Kerala Plus Two Political Science Previous Year Question Paper 2018
Time: 2 1/2 A Hours
Total Score: 80
Answer all questions from questions 1 to 15 (Total Scores 28)
Identify from the given below the first Summit Conference of Non-Aligned Movement. (1)
a) Yalta Conference
b) Belgrade Conference
c) Bandung Conference
d) Bangkok Conference
b) Belgrade Conference
WTO is serving as the successor to which of the following organization?
Identify the economist who proposed an alternative blue print that put greater emphasis on rural industrialization.
(а) J.C. Kumarappa
(b) PC. Mahalanobis
(c) K.N. Raj
d) M S. Swaminathan
(а) J.C. Kumarappa
Who is the President of Soviet Union at the time of its disintegration?
Identify the wrong from the given statements:
a) Chipko Movement was an environmental movement to prevent cutting down of trees.
b) Dalit Panthers was formed in Maharashtra in 1972.
c) The activity of the Mahendra Singh Tikait is related with BKU.
d) The organisation MKSS is related with Narmada BachaoAandolan
d) The organisation MKSS is related with Narmada BachaoAandolan
Expand the following abbreviations:
a) NDA- National Democratic Alliance
b) UPA-United Progressive Alliance
Fill in the blanks :
a) Tashkent agreement was signed between Lai Bahadur Shastri and
b) The exponents of the slogan Garibi Hatao was
a) Mohammed Ayub Khan
b) Indira Gandhi
Identify the name of the leader and party, that led the popular struggle against West Pakistani domination in East Pakistan.
a) Shaikh MujiburRehman
b) Awami League
Co-operation is an important aspect of traditional security. Point out two forms of co-operation, (2)
b) Arms Control
Write a note on Bandwagon strategy. (2)
Bandwagon Strategy is a tactic by which instead of opposing the dominant power cooperating with it and getting some gains.
Write any two political consequences of Globalization. (2)
Globalization weakens the strength of the nation. It prevents the government from taking action of its own choice. Globalization colonizes the mind and thoughts of the people. It is through the media that this kind of cultural domination is implemented.
List out any two factors that contributed to the dominance of Congress Party’ in the first three General elections in India. (2)
(1) The Congress Party had the tradition of the Nationalist Movement. Since that Party led the fight against the British for independence, the voters naturally voted them into power.
(2) Only the Congress Party had a strong organizational chain throughout the country.
(3) The people in the leadership of Congress were famous people like Nehru. He traveled all over India and led the election campaign and thus he played a big role in the success of the Party.
The democracy in Pakistan is not stable like in India. Identify the factors that contributed to Pakistan’s failure in building a stable democracy. (3)
There are many reasons why democracy has not; been always successful in Pakistan. Elected governments have been overthrown and military I governments take over power because of the domination of the army, clergy and the nobles who own large areas of landed property. the fights with India made pro-army groups to supported army rule, Although democracy has not completely succeeded there, there is a powerful democratic feeling existing in the country. Bold and comparative free journalism and a powerful human rights organization function in Pakistan.
No strong international support has been received by Pakistan to maintain democracy there. This helped the army to grab power. America and some other western countries encourage military government there. They take such an attitude because there is the global Islamic terrorist threat, and there is the danger of Pakistan’s nuclear weapons reaching the hands of the terrorists. Western countries think that the military government in Pakistan will protest their interests in West and South Asia.
Mandal Commission Report was a milestone in the development of Other backward Classes in India. Evaluate the impact of Mandal Commission Report in strengthening the politics of backward classes in India. (3)
Since the 1960s, the South Indian States had made reservations for Other Backward Classes. But this was not done in the Northern Regions. I n the 1977-79 period this demand became very strong throughout the country. In 1978, the Janta Party appointed Mr Bindeswari Mandal to find out the groups which are socially and educationally backward and study about their condition. This Commission is known as the Second Backward Commission. This Commission was appointed with the intention of solving the backwardness of certain sections of the society.
In 1980, this Commission presented its report. According to the Commission, the Backward Sections were to be Backward Classes. Apart from the Scheduled Tribes, there were many other classes which should be considered Backward. According to a survey conducted by this Commission, it was found out that their representation was very low in education and jobs. Therefore it recommended t give 27% .. reservation to these Backward Classes. With the coming of the land reforms, their condition has be come much better.
Match the column A with b and C
|Operation Desert Storm
|UN military operation in Iraq in 1991
|First Gulf war
|Operation Enduring freedom
|US response to attack of 9/11.
|Global war on Terror
|Operation infinite reach
|Missile attack in Sudan
|US response to the attack of US embassies.
Write any four questions 16 to 20. Each question carries 4 scores. (4 x 4 = 16)
Bring out the major difference in the objectives of the First and Second five-year plans.
The main difference was in the styles of the Plans. The first Plan envisaged development at a slow pace whereas the second plan wanted development to be fast. The first Plan gave priority to agricultural matters whereas the 2nd Plan gave preference to large scale heavy industries.
The first Plan envisaged at eradicating poverty. According to K.N. Raj, India needed a quick, but also gradual, development. Fast actions would jeopardize democracy itself. Therefore the first half of the Plan devoted attention to dams and irrigation. The inequality in land distribution was harmful to agriculture. So it was thought necessary to make ‘ land reforms. The 2nd Plan stressed industrial development. It was under the leadership of PC.
Mahalanobis The 2nd Plan wanted to implement schemes for the quick development of the industrial base. The Resolution passed at the Avadi Conference of the Congress aimed at social justice. The 2nd Plan reflects this. By imposing import duties, Indian industries were protected from foreign competition. The savings and investments of the people increased.
It made it possible to bring about development in the public sector areas like electricity, railway, steel, heavy instruments, and communication.
Prepare a short note on the concept of Non- Congress’ and Defection’.
Before the 4th General Elections, the Indira Gandhi Government had to face many challenges from the Opposition Parties. They were in the forefront in organising protests and to put pressure on the government.
The non-Congress Parties realized that Congress was winning because the non-Congress vote got divided. As they realized that the non-unity among them was the real cause of the success o the Congress, the Opposition parties tried to fight the election by making a common front against the Congress. In some States, some parties made United Fronts against Congress. In other States, they made some adjustments in dividing the Seats.
The Opposition Parties realized that the inexperience of Indira Gandhi and groups in the Congress gave them an opportunity to remove Congress from power. This unified move by the Opposition was called “Non-Congress” by the Socialist leader Ram Manohar Lohia. He also put forward a theoretical argument. He argued that Congress’s rule was undemocratic and against, the interests of the common people. He argued that to bring back democracy to the country there was a need for the non-Congress Parties to unite.
After the 1967 Elections Defection became an important thing in Indian politics. In the formation of the government and in removing the government from power, defection played a major role.
- Defection is the name given to an MLA or MP joining another party after winning the election on the ticket of his original party. Just like party candidates, independent candidates also defect.
- The MLA or M P joins another party just because he is offered either money or the post of a minister or some other kind of bribe. Instead of punishing such selfish people, the voters went on electing such unscrupulous candidates. Therefore defection and ‘horse-trading’ became common in Indian politics.
Resistance to globalization in India has come from different sources. Evaluate the nature arid style of resistance of social groups and political parties in India against globalization.
Resistance against globalization is seen in many parts of India. Entry of the MNCs, foreign TV channels, Night Clubs, Valentine’s Day, Western dresses, especially among girls in schools and colleges, etc. are part of globalization.
The Left parties object globalization. The Indian Social Forum is also against it. Trade Union workers oppose MNCs. The acquisition of the patent for trees like Neem by the Americans and Europeans brought a lot of vehement protests.
Great protest was made against the ground water exploitation by foreign monopolies. In Plachimada there was a huge protest against Coca Cola Company and this attracted world attention.
Not only Left parties but also some people in the right-wing political parties also raise their voice against globalization. They are mainly protesting against cultural encroachment. The foreign TV
channels available through cable networks, a celebration of Valentine’s Day, and the great interest is shown especially by our young girls in copying western dresses are the things these people strongly object to.
Find out any two militaries allianced formed during the Cold War. Why did the super powers make alliance with smaller countries?
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) was established for the security of the West European countries. It came into existence in April 1949. It was a military organization of 12 countries. NATO declared that any attack on any member country or North America would be considered an attack on all of them. The members were required to help one : another in case of a military need. Brussels was its capital.
SEATO (South East Asian Treaty Organization): This * is an organization formed by America to prevent the influence of the Soviet Union and Communism in the South East Asian countries and the nearby Pacific regions. It was the progress that Communism was making in South East Asian countries that prompted America to form such an organization. It was formed in September 1954 and its headquarters is in Bangkok.
The question of why these superpowers had nuclear weapons and strong standing armies formed alliances with small countries around the world is very relevant. Even if all the small countries of Asia and Africa stood against the superpowers, they would not prove a threat to them. Even then they made alliances with the smaller countries for the following reasons:
- The small countries were rich in things like oil, minerals and raw materials. An alliance with them would allow the superpowers to get these things.
- The superpowers used smaller countries to make them their military bases. They also used them as centers for carrying out spy work.
- The small countries would be useful to the superpowers even economically. They collected money from smaller countries for military expenses.
A transition from communism to capitalism was not an easy one.’ In light of this statement examine the meaning and consequence of ‘shock therapy’.
The failure of the Soviet Union made many of its constituent countries abandon Communism and follow democratic ways. Russia, Asian countries, Easer European countries etc were attracted towards organizations like the World Bank and IMF.
- The main purpose was to make communist countries follow the capitalist model.
- Private capital would be very important.
- Cooperative farming will give way to private farming.
- Foreign investment, open market system and currency exchange would be possible
- The countries of the erstwhile Soviet Union will have the facility to have contact with Western countries and trade with them.
- Using all these, the Western countries made the member countries of the erstwhile Soviet Union come closer to them.
- Many big industries under government control collapsed.
- 90% industries were soldto individuals or private SL – companies.
- The Russian Currency Rouble was devalued.
- Because of inflation people lostthe value of their savings,
- in Cooperative farming, people.had food security. But now it was not there. Russia had to import food grains.
- In Russia, the GDP in 1999 was less than that of 1989.
- The social welfare schemes were abandoned.
- As subsidies were withdrawn, many people experienced poverty,
- Educational and intellectual human resources were scattered and many people emigrated.
- Privatization made economic inequality among
Write any four from the questions 21 to 26. Each question carries 5 scores. (4 x 5 = 20)
The Non- Traditional conceptions of security focus on the changing nature of threats to security. Point out any five new sources of threats and give a brief explanation of each.
Security threats are of a different kind now. They can be categorized as follows:
1. Terrorism: Political attacks make the life of ordinary citizens difficult. The terrorists want the political circumstances to change. They try to bring about changes by threats or armed attacks. By unleashing violence, they make the people restless. They try to make the dislike and discontentment of the people their weapon against governments. Their activities include hijacking planes and bombing trains and markets and other places where people assemble. They attacked and destroyed the World Trade Centre in New York’ on 11 September 2001. The government and the people are more cautious now against terrorists.
2. Human Rights: We see that throughout the world there are human rights violations. There is no unified thinking in any country about how to protect human rights. Recent incidents of human rights violations are the annexation of Kuwait by Iraq, the ethnic cleansing in Ruanda and the mass killings of the people of Eastern Timor by the Indonesian army. All these prompted world leaders to have a talk. The talk was about whether the UN should interfere in such matters. The matter is still unresolved.
3. Global Poverty: This is another factor of security threat. It is believed that the population in the under-developed countries will triple in 50 years. In countries where the population is low, the per capita income will be high. Therefore the economically advanced countries will prosper further whereas the poor countries wit! grow poorer. The gap between countries of the North and South will increase. People from the South ‘ countries immigrate to the North countries for a better life and earning This also creates a threat for the security of mankind.
4. Contagious Diseases: Contagious diseases are another threat to mankind. AIDS, bird flu, SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) etc. are dangerous contagious diseases. These spread quickly from one country to another. A country’s success or failure in controlling these diseases affects other countries also. Recently swine-flu spread all over the world it is when a problem becomes a threat to a nation and its people that it becomes an international security threat.
5. Migration: The poverty in the Southern countries led to large scale migrations to the Northern countries. Seeking better life and economic opportunities many people crossed the borders and went to the Northern countries. This created international struggles. International Laws specifically separate refugees and migrants. Migrants are those who live their motherland on their own. But refugees are those who are forced to leave their countries because of war. natural disasters or political persecutions. The norma! understanding is that every country should accept the immigrants. But it is not compulsory that every country should accept them.
Nehru played a crucial role in framing India’s foreign policy. Identify the major objectives of India’s foreign policy and explain the role of Nehru in shaping it.
The architect of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is Nehru, the first PM of India. As the PM. he also handled the Foreign Ministry portfolio. He played a major part in formulating and implementing the foreign policy of India from 1946 to 1964. There were 3 aims for his foreign policy:
- Maintain and protect the freedom that was got with hard struggle.
- Maintain the territorial unity of the country.
- Ensure a quick economic growth.
Nehru expected that ali these goals could be realized through the Non-Aligned Policy. Many people wanted India to become friendly with the Power Group led by the US. They argued that US-supported democracy. There were people like Ambedkarwho had such a view. Groups like Bhartiya Jan Sangh and the Swatantra Party, both of which had anti-communist views, also supported a pro-US policy. But Nehru ignored their demands and formulated quite an independent and practically foreign policy.
What was the reason for the emergence of Anti Arrack movement? How did it contribute in increasing overall social awareness about the issues that affect women?
It was in a village in Dubagunda in Nellur district in Andhra Pradesh that the Anti-Arrack Movement started. Many women took part in the adult education classes and became literate. In the classroom discussions, they talked about the increasing addition of their men-folk to local arrack. The habit of drinking arrack was widespread in the village. This addiction destroyed the mental and physical abilities of people.
The drinking habit of the people adversely affected the economic well-being of the region. Many families got into the debt trap. Men stopped going to work. There were also clashes between the arrack contractors to get a monopoly over the sales. Their goondas made peaceful life in the village difficult. The real victims of arrack addiction were women. The drinking habit of the men ruined the relations and economic wellbeing of the family Women were often beaten by their men-folk.
Women of Nellur got together to protest against the sale of arrack. They forced some arrack outlets to close down. This news spread like wildfire. Influenced by these actions, women from some 5000 villages held meetings and passed resolutions demanding the ban of arrack. They sent these resolutions to the collector. The arrack auction in Nellur had to be postponed 17 times. This Movement slowly spread to the other areas of the State.
’The process of partition was very difficult to implement and its consequence was painful’. Based on this statement explain the process of partition and its consequences.
The division of India was carried out on the basis of the Two-Nation Theory put forward by the Muslim League. According to that theory, in India there were two nations-the Hindus and Muslims. Therefore the Muslim League demanded a separate nation and Pakistan, for the Muslims The formation of Pakistan was based on the majority of the population of an area. Thus the areas which had Muslim majority became Pakistan and the remaining areas remained as Indian territory. It was not easy to implement such a division. There were three reasons for that. First of all in British India, there was not a single area which had only Muslims. There were two areas in which the majority was Muslims, one in the West and the other in the East. Therefore Pakistan was formed consisting of two areas – West Pakistan and East Pakistan. Between them there were large areas of Indian territory.
Secondly, not all areas with majority Muslim population wanted to become part of Pakistan. Khan Abdul Gaffer Khan, who was the leader of the North-Western Province had objected to the Two-Nation Theory. But ignoring his objection, the North-West Province was included in Pakistan.
The third problem was that British India’s Punjab and Bengal were areas with Muslim majority. But in these huge provinces, there were very many non-Muslims. Therefore the provinces were divided into Districts and Panchayats depending on the religious majority of the population there. The result was that on the day of Independence many people did not know to which country they belonged – India or Pakistan, It deeply wounded the people. The problem of the minorities in each country was the worst of all. The Hindus and Sikhs in the Pakistani areas and the Muslims in Punjab and Bengal were unfortunate preys to this division of the country. When the division was decided upon, there was large scale violence against the minorities in both the countries.
‘Reforms and improvement are fundamental to any organisation to serve the needs of changing environment. In light of the above statement examine the need for the reforms in UN structure and processes.
There has been a lot of support for the proposal to reform the structure and processes of the UN. The main demand is the expansion of the Security Council. In 1992, the UN General Assembly approved a resolution for this. The resolutions showed three reasons:
- The Security Council does not reflect contemporary political realities.
- The decisions of the Security Council reflect only the values and interests of the Western nations. A few nations control it.
- Countries don’t have adequate representation in the Security Council.
on 1 January 1997, Kofi Annan, the UN Secretary-General, started an inquiry into the need for a reorganization of the UN. Issues of election to the Security Council and reforming it was looked into. In later years also suggestions were given regarding the selection of Permanent members and non-Permanent Members to the Security Council. According to these suggestions, a new member nation should have the following criteria.
- An important economic power.
- An important military power.
- It should contribute significantly to the UN budget.
- It should be a country with a large population.
- It should be a country that has due respect for democracy and human rights.
- It should be a country that should be capable of representing the diversities of the world with regard to geography, economic systems and culture.
there’s a demand to increase the number of members from Asia, Africa and South America. America and other Western countries also demand some progress in the matter of budget and other administrative processes.
Some scholars and countries say that there should also be some reforms with regard to the jurisdiction of the UN. They want the UN to have a greater role in keeping peace and security. But others say the UN should give greater attention to things like humanitarian activities, health, education, environment, birth control, human rights and social justice.
There is difference in the approach to environmental issues between the countries of North and South, Under these circumstances, examine the meaning and the possibility of the implementation of the principle ‘Common but differentiated responsibility’.
There are differences in the approach between the Northern and Southern countries regarding the environment. The countries of the North say that environment problems Should be discussed as they are today and everyone should have equal responsibility. But the non-developed nations do not agree with this view.
They differ because:
- Most of the damage to the environment was caused by developed nations because of their industrial development.
- Since they are more responsible for the harm to the environment, the developed nations should bear more responsibility.
- moreover, the developing nations are passing through a stage of development. It is not right to impose the same restrictions on them as imposed on the developed nations.
They argued that whenever the conditions of the international environment laws are made and implemented their special requirements should be taken into consideration. The “Rio Declaration” of the 1992 Earth Summit approved these demands. It is called Common but Differentiated Responsibilities. The Rio Declaration says that all the countries must work together for the restoration of the wellbeing of the environment. When the part each nation has in damaging the environment is taken into consideration, it has common but differentiated responsibilities. The developed nations should recognize that they have a responsibility to help the efforts of the developing nations for sustainable development. The Rio Report points out that the developing nations can’t escape from that responsibility considering the pressure they put on global environment and the resources they have in their custody.
Write any two from the questions 27 to 29. Each question carries 8 scores. (2 x 8 = 16)
‘The Chinese economy has undergone several transformations.’ Identify the developmental strategy adopted by China and explain how it helped to be-‘ come an alternative centre of power.
The Growth of Chinese Economy China is the 3rd Centre of Power. In the current political scenario, an important event is the growth of China as an economic power. The success of China was the result of the reforms the Chinese Government started in’the 1970s. After the start of the reforms the growth of that country was fast and surprising. The last decades saw how the world markets were captured by Chinese manufactured goods. It is believed that by 2040, China will become the No 1 economy in the world even leaving the USA behind.
Let us see what the sources of strength are in China’s growth. Amain reason is the-collaboration with other Asian regions. This helped China to become a driving force of the East Asian growth and also a power to exert influence in regional affairs. The strength of the economy, population, large areas of land, resources, and strategic location and the political influence etc. add to the strength of China. However, the main reason for the current growth is the new liberal reforms that China enforced.
Following the 1949 Revolution, the Mao Government of the People’s Republic of China followed economic policies similar to those of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union had an extremely centralized economy, it was called Command System China accepted this one. China worked with the help and guidance from the Soviet Union and broke all ties with the capitalist world. Naturally, China had.to depend on its own resources t go forward. China followed the policy of using the profit made from agriculture for building heavy industries. China did not have foreign money to buy the machines and technology from the world market. In the. circumstances instead of importing goods from other countries, China depended on its own sources. The Soviet Model helped China to make a base for industrial economy using only local things. It ensured jobs and social” welfare to all the citizens. In giving education and health services to all concerned China reached in the primary position amongst the developing countries. The economy was growing 5-6% annually. To overcome the crises the economy was facing, China took some decisions in the 1970s. China ended its political and economic isolation. In 1972 China established relations with the USA. In 1973, Prime Minister Chou-en-Lai suggested Four Modernizations. They were suggestions to renew agriculture, industry, science and technology and army.
Revolutionary changes happened in China with the coming of Deng Xiaoping as the head of Chinese government. He tried to renew the economy without harming the authority o the Communist Party, in 1978 Deng declared an Open Door policy and economic reforms. Reforms like the liberalization of the economy, changes in the production of goods, market economy, private ownership etc. were included in them The policy aimed at increased production with the help of foreign capital and latest technology.
To bring about the market system, China followed its own policy. Deng and his team were not ready for shock treatment to the Chinese economic system, instead they made the economy slowly and slowly market-friendly. In 1982 agriculture was privatized. In 1998, industries. Trade restrictions and limitations were removed from Special Economic Zones (SEZs). Foreign investors were allowed to start industries there The State played a major role in building a market economy.
The “Market-Friendly Socialism” brought miraculous changes in China. The new economic policies rescued the economy from stagnation. The privatization of agriculture brought significant increases in the production and in agricultural Income. It caused unprecedented growth of village industries. The Chinese economy grew rapidly.
The new trade laws and SEZs led the country to increase its foreign trade greatly. China became the world’s most important venue for foreign investment. China increased its foreign reserves to such an extent that it could invest in other countries. Its foreign exchange reserve also increased. In 2001 China got membership of the World Trade Organization. It was a step in opening the doors of China to foreign traders. It helped China in boosting the collaboration with world economy and to make schemes to be a party to formulate the world economic system.
Thus China became an economic power that cannot be ignored in the regional as well as global level. Its economic relations with other countries developed mutual reliance. Relations with China became inevitable to the outside world. It helped China to exert influence on her trade partners. These economic. considerations have helped in reducing problems China had with Japan, the USA, ASEAN and Russia. The leadership thinks that the problems with Taiwan will be solved by welding its economy with its own. following the 1997 economic crisis, China contributed a lot to help the ASEAN economy. The fears that were created by the growth and supremacy were removed by this gesture. Her goodwill policies towards Latin America and Africa have made China a global power on the side of the third world.
Issues of regional aspirations are varied and complex in the politics of North East. Identify and explain the various issues of North East region,
The North-Eastern States have some geographical peculiarities. It was a region that was not closely linked to the rest of the country. It has long international orders, but communications facilities were less there. Its development was neglected to an extent and the problem was made complex by the emigrants that came from other places. In this complex situation, some complex demands were made:
- Demand for autonomy.
- Demand for independent nations.
- Enmity towards people from other places.
1. Demand for Autonomy: At the time of independence, except Manipur and Tripura, the entire North-Eastern region was just one State. After independence, the non-Assamese felt that Assamese language was imposed on them. Therefore they demanded political self-rule. The Adivasi leaders wanted to keep away from Assam. They formed “Eastern India Tribal Union”. Later it was known as “All Party Hill Leaders Conference”. They demanded one Adivasi State, but more Adivasi States like Meghalaya and Mizoram were formed. Even with this, their demand for self-rule did not end. The Bodos, Karbis and Dimasas etc. demanded their own States, The same area was demanded by more than one community. Because of that the only solution was forming tiny States. Some stayed in Assam and gained their right for self-rule. The Karbis and Dimasas were given self-rule at the District levef The Bodos were given their self-rule council very recently.
2. Secessionist Movement: India faced demands for secession from two North-Eastern States-Mizoram and Nagaland. After independence, Mizoram region within Assam itself was enjoying self-rule. But many of them thought that they were not part of British India and so there was no reason for them to join India. In 1959therewasaser30usfamjneinthe Mizo Hills. But the Assam government could not take appropriate measures to help.the suffering people there. This caused the formation of Mizo National march to the Parliament. It was the biggest rally the capital had ever seen. The Opposition saw in him an alternative to Indira Gandhi. Both the protests were anti-Congress. Voices also rose against the leadership of Mrs. Gandhi. She believed that all this was done to take revenge on her.
Dispute with the Judiciary; Another reason for the declaration of Emergency was Indira Gandhi’s dispute with the Judiciary. The Supreme Court said that some of the things the government did were against the Constitution. Congress argued that the Supreme Court judgment was against democracy and the authority of the Parliament. The Party said that the Court was standing against some welfare measures taken to help the poor people. The dispute was mainly in three things. Firstly, Can the Parliament change-the Fundamental Rights? The Court said no. Secondly, Can the Parliament change ownership of land’ Again the Court said no. Thirdly, the Parliament said that it had the right to reduce fundamental rights. It amended the Constitution. But the Supreme Court objected. All these were the reasons for the dispute between the Government and the Supreme Court.
There were FAD more reasons, in the Kesavananda Bharati case, the Supreme Court judged that the Parliament can’t change the basic structure of the Constitution. Soon the post of the Chief Justice became vacant. Normally the senior-most judge is appointed as the Chief Justice. But keeping aside 3 eligible Judges, the government-appointed A.N. Roy as the Chief Justice. This appointment became controversial. Besides, the Uttar Pradesh High Court declared the election of Indira Gandhi as null and void All these were the reasons for Mrs Gandhi to declare Emergency in June 1975.
Critically evaluate the various reasons for the declaration of National Emergency of 1975.
– Economic context
– Gujarat and Bihar movement
– Conflict with Judiciary
– Allahabad High Court verdict and protest from opposition