Plus Two Political Science SAY Question Paper 2015

Kerala Plus Two Political Science SAY Question Paper 2015

Question 1.
Identify the first non-Congress Prime Minister of India. (1)
Morarji Desai

Question 2.
“Milkman of India passed away” was an important news of recent national dailies. Can you identify the Milkman of India? Write a short note an White Revolution (2)
Varghese Kurian
Varghese Kurian was the Father the White Revolution of India. It was a scheme started in 1970 to bring revolutionary progress in the milk production of the country.

Question 3.
Congress Party in India had an accommodative character “At the time of Independence, the party transformed into a rainbow like social structure”. From the above statement analyse Congress functioned like a social and ideological coalition. (3)
My dear teacher, my dear students, the seminar paper I am presenting today is about the “Dominance of a Single Party in Indian Politics”. In all the 3 general elections after independence, the Congress won brutal majorities. There were some reasons for that.
a) Congress had led Independence struggle.
b) Congress was the only party which had spread all across India.
c) The popularity of Jawaharlal Nehru Because of all these reasons, Congress had expected victory. When the final results came, the astounding success of the Congress Party surprised everyone. It made all other parties lag much behind. It won 364 out of the 489 seats. The same was the case in the States. The exceptions to this were Travancore-Cochin, Madras and Orissa.

In the later two elections (1957,1962) also Congress repeated its success. Some people thought the victory of the Congress Party was because of the system of our election. This system was pro¬Congress. Although 3 out of 4 seats were won by the Congress, it did not have even the support of 56% of the voters. The votes polled by other parties were more than the votes polled by Congress. Now in this seminar, we examine how the votes and dominance of Congress became a landmark in the history of the country.

The dominant nature of Congress :
The dominance of Congress in India was an unusual event in world history. In many other countries democracy was not allowed to take roots. In countries like China, Cuba and Syria the Constitution envisaged one-party rule. But in India, the Congress stood firm on the democratic principles and was able to form governments. Although different parties competed in the free and fair elections, Congress came out first. There were some reasons for the unusual success of Congress.

It had the leadership in the freedom struggle. Secondly, it was the leaders who fought for freedom that stood as the candidates for election. Thirdly only Congress had a good organizational set up at that time. Only Congress had its presence in all the States of India and all this helped in Congress having the upper hand.

Congress as a social and ideological fellowship :
Another reason for the success of Congress was its social and ideological stands. In 1885, when it was formed, it included different social groups and ideologies. It grew as an organization of the intellectuals. But by the 20th century it became an organization for all kinds of people. It used to be a party.of the English-speaking elite in the cities. But with the coming of the Non-Cooperation Movement, its membership spread into the masses. Industrialists, city-dwellers, villagers, labourers, capitalists, etc. became members of the Congress Party.

Thus it became a party representing people at different levels, religions and languages. Many groups integrated themselves with the Congress. Thus Congress became a fellowship of ideologies. It included revolutionaries, peace-lovers, moderates, radials, and people of the left and right ideologies. The first election results itself showed the popularity of Congress.

Tolerance and attitude towards various groups: These two factors made Congress stronger. It had the character of a coalition: Two good things came out of this. First it became a party where all people could join. Amicable settlements to problems became the trademark of the party. Even during the Freedom Struggle itself the party had different leaders with different opinions but they could continue to work together in a spirit of give and take.

Even when a ‘ group did not get a post or position which it deserved, it stayed inside the party and fought for its rights without coming out of the party opposing it. They were called groups. This policy created problems for the Opposition. The things the Opposition was trying to highlight were pointed out by the Congress members themselves.

In short, the dedication the Congress had to democracy, its ability to include differing opinions within itself, and its tolerance of various groups enabled Congress to remain in the number one position for quite a long time. Its leadership during the freedom struggle and the popularity of Nehru proved big assets to the Party. As the functions of the Opposition Parties were carried out within the Party by the different groups, the Opposition became weak.

Question 4.
Match thefollowing:
(a) Deen Dayal Upadhyaya – Communist party
(b) C. Rajagopalachari – Bharathiya jana sangh
(c) AK. Gopalan – Congress
(d) MaulanaAzad – Swathantratha party
a) Bhartiya jana Sangh
b) Swatantra Party
c) Communist Party
d) Congress


Question 5.
Sardar Vallabhai Patel is popularly known as the ‘Iron Man of India’.Enumerate the role played by Patel in the annexation of Hyderabad. (4)
Independent India faced three kinds of challenges.

  1. Integrating India
  2. Ensuring the welfare of the people and development
  3. Establish the democratic system

1. Integrating India : When India got freedom, it had more than 500 Princely States. The rulers of these places wanted to get back their sovereignty when the British left. The government approached the Princely States keeping three things in mind.

  • The majority of people of the Princely States wanted to join Indian Union.
  • Giving some kind of self-rule to some Princely . States.
  • In the background of the division, we needed States with precision.

Integration :
Except Junagarh, Hyderabad. Kashmir and Manipur, all the Princely States signed in the Instrument of Accession and joined the Indian Union. Then through a referendum, Junagarh joined Indian Union. Because of popular uprising in Hyderabad against the Nizam, the Indian army took some action and got Hyderabad also into the Union.

The Congress Group in Manipur wanted to join the Union, but other parties objected. However, the Manipur king was persuaded and he too joined the Union. Kashmir King also signed the Instruction of Accession to save himself from the attacks of Pakistan and thus Kashmirtoo became part of India.

The division of the country into States on linguistic basis showed that it could accommodate all the diversities. The people can accept the diversities and live in unity. This is the strength of a country. The Telengana protest and the martyrdom of Potti Sriramulu should be remembered here.

b) Ensuring the welfare of people :
India was a poor country. The country has included provisions in the Constitution to ensure protection to the socially backward people, to religious and cultural minorities and to give all the people equality. Through Directive Principles, the Constitution shows us the way to eradicate poverty and to make the marginalized people come into the mainstream society. Five Year Plans : The country has a development model based on socialist principles. We have adopted a mixed economy accommodating both public and private sector enterprises.

c) Establishing democratic system :
Democracy was a discovery of foreigners. But the big thing was that we chose democracy in spite of the fact that India is a poor country and there are many illiterates here. The first election was called the greatest gamble in history by foreign media. A British member of the Civil Service said that the future generations would condemn this democratic process as a foolish enterprise.

The first Election Commission was formed with Dr. Sukumar Sen as the Commissioner, illiterate Indians were supposed to think in terms of caste and creed. But by making a voters’ list based on our secular system and equality, we succeeded in conducting a fair election and we were successful in our democratic experiment.

Question 6.
“Emergency declared in India in 1975 was a servere blow to Indian democracy.” Examine the circumstances which forced Indira Gandhi to declare emergency. (3)
After the 1971 election, Indira became a popular leader with a lot of support from the people. This time there were serious problems in the Party. There were three main reasons:
a) Economic Reasons
b) Gujarat & Bihar Movement
c) Dispute with the Judiciary
a) Economic Reasons :
The main slogan in the 1971 election was ‘garibi hatao’. But when the government came to power it could not improve the economic condition of the country. There were a number of reasons for that. First of all there was the refuge problem. Then there was the Bangladesh Crisis, followed by the Indo-Pakistan War. All these things created financial problems. Secondly, after the War, America stopped its aids to India.

Thirdly, there was a sharp increase in oil prices. The 4tfl reason was inflation which made the life of ordinary people very difficult. The 5th problem was negative growth in industrial output. Unemployment increased, especially in the rural sector. Sixthly, the salaries of government employees had to be reduced and even stopped. Seventhly, lack of rain caused serious shortfall in foodstuff.

All the above things created an economic crisis in the country. There was general discontentment in the country. This gave the Opposition Parties an opportunity to organise protests.

b) Gujarat and Bihar Movement :
The second biggest problem was the students’ protest in Gujarat and Bihar which were Congress-ruled States. The main reason was the increase in the prices of essential commodities. Shortage of food, unemployment and corruption made the students angry. In both these States the Opposition Parties supported the students. In Gujarat, Presidential Rule was imposed. At this time the main opponent of Indira Gandhi and the leader of Congress (O), Morarji Desai, decided to go on an indefinite hunger strike.

He did that for demanding elections in Gujarat. In June 1975, because of heavy pressure from various sources, election was conducted. Congress lost the election. In Bihar the students invited Jay Prakash Narayan to lead their protest. He accepted the invitation insisting that the protest must be non-violent. He asked for the dismissal of the Bihar government. He argued that there was a need for a revolution in social, economic and political spheres.

But the Bihar government refused to resign. The entire country discussed the issue. Jay Prakash Narayan wanted to spread the protest to all parts of the country. In the meantime the railway workers went on a strike. It would make the entire country come to a stand-still. In 1975, Jay Prakash Narayan organized a march to the Parliament. It was the biggest rally the capital had ever seen. The Opposition saw in him an alternative to Indira Gandhi. Both the protests were anti-Congress. Voices also rose against the leadership of Mrs. Gandhi. She believed that all this was done to take revenge on her.

c) Dispute with the Judiciary :
Another reason for the declaration of Emergency was Indira Gandhi’s dispute with the Judiciary. The Supreme Court said that some of the things the government did were against the Constitution. Congress argued that the Supreme Court judgement was against democracy and the authority of the Parliament. The Party said that the Court was standing against some welfare measures taken to help the poor people.

The dispute was mainly in three things. Firstly, Can the Parliament change the Fundamental Rights? The Court said no. Secondly, Can the Parliament change ownership of land? Again the Court said no. Thirdly, the Parliament said that it had the right to reduce fundamental rights. It amended the Constitution. But the Supreme Court objected. All these were the reasons for the dispute between the Government and the Supreme Court.

There were two more reasons. In the Kesavananda Bharati case, the Supreme Court judged that the Parliament can’t change the basic structure of the Constitution. Soon the post of the Chief Justice became vacant. Normally the senior most judge is appointed as the Chief Justice. But keeping aside 3 eligible Judges, the government appointed A.N. Roy as the Chief Justice. This appointment became controversial. Besides, the Uttar Pradesh High Court declared the election of Indira Gandhi as null and void. All these were the reasons for Mrs Gandhi to declare Emergency in June 1975.


Question 7.
Match the following:
(a) Anti-Arrack Movement – Medha Patkar
(b) Narmada BachaoAndolan – Uttarakhand
(c) Chipko Movement – Nellore
a) Nellore
b)Medha Patkar
c) Uttarakhand

Question 8.
DMK and AIADMK are the two main political parties in Tamil Nadu. These parties are the result of Dravidian Movements in the State.Enumerate the circumstances which give rise to the Dravidian Movement in Tamil Nadu. (3)
“Vadakku Vaazhkirathu, Thekku Thaeikirathu” was a slogan of the Dravidian Movement. This is first regional movement in India. Although the Movement wanted to establish a Dravidian Nation, it never resorted to any armed struggle. Using the democratic methods of propaganda and election, the Dravida Munnetta Kazhakam became a strong power.
Dravida Movement:
Dravida Kazhakam (DK) was formed by E.V. Ramaswami, known as ‘Periyor’. This Organization was against Brahmin supremacy and the political and economic supremacy of the Northern States. It was split later and thef DMK (Dravida Munneta Kazhakam) came into existence. In 1953 and 54 it made 3 big agitations and they made DMK an influential party in Indian politics.

  1. The first agitation was to change the name of a railway station. Kallakkudi railway station’s name was changed to Dalmiapuram. The DMK wanted to retain the name Kallakkudi.
  2. The second agitation was to make Tamil Cultural history as an important part of the school curriculum.
  3. The 3rd one was against the handicraft training in the schools. The DMK said that it had a Brahmin touch. The DMK made huge agitations against the plan of making Hindi as the sole official language. The 1965 anti-Hindi protests made DMK very famous. Now there are many Dravidian parties – DMK, AIDMK, Marumalarchi DMK, Pattali Makkal Kakshi, Desiya Moorpoku Dravida Kazhakam and so on. Some of them are known even outside Tamil Nadu.

Question 9.
“In December6,1992 Babri Masjid was demolished. This activity remains as a wound scar on the face of Indian Secularism.” Based on the above statement analyse critically, the consequences of the demolition of Babri Masjid over Indian secular polity. (3)
As soon as the news of the demolition of the Masjid came out there were heated arguments between Hindus and Muslims in many places. There were also conflicts between the two communities. That State Government was dismissed. In many States with BJP governments, Presidential rule was imposed. A case was filed against the Chief Minister of UP in the Supreme Court.

The case was for breaching the court verdict. BJP expressed its regret at the tragic incidents that took place. The Central Government appointed a Commission to study the circumstances which led to the demolition of the Mosque. Liberhan Commission submitted its report after 17 years of the incident.

Question 10.
Implementation of Five Year Plan had contributed much to the economic development of the country.
The 134 FYP gave importance to the agricultural sector. But the 2nd one stressed industrial development. This raised a question: for a country like India which is more important – agriculture or industry?

Those who supported the agricultural sector said that the 2nd FYP had no definite plan about the agricultural sector and industries might make things more difficult for the villagers. J.C. Kumarappa, a Gandhian economist, prepared a plan about industrialization.

Mr. Choudhary Charan Singh wanted greater stress to be given to the agricultural sector. He said that industrialization brings progress only to business and cities by preventing farmers and villagers from making progress. Supporters of industrialization had a different view. They claimed that only through industries and greater production the eradication of poverty would be possible.

They also claimed that there was a definite agricultural policy for the development of food crops. Through land reforms, poor villagers got land. Funds were made available for social welfare and irrigation. But these policies could not be carried out as planned. The main reason was the objection from big landowners who had political and social power. They felt that even if more money is spent on agriculture, it would not improve the lot of the villagers.

Question 11.
Critically examine the circumstances which led to the Chinese invasion of 1962. What were the main consequences of this war in Indian Politics? (7)
In the beginning India and China had cordial relations. It has a historical and cultural background. Nehru played a crucial role in making the relations better. India was the first country to recognize China after the Revolution. Nehru tried to help China in international matters. Because of these good relations, on the India-China border there were only paramilitary forces.

The Panchsheel Agreement as a big landmark out India-China relations. It was signed on April 29 by the PMs of both countries, Nehru of India and Chou- en-Lai of China. Nehru visited China and Chou-en- Lai visited India getting the love and respect of people. Nehru had an open-hearted approach to China. But people like Patel thought China was not a country to be believed. Nehru never expected any attack from China. But in 1962, China did attack India.

Two things spoiled the relations between India and China. One was the Tibetan Issue and the other was border disputes. Even in the 1950s when they were friends, India and China had border disputes. China was not ready to accept our suggestions regarding the border. China claimed Ladakh in Kashmir and some areas of Arunachal Pradesh to be theirs. During the period of 1957-59, they also took Aksai Chin sector and built the Karakoram Highway. The second issue was Tibet. In 1950, China annexed Tibet. It was a breach of faith, in the beginning India kept quiet.

But the Chinese started imposing their culture on the Tibetans. In 1959, the Tibetan Spiritual leader, Dalai Lama, sought refuge in India. China then accused India saying that India was acting against the interest of China. In October 1962 China infiltrated into Indian territories which it claimed to be hers. The first attack lasted a week. Chinese army occupied some place in Arunachal Pradesh. The next attack came a month later. But the Indian army stopped the Chinese in the western part of Ladakh. China declared a unilateral ceasefire and retreated from the places it had taken.


Question 12.
“The Movement against outsiders was a great threat to our national integrity.” How, the problems raised by this movement resolved in Assam? (3)
The North-Eastern States have some geographical peculiarities. It was a region that was not closely linked to the rest of the country. It has long international orders, but communications facilities were less there. Its development was neglected to an extent and the problem was made complex by the emigrants that came from other places. In this complex situation, some complex demands were made:

  1. Demand for autonomy.
  2. Demand for independent nations.
  3. Enmity towards people from other places.

1) Demand for Autonomy :
At the time of independence, except Manipur and Tripura, the entire North-Eastern region was just one State. After independence, the non-Assamese felt that Assamese language was imposed on them. Therefore they demanded political self-rule. The Adivasi leaders wanted to keep away from Assam. They formed “Eastern India Tribal Union”. Later it was known as “All Party Hill Leaders Conference”. They demanded one Adivasi State, but more Adivasi States like Meghalaya and Mizoram were formed.

Even with this, their demand for self-rule did not end. The Bodos, Karbis and Dimasas etc. demanded their own States. The same area was demanded by more than one community. Because of that the only solution was forming tiny States. Some stayed in Assam and gained their right for self-rule. The Karbis and Dimasas were given self-rule at the District level. The Bodos were given their self-rule council very recently.

2) Secessionist Movement Mizoram:
India faced demands for secession from two North-Eastern States – Mizoram and Nagaland. After independence, Mizoram region within Assam itself was enjoying self-rule. But many of them thought that they were not part of British India and so there was no reason for them to join India. In 1959 there was a serious famine inthe Mizo Hills. But the Assam government could not take appropriate measures to help the suffering people there.

This caused the formation of Mizo National Front (MNF) under the leadership of Lai Denga, From 1966, they started an armed struggle to get freedom. Pakistan aided them and gave them refuge in Eastern Pakistan. In the conflict many ordinary people were killed. This made the local people very angry.

In spite of the 20-year long resistance, no party made any gain. Then they had a rethinking. The exiled Lai Denga returned from Pakistan and started talks with Indian authorities. In 1986, a peace accord was signed between him and Rajiv Gandhi, Mizoram thus became a State with some special rights. MNF gave up their resistance.

Question 13.
Find the odd one out:
Medha Patkar, B.R. Ambedkar, Sundarlal Bahuguna, Mayilamma. (1)

Question 14.
Matching the following:
(a) Godhra Incident – Manmohan Singh
(b) B.S.P. – Gujarat
(c) U.P.A. – Kanshi Ram (3)
a) Gujatat
b) Kanshi Ram
c) Manmohan Singh

Question 15.
Identify the last President of U.S.S.R.
Mikhael Gorbachev

Question 16.
From 1945 to 1991, the world witnessed a peculiar type of war, which was termed as cold war. Explain briefly about the cold war. How it affected the security of the world? (4)
After the Second World War, America and Russia became the world’s two Superpowers. Their ideologies were different. Russia followed socialist principles whereas America followed capitalist principles and liberalization Both the countries possessed destructive atomic weapons. They could show their strength anywhere in the world. But their enmity was limited to the Cold War. They tried to expand their influence into different countries without actually fighting a war. After the Second World War the two countries were polarised. This was the start of the cold War.

Small nations wanted to be friendly with these Superpowers to get some benefits for themselves. They wanted to be assured of their security. They got weapons and also economic help. Both the Superpowers were able to keep the entire world in two distinct sides. This happened first in Europe. West European countries aligned with America. East European nations went with Russia. Thus there were “Western Alliance” and “Eastern Alliance”. Cuba followed Russian principles. Both the Superpowers wanted to enlist the support of small countries for many things:

  • To get oil and other minerals.
  • For making military camps.
  • For conducting spy work.
  • The small countries could afford to spend some money on the military.

The Cold War was always a threat because any time a real hot war could break out. With the nuclear arsenals both the Groups possessed, the world was in real danger

Question 17.
Expand the abbreviation ASEAN. Name the pillars and objectives of the ASEAN community. (4)
Association of South East Asian Nations. It was formed in 1967 with a declaration made in Bangkok. The members of ASEAN are Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos and, Brunei. Its main goals are quick economic growth among the member nations, social and cultural progress, peace and stability in the region and providing opportunities for member countries to solve their mutual problems peacefully.

Question 18.
The painful process of transition from socialist system to democratic capitalist system of Soviet Union and its socialist allies was known as . (1)
Shock Therapy.

Question 19.
The three kinds of U.S. Hegemony are as follows:
(a) Hegemony as hard power
(b) Hegemony as structural power
(c) Hegemony as soft power
Give two examples each for the three kinds of U.S. Hegemony in world politics. (6)
World nations try to gain and maintain dominance over others by using military, economic and cultural power. During the Cold War the fight was between the Soviet Union and America. With the disintegration of the Soviet, Union America remains the only Superpower. Dominance or hegemony is attained through three things:

  • Hard Power
  • Structural Power .
  • Soft Power

Hard Power:
This includes military power and the relations between nations. Today America is in the forefront of military power. There is nobody to challenge its military might. It has the capacity to reach any corner of the world any moment. They spend a major part of their budget to maintain this position. They spend huge sums of money for research and technological developments. It is technology that keeps America in the forefront. With their military might they are even ready to police the world, and punish the culprits.

Structural Power:
This dominance is based on the economic structure. The global economic system relies on America. If America helps the global economic system, it is mainly for their benefits and profits. But America does a lot of good things for the world . For example, communication channels through the oceans. Merchant ships travel through sea routes and America has much authority on the water transport system. It is the American navy that keeps the sea-routes safe for ships.

The next is the Internet. In fact it was an American military project. It was started in 1950. Today the global network functions using satellites. Most of them belong to America. 28% of the world economy is controlled by America. 15% of the international trade is also done by them. In any economic sector, at least one of out of three biggest companies will be American. The world economic structure follows the Breton Woods style of America. The World Bank, I.M.F. and World Trade Organization etc. are examples of American supremacy in world business and finance.

Now comes another example  the MBA degree. It was America that made this course and the degree so popular. It was Americans who discovered that business is a profession that could be taught. The first Business School was established in Pennsylvania in 1881. Its name was Wharton School. Today in all countries MBA has become a prestigious degree.

Soft Power :
This is the ideological and cultural dominance. America has become the model for all other nations and they try to copy America. In weak countries, America is able to make the people like its culture. We all speak highly of the American life style and personal success. America is number one in the world. By using ‘soft power, and not force, America is able to achieve this dominance over the world.

Question 20.
List out the member nations of SAARG. Analyse and prepare a short note on the role and limitations of SAARC as a forum for facilitating economic cooperation among South Asian countries. (4)
Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Mali, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

  • They are not able to solve regional problems.
  • Not all countries cooperate in the economic field.
  • The countries are not united in their efforts to right terrorism.
  • They don’t work together for self-sufficiency.


Question 21.
According to the supporters of Globalisation “Three is no alternative to Globalisation”. Do you agree with this concept? Substantiate your arguments. (3)
Globalization is a controversial issue. Therefore it is also criticised greatly. Here are some major criticisms.
1)  The Left-leaning people argue that globalization represents a certain capitalist point of view. Moreover, it makes the rich richer and the poor poorer. Weak governments can’t look after the interests of the masses.
2) Those who support the political rights of the people think that changes may come in their social,  cultural and political spheres. They are worried about 3 things:

  • They fear that globalization weakens the government.
  • They want self-sufficiency in economy, but they want to keep some things as their own.
  • They think it will harm their traditional culture.

Question 22.
What do you mean by‘Global Commons’? How they are exploited and polluted? (3)
Some places or areas do not fall under the sovereignty of any country. In this condition, the UN had to come forward to protect them. These are collectively known as “Global Commons”. The earth’s atmosphere, Antarctica, the bottom of the seas, space etc. come
in this category. The responsibility to protect these is not that easy. The reasons for that:

  • There are some complex Agreements which include the Antarctic Treaty of 1959, the Montreal Protocol of 1987, and the 1991 Antarctic Environmental Protocol.
  • On the basis of not-co-clear scientific proofs, it is difficult to carry out the Environmental Agenda within a limited time. In the 1980s, some holes’ were discovered in the ozone layer in the Antarctic region. Such discoveries are opportunities to solve the environmental problems and, at the same time, they are also great challenges.
  • From the use of the space, we can clearly see the inequalities between Global North and Global South.
  • Technical and industrial development is the main problem when it comes to ocean floors.

Question 23.
Traditionally the notion of security was confined only to disarmament, military pacts etc. Now-a-days the concept of security had underwent changes.Find out the non traditional sources of security and identify the distinction between traditional and non- traditional security issues. (4)
Security is of two kinds – internal and external. A country may face security threats from inside or outside the country. Traditionally we think threats from outside are the greater ones. It will affect the sovereignty of the nation. It will affect its freedom and border security. It will affect the lives of the people. Such a threat is external. There are many ways for a government to face such treats:

  • Surrender
  • Increase the defence expenditure and prevent others from attacking.
  • Once the war starts, defend the country.

Some governments prefer the option of surrender when there is a war. But they will never declare it as a policy. For security there are 4 traditional ways:
1) Prevent the war – this is the first factor.
2) Defence – control the war or end it.
3) Balance of Power – This is a traditional way of ensuring security.-Making alliances and counter-alliances, maintaining the country’s strength, intervening and not intervening, leaving a no man’s land between countries, dividing and ruling, etc. are of the traditional ways.
4) Sign Treaties:
Nations often form joint alliances. This is done to prevent any external attack and defend in case of attacks. Almost all alliances are formed by signing written agreements. The member countries will have a clear understanding as to who is the common enemy. Nations are more concerned with external threats than internal ones. Internal security is also essential. Prior to the World War, the internal security of many powerful nations was much less because they did not give it much importance.

Because of the Cold War, nations gave preference to external threats. It was in the colonies that there were more internal security problems. It was because of the people’s desire for freedom. The newly formed Asian and African countries had to face a lot of internal and external threats. Military attacks by neighbouring countries, army revolts, moves for secession etc. were common. Whenever a nation desires for freedom, such things are common there.

Traditional Security and Cooperation :
For traditional security, cooperation is very important. Everybody knows that attacks can be prevented by cooperation. Some things are recommended to ensure cooperation. They are:

a) Armament and military supplies should be controlled or reduced :
There should be adequate reasons for nations to resort to wars. War is alright in self defence, to resist attacks or to save people from racial killings. Wars should be controlled or limited. People who are not engaged in wars should not be harmed or killed. Those who have surrendered must not be harmed. Only when all other doors are closed, nations should resort to war.

b) Disarmament:
There are 3 ways for cooperation: disarmament, arms limitation and building confidence. Disarmament means not making and stockpiling arms and avoiding the use of biological, chemical and nuclear weapons.

c) Arms Limitation :
This involves controls for keeping arms like ballistic missiles and their development.

d) Building confidence :
A major step in building confidence is the exchange of ideas and information with enemy countries. Thus you tell your opponents that you are not going to make a surprise attack on them. The advantage is that no country will start the attack on some misunderstanding.


Question 24.
As a citizen of India, how do you support India’s candidature for the permanent membership of the Security Council of UNO? Justify your proposal. (6)
The UNO should be reformed according to the needs of time. The circumstances today are quite different from the time when UNO was originally formed. The problems facing the world should be solved in a peaceful manner. No country should do the policing of the world. The world is threatened with terrorism. It has to be wiped out. Forthat the developing nations . should have a proper representation in the UN. The demand of India to be a Permanent Member of the Security Council is quite a logical and legitimate one. India fulfills all the criteria to be a permanent member. It demands permanent membership on the following grounds:

  • It has the world’s second largest population.
  • It is the largest democracy in the world.
  • India has participated in the UN activities since its inception.
  • It has long relations with the UN Peacekeeping force.
  • India’s economic situation is improving.
  • India gives regularly to the UN budget. It has never defaulted on any payment.

The above reasons are good enough for India to get a permanent membership in the UN Security Council. Permanent membership has its own significance. India’s importance will increase in world matters. Our foreign policy will influence others.

Plus Two Political Science Previous Year Question Papers and Answers