Kerala Plus Two Political Science Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 1 The Cold War Era
Find the odd one.
a. A- Nato – Spain. France, Britan, West Germany, East Germany.
b. Warsaw Pact – East Germany, Poland, West Ger-many, Romania, Hungary.
a. East Germany
b. West Germany
The Cold War Crisis intensified the Cold War tensions. Identify the NAM leader who tried to normalise this crisis.
Identify the political leader who captured the power in Cuba during 1959.
Who was the ruler of USSR during the Cuban Missile Crissis?
Who was the ruler of USA during the Cuban Missile Crisis?
John F. Kennedy
Odd man out.
NATO, ASEAN, SEATO, CENTO
One comer of each square & triangle is left blank. Find it. ……………
Odd one out.
Founding fathers of NAM
a – Nazar
b – Khrushchev
c – Nehru
d – Tito
b – Khrushchev
Arrange the following in a chronological Order.
a. Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
b. Fail of the Berlin wall
c. Disintegration of the USSR
d. Russian Revolution
The fall of symbolises the end of cold war.
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
Arrange in Chronological order.
a) Disintegration of Soviet Union
b) Russian Revolution
c) American aggression on Afganistan
d) Fall of Berlin Wall
e) Cuban Missile Crisis
f) The terrorist attack on World Trade Centre
b, e, a, d, f, c
Expand the following
NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NlEp-New International Economic Order
SEATO – South East Asia Treaty Organization
CENTO – Centra) Treaty Organization
Strategic’Arms Reduction Treaty
d) Warsaw Pact Find out the Soviet controlled Military alliance from the above list.
d. Warsaw Pact
Which among the following statements about gold war is wrong?
a) It was a competition between the US and USSR and their respective allies.
b)It was an ideological war between the super powers.
c) It triggered off an arms race.
d) The US and USSR were engaged in direct wars.
The US and the USSR were engaged in direct wars.
1 Which among the following statements does not refled the objectives of NAM?
a. Enabling newly decolonized countries to pursue independent policies.
b. Not joining any military alliances. .
c. Following a policy of ‘neutrality’ on global issues.
d. Focus on elimination of global economic inequalities.
c. Focus on elimination of global economic inequalities
Mark correct or wrong against each of the following statements that describe the features of the military alliances formed by the superpowers.
a. Member countries of the alliance are to provide bases in their respective lands for the superpowers.
b. Member countries to support the superpowers both in terms of ideology and military strategy.
c. When a nation attacks any member country, it is considered as an attack on all the member countries.
d. Super powers assist all the member countries to develop their own nuclear weapons.
Here a list of countries. Write against each of these the bloc they belonged to during the Cold War.
e. North Korea
f. Sri Lanka
d. Non-Aligned Movement
f. Non-Aligned Movement
Even though Cuba is a small country the world super power America is affraid of it and they arranged ClA to Jdlj the Prudent of Cuba. Can you evaluate, the circumstances that led to, this situation.
Most North-Western countries became capitalist, anti-Communist nations. A big power like America could not easily tolerate a neighbouring country becoming a close ally of Communist Russia. As Cuba got financial and diplomatic support from Russia, it became a strong country, although it was small in size. It faced America without fear. In 1962, the Russian leader Khrushchev wanted to deploy missiles and other armaments in Cuba. Most American cities then would come under threat from Russia. Later this was known as the Cuban Missile Crisis. In the circumstances, America was forced to take strict measures against Russia. America wanted to get the Cuban President killed with the help of the CIA. It wanted to stop the growth of Communism it its neighbourhood.
The post II world war witnessed the competition between the winners of the war such as USA and USSR. For example, Cuban Missile Crisis, Formation of Alliances etc… Evaluate the above mentioned incidents with the name given to this competition; and explain the effect of this development in the world order.
After the Second World War, America and Russia became the world’s two Superpowers. Their ideologies were different. Russia followed socialist principles whereas America followed capitalist principles and liberalization. Both the countries possessed destructive atomic weapons. They could show their strength anywhere in the world. But their enmity was limited to the Cold War. They tried to expand their influence into different countries without actually fighting a war. After the Second World War the two countries were polarised.
Small nations wanted to be friendly with these Super powers to get some benefits for the selves. They wanted to be assured of their security. They got weapons and also economic help. Both the Super-powers were able to keep the entire world in two distinct sides. This happened first in Europe. West ] European countries aligned with America. East European nations went with Russia. Thus there were “Western Alliance” and “Eastern Alliance”. Cuba fol-lowed Russian principles. Cuba had a threat from the USA and so it requested for Russian help and got it. In 1962, Khrushc’ JV deployed missiles in Cuba] Kennedy, the American President, took immediate action. He blocked the Russian ships and warned Russia of grave consequences if it did not remove its missiles from Cuba. The world worried that there could a war. This is known as the Cuban Missile Crisis. Both sides tried to avoid a nuclear war. The Russian ships went back. The situation is known as the Cold War. However, the world divided itself into two rival groups.
Fill up the table given below with suitable answer.
England, Cuba, China, France, Yugoslavia, Egypt.
a. b-England c-France
b. b-China c-Cuba
c. b. Yugoslavia c-Egypt
The post 11 world War period was a period of polarization in the world. The following are some alliances or organizations that created polarization NATO, War. saw Pact, NAM. Give brief explanations regarding them.
After the Second World War the world was polarised into two distinct rival groups. Each Superpower got into military alliances with friendly countries. NATO, SEATO,CENTO, Warsaw Pact etc. were examples. NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) was formed in April 1949 by the Western Alliance countries. It had 12 members. They declared that if any member country was attacked it would mean attack on all the 12 countries. They were obliged to help one another. The Eastern Alliance was known as Warsaw Pact. Russia is the leader here. It came into existence in 1955. Its main objective was to oppose NATO.
Many countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America decided not to join any Superpower. This paved the way for the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM). In 1956 there was a meeting among three leaders – Josif BrozTito of Yugoslavia, Jawaharlal Nehru of India and Gamal Abdul Nasser of Egypt. Sukarno of Indonesia and Kwame Nkruma of Ghana strongly supported them. These five leaders are the founding fathers of NAM. in 1961 it held its first summit in Belgrade.
Mainly three things helped in the formation of NAM:
a. Mutual cooperation among these five countries.
b. It was a period when Cold War was bringing its tensions.
c. Many African countries got their freedom at this time. By I960, sixteen new African nations became members of the UN. The first Summit of the NAM was attended by 25 countries. Later more countries joined it. The 14th Summit was in Havana in 2006. It was attended by 116 nations and 15 observing nations. Now NAM is a prestigious international organization.
During the period of Cold War the super powers competed themselves for offering helping hand to the smaller states. Critically evaluate the hidden objectives behind this attitude.
Both the Superpowers wanted to enlist the support of small countries for many things:
- To get oil and other minerals.
- For making military camps.
- For conducting spy work.
- The small countries could afford to spend some money on the military.
Fill up the time line showing the Cold War tensions
- Fall of the Berlin Wall
- Cuban Missile crisis
- Gorbachev becomes the President of the USSR
- Unification of Germany
1962 – Cuban Crisis
1985 – Gorbachev becomes the Russian President
1989-The Fall of the Berlin Wall
1990 – Unification of Germany
The bipolarity not only led to armament race but also no chances for disarmament. List the major developments for disarmament.
Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT),
On 5 August 1963, America, England and Russia signed a treaty in Moscow, banning nuclear arms tests in the atmosphere, space and water. From October 1963, this Treaty came into force.
Nuclear ProliferationTreaty (NPT):
This was a treaty envisaging the retention of the atomic weapons by those who already had them and preventing other countries from acquiring them. Only those who made atomic weapons before 1 January 1967 could retain them. There were only 5 such nations – America, Russia, Britain .France and China. On 1 July 1968, this Treaty was signed in Washington, London and Moscow. On 5 March 1970 it came into force.
Strategic Arms Limitation Talk (SALT -1):
It was in 1969 that the first discussion for the limitation of arms took place. Two agreements were signed on 26 May 1972 by American President Richard Nixon and Soviet Leader Leonid Brezhnev. One was for the reduction of Anti-Ballistic Missiles (ABM Treaty). The other was an ad-hoc treaty for the reduction of weapons. They came into
force on 3 October 31972. SALT 2:
The second discussion on limiting arms started in November 1972. An agreement was signed between the American President Jimmy Carter and the Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev on 18 June 1979, in Vienna.
Strategic Arms Reductioin Treaty (Start -1):
This was an agreement signed between Soviet President Gorbachev and American President George Bush (Senior). It was signed in Moscow on 31 July 1993, aimed at the reduction of strategic weapons.
Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty – 2 (Start-2):
This was signed in January 1993 between Russian President Boris Yeltsin and American President George Bush (Senior).
Developed countries always try to exploit the developing 3r world countries through technological and capital means. Identify and explain the means adopted by the 3rd world countries to prevent this type of exploitation.
The main challenge of the 3,rd world nations is that they are not at all developed (LDC – Least Developed Countries). They will have to work hard to lift their people out of poverty. Without economic security no country is free in the right sense, if was in the light of this realization that the New Intentional Economic Order (NIEO) came into existence. The Trade Development Conference of the United Nations brought out a report in 1972 and in this report it talks about new trade development plans. It puts forward some proposals with regard to international trade.
- The developing nations should exercise control on their resources. This is to protect them from being exploited by the developed nations.
- The developing nations can sell their products in the Western markets and thus improve their trade and profit.
- Ensure the availability of advanced technology to the developing nations at affordable rates. Ensure participation of the developing nations in international economic institutions.
What is Nuclear Non – Porliferation Treaty?
According to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, only those countries which tested and produced nuclear weapons before 1 January 1967 could continue keeping them. No other country could test or produce nuclear weapons. According to this Treaty, only five countries are eligible to be called Atomic Weapon Countries. They are America, Soviet Union (now Russia), Britain, France and China.
Why did the super powers have military alliances with smaller countries? Give three reasons?
Superpowers entered into military alliances with smaller countries. Here are the reasons for that:
- The smaller countries could help the Superpowers by giving them oil and other minerals.
- They also gave the Superpowers places to deploy their weapons and to establish their military camps.
- In many cases the smaller countries were also giving military expenses to the Superpowers for keeping their army in their territories. The smaller nations also would be ideologically related to the Superpowers and they expected the smaller powers to have loyalty towards them.
Which among the following statements does not reflect the objectives of NAM.
Stress the removal of global economic inequality