set for urban property. She also carried out public distribution of food grains, land reforms, village housing schemes. Although the Syndicate agreed to these changes, it was not happy.
When Dr. Zakir Hussain died in 1969, there was election for the President. During this election the difference between Indira Gandhi and the Syndicate came in the open.
After the establishment of UN, so many new states were evolved in the international arena. There are heated discussions on the re-structuring of UN. Discuss, how the UN should be restructured catering to the present international needs. What will be the ‘ role of India in the restructured UN? (6)
There is a need to reform UNO as per the need of the time. The circumstances today are different from those existing at the time of the formation of the UNO. There should be objective solutions to the problems of the world. No country should assume the role of world police.
There should be structural change in the UN to enable it to eradicate terrorism. There should be proper representation of the developing nations in the UN.
The demand of India to have permanent membership in the Security Council is a logical and just demand, India wants permanent membership because of the following reasons:
- it has the world’s second-largest population.
- It is the largest democracy in the world.
- India has participated in the UN activities since its inception.
- It has long relations with the UN Peacekeeping force.
- India’s economic situation is improving.
- India gives regularly to the UN budget. It has never defaulted on any payment.
The above reasons are good enough for India to get a permanent membership in the UN Security Council. Permanent membership has its own significance. India’s importance will increase in world matters. Our foreign policy will influence others,
‘Terrorists never respect any international laws’. Hence terrorism is considered as a new threat to security. Explain any two other new sources of threats to security. (4)
a. Human Rights Violations: We see that throughout the world there are human right violations. There is no unified thinking in any country about how to protect human rights. Recent incidents of human right violations are the annexation of Kuwait by Iraq, the ethnic cleansing in Ruanda and the mass killings of the people of Eastern Timor by the Indonesian army. All these prompted world leaders to have a talk. The talk was about whether the UN should interfere in such matters. The matter is still unresolved.
Global Poverty: This is another factor of security threat, it is believed that the population in the underdeveloped countries will triple in 50 years. In countries where the population is low, the per capita income will be high. Therefore the economically advanced countries will prosper further whereas the poor countries will grow poorer. The gap between countries of the North and South will increase. People from the South countries immigrate to the North countries for better life and earning. This also creates a threat for the security of mankind.
Discuss briefly the Anti-Arrack Movement. How is this movement related to other movements in India? (3)
In the 1990s, many women in Nellur in Andhra became literate. In the class, women spoke about the drinking habits of their men-folk. Drinking alcohol causes both physical and mental harm. It also adversely affects the economic situation of the family. Men do not go to work. The manufacturers of various kinds of alcoholic beverages make money by using all sorts of illegal means. It is the women that suffer because of the drinking habit of men. The women in Nellur protested against alcoholism and forced a wine shop to close down. This news spread like wild fire into some 5000 villages. They
held meetings and passed resolutions and sent them to the Collectors. The arrack auction in Nellur had to be postponed 17 times. The protest in Nellur spread to the rest of the State.
Dravidian Movement is the oldest regional movement in India. Discuss the origin and development of the movement. ( (3)
‘Vadakku Vaazhkirathu’Therkku Thaeikirathu”. This was the popular slogan raised by Dravidian movement. This Dravidian movement was one of the first regional movements in Indian Politics. Prepare. a short note about Dravidian movement.
Vadakku Vaazhkirathu. Thekku Thaeikirathu” was a slogan of the Dravidian Movement. This is first regional movement in India. Although the Movement wanted fo establish a Dravidian Nation, it never resorted to any armed struggle. Using the democratic methods of propaganda and election, the Dravida Munnetra Kazhakam became a strong power. Dravida Movement: Dravida Kazhakam (DK) was formed by E.V. Ramaswami, known as ‘Periyor’. This Organization was against Brahmin supremacy and the political and economic supremacy of the Northern States. It was split later and then DMK (Dravida Munnetra Kazhakam) came into existence, in 1953 and 54 it made 3 big agitations and they made DMK an influential party in Indian politics.
a. The first agitation was to change the name of a railway station. Kallakkudi railway station’s name was changed to Dalmiapuram. The DMK wanted to retain the name Kallakkudi.
b. The second agitation was to make Tamil Cultural history as an important part of the school curriculum.
c. The 3rd one was against the handicraft training in .the schools. The DMK said that it had a Brahmin touch. The DMK made huge agitations against the plan of making Hindi as the sole official language. The 1965 anti-Hindi protests made DMK very famous. Now there are many Dravidian parties – DMK, AIDMK, Marumalarchi DMK, Pattali Makkal Kakshi, Desiya Moorpoku Dravida Kazhakam and so on. Some of them are known even outside Tamil Nadu.
Corruption is the curse of contemporary India. In this context discuss the importance of Lok Pal in India. (2)
Corruption is a curse in our modern politics. The tendency to divide the tax money between bureaucrats and politicians is increasing in India. It is essential to stop this tendency. Anna Hazare and the People’s Party are trying to get the Lok Pal Bill passed prevent corruption. It is high time that India passed Lok Pal Bill.
‘Demolition of the Babri Mazjid is considered as a blow to Indian Secularism.’ How the Ram Janma Bhumi-Babri Masjid issue influenced Indian politics? Discuss. (3)
As the news of the demolition of the Masjid canieout there were heated arguments between Hindus’ and Muslims in many places. That State Gdyferhfnent was dismissed. In many States with
BJP governments, Presidential rule was imposed. A case was filed against the Chief Minister of UP in the Supreme Court. The case was for breaching the court verdict. BJP expressed its regret at the tragic incidents that took place. The Central Government appointed a Commission to study the circumstances which led to the demolition of the Mosque. Liberhan Commission submitted its report after 17 years of the incident.
Match the following :
Lai Danga – Aka Dal – Mizoram
Praphulla KumarMahanta- MNF – Assam
Longowal – AGP – Punjab
Lai Denga — M.N.F. — Mizoram
Prafulia Kumar Mahantha —A, G.P. —Assam
Longoval —Akali Dal — Punjab
Today Environment Degradation is considered as the greatest threat to the world’s existence. (3)
Identify any three such environmental problems. How can we prevent such degradations?
a. Global Warming, b. Deforestation, c. Pollution of air and water.
Solutions: a Forestation
b. Disposal of plastic waste at source.
c. Controlling vehicle emissions.
The critics of Globalization argue that ‘Globalization is polarisation’. Do you agree with that argument? Discuss the economic consequences of globalization. (3)
Globalization is the exchange of ideas, materials and human resources. Now this exchange is possible among nations without much control. Looked at this way, it assumes different levels of political, economic and cultural meanings. In his sense, it has merits and demerits. Some societies may be affected only very little, but some may be affected much more. Let us see how it works. Politically speaking, the authority of the government gets weaker. It will have to reduce its welfare schemes. Instead of social welfare, the stress is on the market. With the coming MNCs (Multi-National Corporations), it becomes difficult for the governments to take independent decisions.
Globalization has influenced the economic sphere greatly. World Bank, IMF, WTO etc. play big roles. All these are controlled mainly by America and its allies. The world economy itself has come under their influence. In this, a re-thinking is necessary. It is high time that we found out who the beneficiaries of globalization are.
The effects of globalization are not limited to political and economic spheres. It affects our home, food, dress and even thoughts. There is a fear that it would lead to single world culture: There is the dominance of Western Culture in globalization’! There is a danger to traditional cultures. But some people say that culture is not something that stands still. Every culture accepts things from other cultures.
Write a brief note on Indo-China relations. How the Indo-China War of 1962 affected India domestically and internationally? (7)
In the beginning, India and China had cordial relations. Our relations have a historical and cultural background. Nehru played a crucial role in making relations better. India was the first country to recognize China after the Revolution. Nehru tried to help China in international matters. Because of these good relations, on the India-China border, there were only paramilitary forces and not regular armymen. The Panchsheel Agreement was a big landmark out of India-China relations. It was signed on April 29 by the PMs of both countries, Nehru of India and Chou- en-Lai of China. Nehru visited China and Chou-en-Lai visited India getting the love and respect of people. Nehru had an open-hearted approach to China. But people like Patel thought China was not a country to be believed. Nehru never expected any attack from China. But in 1962, China did attack India.
Two things spoiled the relations between India and China. One was the Tibetan Issue and the other was border disputes. Even in the 1950s when they were friends, India and China had border disputes. China was not ready to accept our suggestions regarding the border. China claimed Ladakh in Kashmir and some areas of Arunachal Pradesh to be theirs. During the period of 1957-59, they also took Aksai Chin sector and built the Karakoram Highway. The second issue was Tibet. In 1950, China annexed Tibet. It was a breach of faith. In the beginning India kept quiet. But the Chinese started imposing their culture on the Tibetans. In 1959, the Tibetan Spiritual leader, Dalai Lama, sought refuge in India. China then accused India saying that India was acting against the interest of China. In October 1962 China infiltrated into Indian territories which she claimed to be hers.
The first attack lasted a week. Chinese army occupied some places in Arunachal Pradesh. The next attack came a month later. But the Indian army stopped the Chinese in the western part of Ladakh. China declared a unilateral ceasefire and retreated from the places it had taken.
Results of the India-China War: During the war, Russia kept her neutrality. India had to seek support from America and Britain. The war was shameful to the country. But it strengthened national feeling. Nehru’s close friend and the then defence minister V.K. Krishna Menon had to resign. Nehru was criticised for blindly believing China and for his lack of military preparation to prevent the attack. A no-confidence motion was brought against his government. In Lok Sabha there were a lot of discussions. In many bye-elections Congress lost. The Opposition was also affected by the war. In 1964 Communist Party split into two – Pro-Chinese and Pro-Russia. One was CPI (M) and the other was CPI.
The War awakened the nation. The North Eastern region was backward. The Chinese war prompted the nation to keep its unity and to embark upon developmental projects.
Name the chief activist associated with Narmada Bachao Andolan. (1)
Discuss the circumstances which led to the declaration of emergency in India. (4)
After the 1971 election, Indira became a popular leader with a lot of support from the people. This time there were serious problems in the Party. There were three main reasons:
a. Economic Reasons
b. Gujarat & Bihar Movement
c. Dispute with the Judiciary
The main slogan in the 1971 election was ‘garibi hatao’. But when the government came to power it could not improve the economic condition of the country. There were a number of reasons for that. First of all there was the refuge problem. Then there was the Bangladesh Crisis, followed by the Indo- Pakistan War. All these things created financial problems. Secondly, after the War, America stopped its aids to India. Thirdly, there was a sharp increase in oil prices. The 4th reason was inflation which made the life of ordinary people very difficult. The 5m problem was negative growth in industrial output. Unemployment increased, especially in the rural sector. Sixthly, the salaries of government employees had to be reduced and even stopped. Seventhly, lack of rain caused serious shortfall in foodstuff.
All the above things created an economic crisis in the country. There was general discontentment in the country. This gave the Opposition Parties an opportunity to organise protests.
Gujarat and Bihar Movement: The second biggest problem was the students’ protest in Gujarat and Bihar which were Congress-ruled States. The main reason was the increase in the prices of essential commodities. Shortage of food, unemployment and corruption made the students angry. In both these States the Opposition Parties supported the students. In Gujarat, Presidential Rule was imposed. At this time the main opponent of Indira Gandhi and the leader of Congress (O), Morarji Desai, decided to go on an indefinite hunger strike. He did that for demanding elections in Gujarat. In June 1975, because of heavy pressure from various sources, election was conducted.
Congress lost the election. In Bihar the students invited Jay Prakash Narayan to lead their protest. He accepted the invitation insisting that the protest must be non-violent. He asked for the dismissal of the Bihar government. He argued that there was a need for a revolution in social, economic and political spheres. But the Bihar government refused to resign. The entire country discussed the issue. Jay Prakash Narayan wanted to spread the protest to all parts of the country. In the meantime, the railway workers went on strike.
It would make the entire country come to a standstill. In 1975, Jay Prakash Narayan organized a march to the Parliament. It was the biggest rally the capital had ever seen. The Opposition saw in him an alternative to Indira Gandhi. Both the protests were anti-Congress. Voices also rose against the leadership of Mrs. Gandhi. She believed that all this was done to take revenge on her.
Dispute with the Judiciary: Another reason for the declaration of Emergency was Indira Gandhi’s dispute with the Judiciary. The Supreme Court said that some of the things the government did were against the Constitution. Congress argued that the Supreme Court judgment was against democracy and the authority of the Parliament. The Party said that the Court was standing against some welfare measures taken to help the poor people. The dispute was mainly in three things. Firstly, Can the Parliament change the Fundamental Rights? The Court said no. Secondly, Can the Parliament change ownership of land? Again the Court said no. Thirdly, the Parliament said that it had the right to reduce fundamental rights. It amended the Constitution. But the Supreme Court objected. All these were the reasons for the dispute between the Government and the Supreme Court.
There were two more reasons. In the Kesavananda Bharati case, the Supreme Court judged that the Parliament can’t change the basic structure of the Constitution. Soon the post of the Chief Justice became vacant. Normally the senior-most judge is appointed as the Chief Justice. But keeping aside 3 eligible Judges, the government-appointed A.N. Roy as the Chief Justice. This appointment became controversial. Besides, the Uttar Pradesh High Court declared the election of Indira Gandhi as null and void. All these were the reasons for Mrs Gandhi to declare Emergency in June 1975.
Complete the following chart: (2)
SAARC COUNTRIES: India, Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Pakistan, Maldives, Sri Lanka.
Which are the pillars of ASEAN community? What are théir common objectives? (4)
ASEAN. The South Eastern Asian countries had to suffer the economic and political consequences of, ‘‘ the colonialism by turope and Japan. After WW II, poverty and economic backwardness forced these countries to join one of the superpowers. Then there was the Bandung Conference and Non-Aligned Movement came into existence. Even then problems were not solved. Therefore these countries joined together and formed an organization called ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations).
It was formed in1967. Five countries – Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand – signed the Bangkok Declaration. Later Brunei Darussalam (1984), Vietnam (1985), Myanmar (1997) and Cambodia (1999) became members of ASEAN.
Aims: Quickening economic growth, bring about social and cultural development. Bring about regional peace according to the UN laws, and establish stability.
Give a brief note on Shock therapy. (2)
The Communist system in the Soviet Union and East European Countries collapsed and those countries started moving along paths of change. This change from Communism to capitalism is what is known as ‘shock therapy’.
Cold War was not limited to power rivalry alone but it extended to ideological conflict. Explain on the basis of Cuban Missile crisis. (4)
Most North-Western countries became capitalist, anti-communist nations. A big power like America could not easily tolerate a neighbouring country becoming a close ally of Communist Russia. As Cuba got financial and diplomatic support from Russia, it became a strong country, although it was small in size. It faced America without fear. In 1962, the Russian leader Khrushchev wanted to deploy missiles and other armaments in Cube. Most American cities then would come under threat from Russia. Later this was known as the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Write a brief note on the ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka. (2)
The Sinhala nationalists were against giving any concessions to the Tamils there. In their view Sri Lanka is the motherland only for them. It was this enmity that forced the Tamils to rise in revolt against the Sinhalese. The Tamils organised the LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eazham). From 1983, the LTTE began armed struggle against the Sinhalese. This racial problem became a headache to India as well. The Tamil people of India exerted great pressure on the Central Government to help the Tamils in Sri Lanka. In 1987 India signed an agreement with Sri Lanka. According to that there should be cordial relations between the Tamils and the Sri Lankan government. But the Indian government had to fight against LTTE, Sri Lanka thought India was interfering in its internal affairs. In 1989, the Indian Peace Keeping Force had to come back to India without achieving any result.
Sri Lankan problem became very violent. Scandinavian countries like Norway and Iceland tried to bring peace, but they failed. In May 2009, the Sri Lankan army attacked the LTTE army and killed Veluppilla Prabhakaran and his associates. In spite of all these internal problems, Sri Lanka was making economic progress. It reduced its population and brought economic liberalization. Their per capita income increased. After the Civil War, the Sri Lankan Government announced that they would protect their Tamil population. The world hopes that democracy will further strengthen in Sri Lanka.
“The scars of Indian partition still exist even after sixty years of independence.” From the above statement explain the consequences of Indian partition. (4)
The division of British India in 1947 into India and Pakistan was a very tragic incident in history. In the border areas many people on both sides were killed because of their religion and caste. Huge cities like Lahore, Amritsar and Calcutta became religious areas. Muslims avoided going to areas of Hindus and Sikhs. Similarly Hindus and Sikhs did not want to go near the Muslim areas. People were forced to flee their homes, suffering a lot of difficulties on their way. Many of the people in the minorities in the bonder areas had to live in refugee camps. The governments and the police were not there to help them. People had to walk or ride in some vehicles from their homes to their new places. During the journey, many were attacked and killed; women were raped. Many were forced to accept the majority religion and marry people against their will. In many homes women were killed by their own relatives in the name of honour. Children were separated from their parents and guardians. People who came to the new land had no houses and they had to live in refugee camps. Not only the land, but even moveable properties like tables and chairs were divided. The government and railway workers were divided. People who were living like brethren were divided. It is believed that between 5 to 10 lakh people lost their lives in this tragic division of the country.
The First Year Plan stressed agriculture and the Second Five Year Plan stressed rapid industrialization. There is always heated controversy over agriculture and industry for a nation’s development. Examine different dimensions of this controversy. (4)
The main difference was in the styles of the Plans. The first Plan envisaged development at a slow pace whereas the second plan wanted development to be fast. The first Plan gave priority to agricultural matters whereas the 2nd Plan gave preference to large scale heavy industries.
The first Plan envisaged at eradicating poverty. Ac-cording to K.N. Raj, India needed a quick, but also gradual, development. Fast actions would jeopardise democracy itself. Therefore the first haTfliffffe Plan devoted attention to dams and irrigation. The inequality in the land distribution was harmful to agriculture. So it was thought necessary to make land reforms. The 2nd Plan stressed industrial development. It was under the leadership of P.C.
Mahalanobis. The 2nd Plan wanted to implement schemes for the quick development of the industrial base. The Resolution passed at the Avadi Conference of the Congress aimed at social justice. The 2nd Plan reflects this. By imposing import duties, Indian industries were protected from foreign competition. The savings and investments of the people increased. It made it possible to bring about development in the public sector areas like electricity, railway, steel, heavy instruments, and communication.
President Obama is the Chief Guest of the Republic Day celebrations of 2015. Examine India’s relation with US after the Cold War. (6)
Barak Obama was the Chief Guest on the Republic Day celebrations and he went back after three days of visit in India. It was the first time that an American President came to India as the Chief Guest to watch the Republic Day Parade in India.
Although America is still the greatest industrial and military power in the world, it is not able to maintain the same strong position it had in the 20th century. There are many reasons for that. The main reason is that countries likp Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa are growing in population, economic power, scientific and technological achievements and America can no more keep them in her control. These countries want to form a fellowship called ‘BR1CS’, but America is against such an idea. America is trying to prevent that fellowship from being formed and so she is trying to get India on her side. The American Grbupthat came to India had a number of important Agreements in mind. In the Nuclear Liability Act, America wants India to support American companies. She wants India to be less strict with Carbon Emission Agreement. She wants to sign different Defence agreements with India and she wants to come to some understanding in trade matters. The Group discussed security, anti-terrorist schemes, and the explosive situations in India’s neighbors like Afghanistan and Iran, According to the Nuclear Liability Act, American companies can’t open plants in India. American wants this situation to change. The Indian Law says that if a nuclear accident takes place, the responsibility will lie with the company that1 Supplied the plant and nuclear material.
Both countries aim at better trade relations. After the Republic Day Parade, Modi and Obarili had a meeting with the top businessmen in India. Both 4 countries regarded this Business Summit as very important.
In the last 10 years India-America trade relation increased 5 times, reaching more than 10,000 crore dollars. In the next 5 years, the American Ambassador Richard Rahul Varma said that it would reach 50,000 crore. Richard Varma further said America would help Modi to realise his dream of full-time electricity for all Indians and to cooperate in the making of nuclear power for civil purposes. India wants to make use America’s capital, technology, pure energy, anti-terrorist power, superior knowledge, space and cyber security. India also wants American support in her quest for a permanent seat in the Security Council. Obama had included a few people whom Indians like in his group, showing the importance he gave to the visit and the discussions.
The White House thinks that there will be a ten-fold increase in the cordial relations between India and America because of Obama’s visit. The Senior Director of the National Security Council Philip Reiner said that Obama’s visit as the Chief Guest of the Republic Day Parade will strengthen the ties between the two countries. The Spokesman for the Indian Foreign Affairs Office, Mr. Said Akbaruddin, said that Obama’s visit was the most important diplomatic visit in recent times.