Plus Two Political Science SAY Question Paper 2016

Kerala Plus Two Political Science SAY Question Paper 2016

Maximum Score: 80 Scores
Time: 2 1/2 Hours
Cool-Off Time : 15 Minutes

Question 1.
Write a note on the consequences of the Partition of India into India and Pakistan. (4)
The division of British India in 1947 into India and Pakistan was a very tragic incident in history. In the border areas many people on both sides were killed because of their religion and caste. Huge cities like Lahore, Amritsar and Calcutta became religious areas. Muslims avoided going to areas of Hindus and Sikhs. Similarly Hindus and Sikhs did not want to go near the Muslim areas. People were forced to flee their homes, suffering a lot of difficulties on their way. Many of the people in the minorities in the border areas had to live in refugee camps.

The governments and the police were not there to help them. People had to walk or ride in some vehicles from their homes to their new places. During the journey, many were attacked and killed; women were raped. Many were forced to accept the majority religion and marry people against their will.

In many homes women were killed by their own relatives in the name of honour. Children were separated from their parents and guardians. People who came to the new land had no houses and they had to live in refugee camps. Not only the land, but even moveable properties like tables and chairs were divided. The government and railway workers were divided. People who were living like brethren were divided. It is believed that between 5 to 10 lakh people lost their lives in this tragic division of the country.

Question 2.
Examine the purpose for which the State Reorganisation Commission was constituted and its major recommendations. (2)
The State Reorganization Commission was established to determine the boundaries of 14 States 6 and 6 Union Territories.After Independence, the nation was reorganized on the basis of language. On 2 December 1953, the then Prime Minister informed the Lok Sabha about the appointment of such a Commission. The Head of this Commission was Fazal Aii. The Commission recommended that he States must be reorganized on the basis of language and culture.

Question 3.
Match Column A with B and C. (4)

A-Political Party B- Leader C – Ideology
1. Bharathiya Jana Sangh i) B.R. Ambedkar a) One Country one culture and one nation
2. Independent Labour Party ii) A.K. Gopalan b) Revolutionary Socialism
3. Swathantra Party iii) C.Rajagopalachari c) Less Control over Economy
4. Communist Party of India iv) Shyama Prasad Mukherjee d) Justice to the Dalits


Bhartiya Sangh Shyama Prasad Mukherjee One country, one culture, one nation
independent Labour Party B.R. Ambedkar Justice for Dalits
Swatantra ‘ Party C. Rajagopalachari Less control on markets
Communist Party A.K. Gopalan Revolutionary Socialism

Question 4.
What was the thrust area of Second Five Year Plan? Narendra Modi Government also follows this thrust area but with some differences. Write these differences and similarities. (4)
Thrust Areas of the 2nd FYP .

  • Industrialization
  • Stress to the Public Sector
  • The ideas of P.C. Mahaianobis
  • Large Scale Industries
  • The period was from 1956 to 1961

Difference: The Private sector is given preference.
Similarity : Industrialization has been stressed.


Question 5.
Since Independence India follows the policy of Non-Alignment as a principle of foreign policy. Write the features of this policy and evaluate its relevance in the contemporary international politics. (5)
After the Second World War, the world was divided, into two hostile groups. Each power got into military . pacts with other countries. NATO, CEATO, CENTO, Warsaw Pact, etc. are examples. NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) is the coalition of Western countries. It was formed in 1949. It has 12 members. They declared if any of these 12 countries was attacked by another country, all the 12 countries would consider it as an attack on all of them. They are obliged to help one another. The Eastern Alliance Block is known as Warsaw Pact. It is led by Russia.

It was begun in 1955. It is main function is resisting the NATO Powers.Some countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America decided not to join any block. This led the start of the NAM (Non-Aligned Movement). In 1956 three leaders held a meeting. The leaders were Josif Bros , Tito of Yugoslavia. Jawaharlal Nehru of India and Gamal Abdul Nasser of Egypt. Sukarno of Indonesia and Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana supported these three leaders strongly. These five leaders are the Founders of NAM. It is first summit was in Belgrade in 1961.

Question 6.
Examine the factors which led to the increasing popularity of Indira Gandhi’s Government in early 1970s.

  • Started certain poverty eradication schemes.
  • The slogan “Garibi Hatao’ became very popular.
  • Privy Purse was stopped.
  • Intensified nationalization.
  • Land-ceiling was fixed and carried out.
  • Started many schemes with the intention of making the life of the backward classes better.


Question 7.
Briefly narrate the significance of Presidential Election of 1969. (3)
When Dr. Zakir Hussain died in 1969, there was election for the President. During this election the difference between Indira Gandhi and the Syndicate came in the open. The Syndicate nominated Mr .Sanjeeva Reddy. Indira Gandhi supported the then Vice President V.V. Gir.i as an independent candidate. It was around this time that she; nationalized 14 banks and stopped the Privy Purse given to the rulers of the Princely Sates. Morarji Desai opposed both these actions.

He resigned from the Ministry. In the Presidential election, the Congress President N. Nijalingappa asked the Congress MPs and MLAs sto vote for N. Sanjeeva Reddy. Silently supporting V.V. Giri, Indira asked the MPs and MLAs to vote according to their conscience.

Ultimately V.V. Giri was elected President. The failure of the official candidate to win, split the Party. The Party ousted Indira Gandhi. But she claimed the real party was her party. The Congress Party of the Syndicate was called Congress (O) and the Congress Party of Indira was called Congress (R). (O) meant Organization and (R) meant Requisitionist. Indira Gandhi termed this division as an ideological division between Socialists and Conservatives and the poor and the rich.

Question 8.
What do you mean by National Emergency? Discuss its effect on civil liberties of citizens. Do you consider this emergency provision in the Constitution is necessary for contemporary Indian society? Justify your argument. (4)
As the internal problems became worse, in June 1975, Indira Gandhi declared Emergency in the country. It can be said that the declaration of Emergency was an attack on the individual or personal freedom of the people.With the declaration of the Emergency, people faced many problems. Their rights and freedoms were denied. There was no use approaching the Courts for getting one’s freedom or right enforced. At this time the Government itself started doing things against democracy.The provisions related to the Emergency in the Constitution must be subjected to rethinking. Emergency is a trespass on the rights of the people. It is not a good thing in a democratic country.

Question 9.
Discuss the consequences of Anti-Arrack Movements in Andhra Pradesh. (4)
In the 1990s, many women in Nellur in Andhra became literate. In the class, women spoke about the drinking habits of their men-folk. Drinking alcohol causes both ‘physical and mental harm. It also adversely affects the economic situation of the family. Men do not go to work. The manufacturers of various kinds of alcoholic beverages make money by using all sorts of illegal means. It is the women that suffer because of the drinking habit of men.

The women in Nellur protested against alcoholism and forced a wine shop to close down. This news spread like wild fire into some 5000 villages. They held meetings and passed resolutions and sent them to the Collectors. The arrack auction in Nellur had td be postponed 17 times. The protest in Nellur spread to the rest of the State.In short, where government s and political parties failed, such social movements won.

Question 10.
Match Column A with B and C. (3)

A – Regional Aspirations B – States C – Leaders
(1) Socio-religious identity leading to statehood. (i) Mizoram (a) Master Thara Singh
(2) Linguistic identity and tension with Centre (ii) Punjab (b) Laldenga
(3) Secessionist demands on account of tribal identity. (iii) Tamil Nadu (c) E.V.Ramaswami Naicker


  1. Punjab-MasterThara Singh
  2. Tamil Nadu – E. V. Ramaswami Naicker
  3. Mizoram – Laldenga

Question 11.
Identify the Constitutional provision linking Indian Constitution and the State of Jammu and Kashmir.(1)
Article 370


Question 12.
In the midst of severe competition and many conflicts, a consensus has emerged among most of the political parties in India. This consensus is mainly in four areas.Write these four areas and analyse how this consensus will affect Indian politics. (6)

  1. Common agreement on new economic policy.
  2. Realization of the role of the regional parties.
  3. Recognition of the demands of the members of the Backward Classes.
  4. Comprehensive changes in politics.

Question 13.
What do you mean by Cold War? Examine the reason for its growth and decay. (4)
The Cold War was not merely equalizing power between the two superpowers. It also meant clear ideological conflict between them. After the WW II, America and Russia emerged as the two superpowers in the world. Their ideologies were different. Russia followed Communist Socialist principles. America supported liberalism and capitalism. Both possessed highly destructive atomic and nuclear weapons. They should show their presence anywhere in the world. But their conflict remained in the Cold War. Both tried to spread their ideologies in different parts of the world without actually making a real fight. After the World War II, the two powers got polarised in opposite camps.

Question 14.
Examine the consequences of the disintegration of the Soviet Union in global politics. (4)

  1. End of Cold War.
  2. The start of the American hegemony.
  3. The formation of new National States,
  4. The fall of socialist countries.

Question 15.
After the end of cold War, U.S.A. exercises hegemony over the world in three ways. Narrate these ways with examples. (6)
World nations try to gain and maintain dominance over others by using military, economic and cultural power. During the Cold War the fight was between the Soviet Union and America. With the disintegration of the Soviet, Union America remains the only Superpower. Dominance or hegemony is attained through three things:

  1. Hard Power
  2. Structural Power
  3. Soft Power

Hard Power:
This includes military power and the relations between nations. Today America is in the forefront of military power. There is nobody to challenge its military might. It has the capacity to reach any corner of the world any moment. They spend a major part of their budget to maintain this position. They spend huge sums of money for research and technological developments. It is technology that keeps America in the forefront. With their military might they are even ready to police the world, and punish the culprits.

Structural Power:
This dominance is based on the economic structure. The global economic system relies on America. If America helps the global economic system, it is mainly for their benefits and profits. But America does a lot of good things for the world. For example, communication channels through the oceans. Merchant ships travel through sea routes and America has much authority on the water transport system. It is the American navy that keeps the sea-routes safe for ships.

The next is the internet. In fact it was an American military project. It was started ip 1950. Today the global network functions using satellites. Most of them belong to America. 28% of the world economy is controlled by America. 15% of the international trade is also done by them. In any economic sector, at least one of out of three biggest companies will be American. The world economic structure follows the Breton Woods style of America. The World Bank, I.M.F. and World Trade Organization etc. are examples of American supremacy in world business and finance.

Now comes another example – the MBA degree. It was America that made this course and the degree so popular. It was Americans who discovered that business is a profession that could be taught. The first Business School was established in Pennsylvania in 1881. Its name was Wharton School. Today in all countries MBA has become a prestigious degree.

Soft Power:
This is the ideological and cultural dominance. America has become the model for all other nations and they try to copy America. In weak countries, America is able to make the people like its culture.We all speak highly of the American life style and personal success. America is number one in the world. By using ‘soft power, and not force, America is able to achieve this dominance over the world.

Question 16.
Match Column A with Column B and C. (3)

A – Name of State B – Name of Organisation C – Year
(1) Germany, France, Italy (i) ASEAN (a) 1985
(2) Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines (ii) E.U. (b) 1992
(3) Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh (iii) SAARC (c) 1967


Germany, France, Italy European Union 1992
Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines ASEAN 1967
Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh SAARC 1985

Question 17.
Briefly narrate the reasons for the growth of Chinese economy. (3)
There are many reasons for the growth of the Chinese economy.

  • Open economic system
  • Privatization
  • Instead of importing things, internal production was encouraged.
  • Globalization process


Question 18.
Evaluate the role of South Asian Trade Agreement in , – establishing peace and security in South Asia. (3)
The idea of SAFTA was that peace and cooperation will flourish if there are cross-the-border trade and commerce. Although the Agreement was signed in 2004, it came into force only in to reduce the commercial tax rate up to 20% in 2007. Buy many neighbouring countries thought that through SAFTA India was trying to penetrate their markets and spread its influence into their politics and social life. But India thinks SAFTA will benefit all economically and they also will get cooperation in all the political issues.

Question 19.
‘Changes in the world outside have been reflected in UN General Assembly but not in Security Council.’ In the light of the above statement, narrate your views on India’s demand for a permanent seat in UN Security Council. (4)
The demand of India to be a Permanent Member of the Security Council is quite a logical and legitimate one. India fulfills all the criteria to be a permanent member. It demands permanent membership on the following grounds:

  • It has the world’s second largest population,
  • It is the largest democracy in the world.
  • India has participated in the UN activities since its inception.
  • It has long relations with the UN Peacekeeping force.
  • India’s economic situation is improving.
  • India gives regularly to the UN budget. It has never defaulted on any payment.

The above reasons are good enough for India to get a permanent membership in the UN Security Council. Permanent membership has its own significance. India’s importance will increase in world matters. Our foreign policy will influence others.

Question 20.
Match the following. (2)

(i) Confidence building measures (a) Giving up of certain type of weapons
(ii) Arms control (b) Exchanging information on defence matters on regular basis.
(iii) Alliance (c) A coalition of nations against military attack.
(iv) Disarmament (d) Regulate acquisition or development of weapons


(i) Confidence building measures  (b) Exchanging information on defence matters on regular basis.
(ii) Arms control  (d) Regulate acquisition or development of weapons
(iii) Alliance (c) A coalition of nations against military attack.
(iv) Disarmament  (a) Giving up of certain type of weapons

Question 21.
Narrate the concept of ‘Global Security.’ (2)
Global security is the need of the time. Global security is as essential as individual security. By Global security it meant that the entire world should be safe from all kinds of threats it faces.

Global warming, international terrorism, AIDS, Bird- flu etc. are problems that caused the world to sit down and think of global security. This idea came in the 1990s. A single country working alone can’t solve these problems. It is in this context the necessity and relevance of the global security is felt.

Question 22.
Match the following. (2)

i) Antarctic Treaty a) 1991
ii) Montreal Protocol b) 1997
iii) Antarctic Environmental Protocol c) 1959
iv) Kyoto Protocol d) 1987


i) Antarctic Treaty  b) 1997
ii) Montreal Protocol  d) 1987
iii) Antarctic Environmental Protocol c) 1959
iv) Kyoto Protocol  a) 1991

Question 23.
Write a brief note on economic and cultural consequences of globalization. (4)
Globalization has far-reaching economic and cultural effects.
Cultural Effects :
Globalization has influenced the economic results greatly. World Bank, IMF, WTO, etc. play big roles. All these are controlled mainly by America and its allies. The world economy itself has come under their influence. In this, are thinking is necessary. It is high time we found out who the beneficiaries of globalization are. As a result of globalization, import controls are reduced or removed. He developed nations can now invest their capital in the developing countries.

Investing in the developing countries is more profitable. Technologies develop without any limits of borers. Bur regarding the movement of people, the developed nations have made certain rules. Their countries are kept safe from foreign workers through the policy of Visa. Because of the visa rules, the jobs of their citizens are not taken away by emigrants.

Cultural Results :
Globalization opens the way for the globalization of cultures. Globalization is the flow of things from one country to another. This flow is of different kinds. Ideas can floe from one country to another. It should be the flow of things. It could be flow of people from one country to another seeking better opportunities and better life.

The effects of globalization do not limit themselves to the economic and political fields alone. It affects even the house we live in, the food we eat, our drinks, our dresses and even the way we think. There are people that globalization might become so effective that there may emerge a uniform global culture. In reality this global culture is nothing but the western culture. This brings a challenge not only to the poor countries but to the entire mankind. It means the rich heritages of various, divergent and individual cultures will ultimately lose their lustre and simply be forgotten in the shine of the global culture. However, some people feel that the adverse effect of cultural globalization is an exaggerated one. To them culture is not something that stands still, but it changes with the progress of time. All cultures absorb the good things from other cultures.

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